Concentration CampsBy: Austin Stolze, Dustin Johnson, and Jared Gjertson
How did the Labor Camps Come to Be?• Even before Nazi control, much of the German professional and regular public thought social "order" depened on the productivity of all citizens. • Because they started off• The first labor camp using labor camps for (Zwangsarbeitslager) was "outsiders", the Nazis built in 1933 to house and were able to create "educate" acquiescence and even asocials, criminals, and support by citizens subversives in proper labor and social disciplines
How did the Labor Camps Come to Be?• In late 1930s, the German • Though the Nazis economy began to experience desperately needed forced labor shortages, so the Nazis workers, they still would began to build more labor not let this hinder the camps (often near quarries and "Final Solution" existing factories)• As the war continued, Germany needed even more labor to provide for the war efforts, especially after the Battle of Stalingrad• They saw their slave laborers as cheap and expendable
Was All Forced Labor the Same? • There were other forms of • Prisoners of civilian police forced labor besides that detention centers, troubled for concentration camp German youth, and even prisoners. ethnic Germans waiting for • there were work camps for resettlement were forced POWs and for regular to work workers who broke work rules. • The Jewish ghettos also were forced into labor, usually more manufacturing-type labor • The Germans even reclassified many ghettos as forced labor camps
What Were the Conditions Like?• In the beginning, most • As the German economy began to of the work done in experience labor shortages, the labor camps was Nazis started exploiting these slave pointless and laborers for the production of goods humiliating. like iron or coal • skilled laborers could instead get jobs catering to their strengths • Nearly all of the work was manual and labor intensive • Hours were long, usually 12 or more • Workers werent adequately fed and had little to no tools or protective equipment/clothes • Jobs were hazardous and dangerous (accidents, dust inhalation, ect.)
What Were the Conditions Like?• Generally, inmates preferred factory jobs over building/digging jobs• SS guards would sometimes have sadistic "fun" with the inmates (especially Jews)• "A daily ration was: a piece of black bread, about as thick as your thumb; some margarine about the size of three sticks of chewing gum; and a small cup of something that was supposed to be soup" (Ellis and Silinsky).
What is a Kapo?• The word Kapo has an • Kapos wore a yellow unclear origin. Refered to armbands that said Kapo as Funktionshäftling in over it. German, meaning prisoner functionary.• A Kapo was a prisoner who was chosen by officials to lead a work block and had authority over other prisoners.• All Kapos were equipped with a club or a whip
Where were kapos first introduced? • This system worked efficiently because it allowed less energy by the SS to be spent on each prisoner • This system also allowedIt was said that Kapos first one guard to superviseoriginated in the Dachau two to three work blocksConcentration Camp.It was • They saw it successfulthen eventually adopted by all because in many casesother concentration camps the Kapos were more brutal than the SS guards
What was life like for Kapos?• Kapos received some • Kapos were not punished benefits their position of after they lost their job but power. They were able to in most cases the other steal cloths and food from prisoners killed them the prisoners they watched because of their brutality over.• In some cases Kapos forced their inmates to steal from other blocks.• Kapos did not receive punishment for abusing there powers, it was encouraged.
Who were chosen as Kapos?• Most of the first Kapos • In many cases a chosen to lead blocks Homophobic Kapo were Criminals or would be placed in a Communists. . work block of gay• In nearly all cases Jews men. and homosexuals were never allowed to become Kapos• Authorities would also placed Kapos in work blocks were they were most brutal. Kapo workers at the Belzec Extermination Camp
What happened to the Kapos after theWar?• Even though Kapos were still prisoners of the concentration camps they were still tried in court after the war because of their brutality.• In many cases though the prisoners had little chose on becoming a Kapo because it was a matter of life or death. On September 17, 1945 12 Kapos were tried in Britain along with other camp staff.
What happened to the people living inConcentration camps after they wereliberated?• Many displaced people lived in camps in Germany, Austria, and Italy• Many people would try to move to Palestine• Britain tried to limit the immigration because of conflict• Jews would go to Italy and be smuggled to Palestine• British shipped DPs to Cyprus in 1946
Where were some of the Displaced Personscamps?
What did DP camps look like?• They were made out of former military barracks, summer camps for children, airports, hotels, castles, hospitals, private homes, and even partly destroyed structures
What was life like in a Displaced Persons Camp?• Administered by United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration• UNRRA made a Central Burea for names of the displace people• Awaited Visas• Schools were made for the camps• When available, nearby SS quarters were used as hospitals
What happened when they returnedhome?• Children separated from parents• Some too sick to leave• When trying to reclaim their land, they faced new owner• People would still have pogroms against DP Jews
Austin Stolzes Bibliography“Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp Complex.” Holocaust Survivors and RemembrenceProject: “Forget You Not.” NatureQuest Publications, Inc, 2011. Web. 20 May 2011.<http://isurvived.org/AUSCHWITZ_TheCamp.html>.Ellis, Eliahu, and Shmuel Silinsky. “The Labor Camps.” Aish.com. N.p., 2011. Web. 24 May 2011.<http://www.aish.com/ho/o/48961881.html>.“Forced Labor.” Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, 2011. Web. 21May 2011. <http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/labor.html>.“Forced Labor: In Depth.” United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States HolocaustMemorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 20 May 2011.<http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007326>.“Labor Camps, Nazi.” eNotes. N.p., 2011. Web. 24 May 2011. <http://enotes.com/genocide-encyclopedia/labor-camps-nazi/print>.
Jared Gjertsons BibliographyBergen, Doris L. War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust. N.p.: Rowmanand Littlefield, 2009. Print.Jacobs, Krysia, and Alan Jacobs, comps. “We Remember Brotherhood in Suffering!”zchor.org. N.p., 30 Jan. 2007. Web. 2 June 2011.<http://www.zchor.org/auschwitz/komski.htm>.“Jewish Working Kommando’s in the Aktion Reinhard Death Camps.”holocaustresearchproject. N.p., 2007. Web. 26 May 2011.<http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/ar/Jewish%20Kommando/jewishkommando.html>.Rees, Laurence. Auschwitz. 1 vols. Britain: BBC Books, 2005. Print.“Work.” lycees.ac-rouen.fr. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 June 2011. <http://lycees.ac-rouen.fr/malraux/resistance/etravail.html>.
Dustin Johnsons Bibliography The Aftermath of the Holocaust. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 May 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_nm.php?ModuleId=10005129&MediaId=3426>. Bergen, Doris L. War & Genocide. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009. Print. “Concentration and Death Camps Map.” About. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 May 2011. <http://history1900s.about.com/od/holocaust/ss/Camps-Map.htm?r=et>. Kaczgmar, Olga. Displaced Persons’ Camps. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 May 2011. <http://www.dpcamps.org/>. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. N.p., 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 26 May 2011. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005462>.