Internetworking Overview

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  • Purpose: This chapter reviews general networking theory and introduces students to a portion of the Cisco product line. Timing: This chapter takes approximately 1.5 hours to present. Note: This section has a product selection tool laboratory exercise at the end. Contents: Objectives—This section explains what the student will be able to do at the end of this chapter. Defining Network Components—This section displays where devices are placed in the network. Mapping Business Needs to a Hierarchical Model—This section describes the hierarchical model used in network design. OSI Model Overview—This section reviews the OSI model. Communicating Between Layers—This section describes encapsulation and de-encapsulation. Written Exercise 1—This section has a written exercise to test the students’ knowledge of the OSI model. Physical Layer Functions—This section describes the physical layer of the OSI model. Data Link Layer Functions—This section describes the data link layer of the OSI model. Network Layer Functions—This section describes the network layer of the OSI model. Transport Layer Functions—This section describes the transport layer of the OSI model.
  • Internetworking Overview

    1. 1. http://cisco-training640-802.blogspot.com/ Internetworking Concepts Overview
    2. 2. Overflow text
    3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>On completion of this chapter, you will be able to perform the following tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how data traffic is exchanged between source and destination devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the roles and functions of a hub, switch, and router, and where they best fit in the network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the appropriate Cisco equipment for a given set of network requirements. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Defining Components of the Network Main Office Branch Office Home Office Mobile Users Internet
    5. 5. Defining Components of the Network (cont.) Floor 2 Floor 1 Server Farm Branch Office Telecommuter ISDN Remote Campus
    6. 6. Network Structure Defined by Hierarchy Distribution Layer Core Layer Access Layer
    7. 7. Access Layer Characteristics <ul><li>End-station entry point to the network </li></ul>Access Layer
    8. 8. Distribution Layer Characteristics <ul><li>Access layer aggregation point </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic routing </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast/multicast domains </li></ul><ul><li>Media translation </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Possible point for remote access </li></ul>Distribution Layer
    9. 9. Core Layer Characteristics <ul><li>Fast transport to enterprise services </li></ul><ul><li>No packet manipulation </li></ul>Core Layer
    10. 10. OSI Model Overview Application (Upper) Layers Session Presentation Application
    11. 11. OSI Model Overview Data Flow Layers Transport Data-Link Network Physical Application (Upper) Layers Session Presentation Application
    12. 12. Role of Application Layers Telnet FTP User Interface Examples Application
    13. 13. Role of Application Layers Telnet FTP ASCII EBCDIC JPEG User Interface <ul><li>How data is presented </li></ul><ul><li>Special processing such as encryption </li></ul>Examples Presentation Application
    14. 14. Role of Application Layers Telnet FTP ASCII EBCDIC JPEG Keeping different applications’ data separate User Interface <ul><li>How data is presented </li></ul><ul><li>Special processing such as encryption </li></ul>Operating System/ Application Access Scheduling Examples Session Presentation Application
    15. 15. Role of Application Layers <ul><li>Keeping different applications’ data separate </li></ul><ul><li>User interface </li></ul><ul><li>How data is presented </li></ul><ul><li>Special processing such as encryption </li></ul>Transport Data-Link Network Physical Examples Session Presentation Application Telnet FTP ASCII EBCDIC JPEG Operating System/ Application Access Scheduling
    16. 16. Role of Data Flow Layers EIA/TIA-232 V.35 Examples Physical <ul><li>Move bits between devices </li></ul><ul><li>Specifies voltage, wire speed, and pin-out cables </li></ul>
    17. 17. Role of Data Flow Layers 802.3 / 802.2 HDLC EIA/TIA-232 V.35 Examples Data Link Physical <ul><li>Combines bits into bytes and bytes into frames </li></ul><ul><li>Access to media using MAC address </li></ul><ul><li>Error detection not correction </li></ul><ul><li>Move bits between devices </li></ul><ul><li>Specifies voltage, wire speed, and pin-out cables </li></ul>
    18. 18. Role of Data Flow Layers 802.3 / 802.2 HDLC EIA/TIA-232 V.35 IP IPX Examples Network Data Link Physical <ul><li>Combines bits into bytes and bytes into frames </li></ul><ul><li>Access to media using MAC address </li></ul><ul><li>Error detection not correction </li></ul><ul><li>Move bits between devices </li></ul><ul><li>Specifies voltage, wire speed, and pin-out cables </li></ul>Provide logical addressing that routers use for path determination
    19. 19. Role of Data Flow Layers TCP UDP SPX 802.3 / 802.2 HDLC EIA/TIA-232 V.35 IP IPX Examples Transport Data Link Physical <ul><li>Reliable or unreliable delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Error correction before retransmit </li></ul><ul><li>Combines bits into bytes and bytes into frames </li></ul><ul><li>Access to media using MAC address </li></ul><ul><li>Error detection not correction </li></ul><ul><li>Move bits between devices </li></ul><ul><li>Specifies voltage, wire speed, and pin-out cables </li></ul>Network Provide logical addressing that routers use for path determination
    20. 20. Role of Data Flow Layers TCP UDP SPX 802.3/802.2 HDLC EIA/TIA-232 V.35 IP IPX Presentation Application Session Examples <ul><li>Reliable or unreliable delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Error correction before retransmit </li></ul><ul><li>Combines bits into bytes and bytes into frames </li></ul><ul><li>Access to media using MAC address </li></ul><ul><li>Error detection, not correction </li></ul><ul><li>Move bits between devices </li></ul><ul><li>Specifies voltage, wire speed, and pinout cables </li></ul>Transport Data-Link Physical Network <ul><li>Provide logical addressing that routers use for path determination </li></ul>
    21. 21. Encapsulating Data Transport Data-Link Physical Network Upper-Layer Data Upper-Layer Data TCP Header Data IP Header Data LLC Header 0101110101001000010 Data MAC Header Presentation Application Session Segment Packet Bits Frame PDU FCS FCS
    22. 22. Upper-Layer Data De-encapsulating Data LLC Hdr + IP + TCP + Upper-Layer Data MAC Header IP + TCP + Upper-Layer Data LLC Header TCP+ Upper-Layer Data IP Header Upper-Layer Data TCP Header 0101110101001000010 Transport Data-Link Physical Network Presentation Application Session
    23. 23. Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data-Link Physical OSI Model PDU Functional Responsibilities Examples Written Exercise 1: OSI Model
    24. 24. Physical Layer Functions <ul><li>Defines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connector type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling type </li></ul></ul>Ethernet 802.3 V.35 Physical EIA/TIA-232
    25. 25. Physical Layer: Ethernet/802.3 Hub Hosts Host 10Base2—Thin Ethernet 10Base5—Thick Ethernet 10BaseT—Twisted Pair
    26. 26. Hubs Operate at Physical Layer Physical <ul><ul><li>All devices are in the same collision domain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All devices are in the same broadcast domain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devices share the same bandwidth. </li></ul></ul>A B C D
    27. 27. Hubs: One Collision Domain <ul><li>More end stations means more collisions. </li></ul><ul><li>CSMA/CD is used. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Data-Link Layer Functions <ul><li>Defines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical source and destination addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher-layer protocol (service access point) associated with frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network topology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame sequencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection-oriented or connectionless </li></ul></ul>Data-Link Physical EIA/TIA-232 V.35 Ethernet Frame Relay HDLC 802.2 802.3
    29. 29. Data Source Address FCS Length Destination Address Variable 2 6 6 4 <ul><ul><li>0000.0C xx.xxxx </li></ul></ul>Vendor Assigned IEEE Assigned MAC Layer—802.3 Data-Link Layer Functions (cont.) Preamble Ethernet II uses “Type” here and does not use 802.2. <ul><ul><li>MAC Address </li></ul></ul>8 Number of Bytes
    30. 30. Data Destination SAP Source SAP Data Source Address FCS Length Destination Address Variable 1 1 802.2 (SAP) MAC Layer—802.3 Data-Link Layer Functions (cont.) Control 1 or 2 3 2 Preamble Data Destination SAP AA Source SAP AA Variable 1 1 802.2 (SNAP) Control 03 1 or 2 OR OUI ID Type Number of Bytes Number of Bytes
    31. 31. <ul><ul><li>Each segment has its own collision domain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All segments are in the same broadcast domain. </li></ul></ul>Data-Link Switches and Bridges Operate at Data-Link Layer OR 1 2 3 1 2 4
    32. 32. Switches <ul><li>Each segment is its own collision domain. </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasts are forwarded to all segments. </li></ul>Memory Switch
    33. 33. Network Layer Functions <ul><ul><li>Defines logical source and destination addresses associated with a specific protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defines paths through network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnects multiple data links </li></ul></ul>Network IP, IPX Data-Link Physical EIA/TIA-232 V.35 Ethernet Frame Relay HDLC 802.2 802.3
    34. 34. Data Source Address Destination Address IP Network Layer Functions (cont.) Header <ul><ul><li>172.15.1.1 </li></ul></ul>Node Network <ul><ul><li>Logical Address </li></ul></ul>Network Layer End-Station Packet
    35. 35. Network Layer Functions (cont.) 11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000 10101100 00010000 01111010 11001100 Binary Mask Binary Address 172.16.122.204 255.255.0.0 172 16 122 204 255 Address Mask 255 0 0 Network Host
    36. 36. Routing Table NET INT Metric 1 2 4 S0 S0 E0 1 0 0 1.0 4.0 1.3 E0 4.3 S0 2.2 E0 2.1 S0 4.1 4.2 1.1 1.2 Routing Table NET INT Metric 1 2 4 E0 S0 S0 0 0 1 <ul><ul><li>Logical addressing allows for hierarchical network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuration is required. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configured information identifies paths to networks. </li></ul></ul>Network Layer Functions (cont.)
    37. 37. Routers: Operate at the Network Layer <ul><li>Broadcast control </li></ul><ul><li>Multicast control </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal path determination </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic management </li></ul><ul><li>Logical addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to WAN services </li></ul>
    38. 38. Using Routers to Provide Remote Access Internet Telecommuter Branch Office Modem or ISDN Terminal Adapter Mobile User Main Office
    39. 39. Transport Layer Functions <ul><li>Distinguishes between upper-layer applications </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes end-to-end connectivity between applications </li></ul><ul><li>Defines flow control </li></ul><ul><li>Provides reliable or unreliable services for data transfer </li></ul>Network IPX IP Transport SPX TCP UDP
    40. 40. Reliable Transport Layer Functions Synchronize Acknowledge, Synchronize Acknowledge Data Transfer (Send Segments) Sender Receiver Connection Established
    41. 41. Network Device Domains Hub Bridge Switch Router Collision Domains: 1 4 4 4 Broadcast Domains: 1 1 1 4
    42. 42. Choosing a Cisco Product Distribution Layer Core Layer Access Layer
    43. 43. Product Selection Considerations <ul><li>Functionality and features you need today </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Easy installation and centralized management </li></ul><ul><li>Network resiliency </li></ul><ul><li>Investment protection in existing infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Migration path for change and growth </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless access for mobile users and branch offices </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>First, select WAN technology solutions based on the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of service. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth requirement. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Second, choose products that support selected WAN solutions. </li></ul>Product Selection Considerations (cont.) Cost per Month Usage Leased Line, T1 Modem/ISDN Frame Relay 0
    45. 45. Product Selection Considerations (cont.) 1544 128 64 56 19.2 9.6 4.8 <ul><li>Determine applications that you want to run. </li></ul>ISDN, Frame Relay Old Modem Telnet New Modem Web Browsing Voice Video, Multimedia E-Mail, File Transfer Leased Line, Frame Relay, xDSL kbps
    46. 46. Cisco Hub Products <ul><li>Selection Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Need for 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps on media </li></ul><ul><li>Port density </li></ul><ul><li>Need for management console </li></ul><ul><li>Easy operations </li></ul>Cisco 1500 Micro Hub Cisco FastHub300 Cisco 1528 Micro Hub 10/100 Cisco FastHub400 Cisco FastHub200 Cisco FastHub®100
    47. 47. Cisco Switch Products <ul><li>Selection Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Need for 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, or 1000 Mbps on media </li></ul><ul><li>Need for trunking and Inter-Switch Links </li></ul><ul><li>Workgroup segmentation (VLANs) </li></ul><ul><li>Port density needs </li></ul><ul><li>Different user interfaces </li></ul>Desktop/Workgroup Solutions Wiring Closet/Backbone Solutions Cisco 1548 Micro Switch 10/100 Catalyst 3000 Series Catalyst 2900 Series XL Catalyst® 1900/2820 Series Catalyst 2900 Series Catalyst 5000 Series Catalyst 8500 Series
    48. 48. Do Not Delete—Overflow Text on Notes Page
    49. 49. Cisco Router Products <ul><li>Selection Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Scale of the routing features needed </li></ul><ul><li>Port density/variety requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Common user interface </li></ul>Cisco 700/800 Series Cisco 1600/1700 Series Cisco 2500 Series Cisco 3600 Series AS 5000 Series Small Office Solutions Branch Office Solutions Central Site Solutions Cisco 12000 GSR Series Cisco 4000 Series Cisco 7000 Series Home Office Solutions Cisco 2600 Series
    50. 50. Do Not Delete—Overflow Text on Notes Page
    51. 51. Visual Objective <ul><ul><li>Use the product selection tool to select Cisco equipment. </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Summary <ul><li>After completing this chapter, you should be able to perform the following tasks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe how data moves through a network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the roles and functions of routers, switches, and hubs, and specify where each device best fits in the network. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the appropriate Cisco equipment for a network that combines switching, routing, and remote access requirements. </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. <ul><ul><li>1. What are some of the advantages of using the OSI model in a networking environment? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Describe the encapsulation process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. How many broadcast and collision domains are on a hub? </li></ul></ul>Review Questions
    54. 54. Blank for Pagination

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