Newest  visual literacy
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Newest visual literacy

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Last presented at NITLE CAMP 2010

Last presented at NITLE CAMP 2010

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  • Blue pollen spores, nerve cells, marine worms, brittle starfish larvae
  • 750 Book of Kells produced by irish monks - their masterwork: the four Gospels of the Christian faith Probably the best known of all the Book of Kells' 680 vellum pages is the "Chi-Rho" page, introducing Matthew's account of Christ's birth. Three Greek letters dominate the page: chi (X), rho (P), and iota (I)--shorthand for "Christ." amous Chi-Rho page from the Book of Kells. Spend time looking at it. See how much you can find. Can you find cats feeding kittens? Do you find angels? What about a moth or butterfly? This page marks the incipit or beginning of the 18 verse of Matthew I. The text reads: "XPI autem generatio...." The text of this verse in the Douay Rheims translation reads: Now the generation of Christ was in this wise.When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the Holy Ghost. Like other Hiberno-Saxon gospel books, notably the Lindisfarne Gospels, this text is given prominence. It almost serves as a second incipit for the Book of Matthew which begins with the Latin incipit: "Liber generationis Iesu Christi..." or in the Douay Rheims translation: "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham...." The reason for this prominence can be connected to the importance of the doctrine of the "Incarnation," which literally means "into flesh." The first 17 verses of the book of of Matthew recounts the earthly ancestry of Christ back to Abraham, while verse 18 marks the point of the Incarnation of Christ in the book of Matthew, the first of the Gospels in the manuscript. Remember that the text of the manuscript is written on parchment or animal skin. So that this page is literally "the word made flesh," echoing the beginning of the book of John: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.... 14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we saw his glory, the glory as it were of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.
  • Title “The treachery of Images”, Rene Magritte here comments on the process of representation. One could argue, for example, that Magritte is making a joke, that of course it is an image . But he’s also commenting on the relationship between words and things , since this is not a pipe but a representation of a pipe—a painting, not the material object itself. He warns us not to mistake this for the real thing. He helps us reflect how words and images produce meaning in our world—something that we usually take for granted. He shows us the complexity of how words and images produce meaning in our world.
  • Throughout history, debates have raged about whether these systems of representation reflect the world as it is—such that they mirror it back to us as a form of imitation , or whether in fact we construct the world and its meaning through the systems of representation we use. In this latter approach, we only make meaning of the material world through specific cultural contexts, and that the world is not simply a reflection to us but rather made meaningful by us through these systems. Questions? But sometimes, we get a little confused whether we’re talking about reflection or representation. This painting seems mere reflection, right? But what in the painting might suggest representation? The transience of earthly life through the transient nature of food? Bread, wine, and fish? This painting produces meaning about these objects rather than simply reflecting some meaning.
  • Goal: not only to motivate students but to make them critical consumers of information . Ques: How can we create critical consumers? Ques: What questions can we ask our students to facilitate this skill? Does the image tell the truth How representative is this image What is the source of this image What is the authors intent in using this image What does the context of the image tell us? Are we responding to emotional issues or content?
  • Goal: not only to motivate students but to make them critical consumers of information . Ques: How can we create critical consumers? Ques: What questions can we ask our students to facilitate this skill? Does the image tell the truth How representative is this image What is the source of this image What is the authors intent in using this image What does the context of the image tell us? Are we responding to emotional issues or content?
  • Greater flexibility and freedom: on-the-fly presentations Greater creativity and interactivity in class (engage students directly with images) More efficient and organized Easier to hold students accountable for image information Cause teachers to think more about their pedagogical style Using more images - Shift away from books - Using more up to date information Engaging students more with content More flexibility – on the fly Using more images Engaging students with more content Students can work with images more directly, encouraging interactivity, more freedom to be creative with their classes and improve their effectiveness -made teachers more efficient,more organized, easier to make improvements, easier to bundle images for lecture, greater variety of images avail, easier to make conncetions between lecture and content/concept, establish a richer contextual background, Has led to new courses Courses more visually based Students showing greater recall of digital images Easier to hold students accountable for vis material Image reading now a skill that must be emphasized and taught in class Visuals require different kinds of analysis than text Greater freedom, greater interactivity/discussion – images stimulate discussion. This leads to a richer experience for students -images help faculty explain concepts better – better connections to the applications of theory, provides a structure for explaining concepts help faculty be clearer and more focused in lecture use of images has caused teachers to think more about their pedagogical methodology -leading to a shift away from books - easier to present up to date information
  • So why are we focusing on Visualization as a method for research and teaching? There is a strong association with visual skills and concept comprehension Research in the science and humanities points to a causal relationship between spatial-visual aptitude and scholastic success. Research suggests that students using diagrams generate more self-explanations, and consequently, learn more than students using text alone. Spatial-visual skills can be augmented through practice and training. These in turn can enhance learning
  • Ask audience to offer concepts, thoughts, ideas, other images that this visual stimulates. Visuals can promote conjuring of additional information by (mental imaging) and can scaffold concepts using the existing knowledge. Visual bookmarking or mental imaging – visuals can be used to reference information from memory gained through text or auditory presentation. Enables memory recall. Dual Coding Theory – Pavio: theory assumes that there are two cognitive subsystems, one specialized for the representation and processing of nonverbal objects/events (i.e., imagery), and the other specialized for dealing with language. Recall/recognition is enhanced by presenting information in both visual and verbal form. Flexibility Theory – Spiro: ability to spontaneously restructure one's knowledge, in many ways, in adaptive response to radically changing situational demands . Learning activities should provide multiple representations of content – to enable knowledge construction. Example of analogy enhance learning. Analogies are used to transfer ideas from a familiar concept to an unfamiliar one
  • Can obfuscate information via. emotional baiting, illusion, poor design What gives this image its power as a communication tool? Context etc. 2. How might such images be used to mislead a viewer?
  • Visuals present array of information simultaneously rather than sequentially – thus less memory demand for comprehension. “ Learning is context dependent, with the associated need to provide multiple representations and varied examples so as to promote generalization and abstraction processes.” This goes to Flexibility Theory. Research in the science and humanities points to a causal relationship between spatial-visual aptitude and scholastic success. Research suggests that students using diagrams generate more self-explanations, and consequently, learn more than students using text alone. Spatial-visual skills can be augmented through practice and training. These in turn can enhance learning Visuals: 1. present array of info simultaneously vs. sequentially – thus less memory demand for comprehension. 2. can promote conjuring of additional information (mental imaging) 3. can evoke emotional responses and be misleading Note: Goal – student motivation in learning. Students must be stimulated in as great a variety of ways as possible to develop their thought processes and problem-solving techniques.
  • Niels Bohr 's model of the atom made an analogy between the atom and the solar system . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analogy Example of analogy enhance learning. Analogies are used to transfer ideas from a familiar concept to an unfamiliar one Where and when do analogies become misleading.
  • Appropriate Pedagogy? Microcosm, Macrocosm This image comparison, first featured in The New York Times , definitely gives one something to think about. On the left is a microscopic image of a mouse brain's neuronal network produced by Mark N. Miller of Brandeis University's Nelson Lab. On the right is the Max Planck Institute's computer simulation of the vast dark matter network (purple) connecting visible-matter galaxies (yellow) across the universe. “Together,” observes New York Times journalist David Constantine, “ they suggest the surprisingly similar patterns found in vastly different natural phenomena.”
  • Visualization can be used to address issues of scale, quantity, and relevance more effectively than numerical text. Depicts one million plastic cups, the number used on airline flights in the US every six hours. Running the Numbers An American Self-Portrait     This series looks at contemporary American culture through the austere lens of statistics. Each image portrays a specific quantity of something: fifteen million sheets of office paper (five minutes of paper use); 106,000 aluminum cans (thirty seconds of can consumption) and so on. My hope is that images representing these quantities might have a different effect than the raw numbers alone, such as we find daily in articles and books. Statistics can feel abstract and anesthetizing, making it difficult to connect with and make meaning of 3.6 million SUV sales in one year, for example, or 2.3 million Americans in prison, or 410,000 paper cups used every fifteen minutes. This project visually examines these vast and bizarre measures of our society, in large intricately detailed prints assembled from thousands of smaller photographs. The underlying desire is to emphasize the role of the individual in a society that is increasingly enormous, incomprehensible, and overwhelming. My only caveat about this series is that the prints must be seen in person to be experienced the way they are intended. As with any large artwork, their scale carries a vital part of their substance which is lost in these little web images. Hopefully the JPEGs displayed here might be enough to arouse your curiosity to attend an exhibition, or to arrange one if you are in a position to do so. The series is a work in progress, and new images will be posted as they are completed, so please stay tuned. ~chris jordan, Seattle, 2007
  • The movie above illustrates a visualisation of N02 in London by CASA, University College London,in association with the Environmental Research Group at Kings College London. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2): NO2 is produced in high temperature combustions processes and chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Road transport is responsible for 60 per cent of emissions of NOx (the pollutant that causes NO2) in London. It can affect the lungs and airways when exposed over long periods or at high concentrations over a short period.
  • Scale – Introducing scale in terms of size Systems – drawing linkages between material and process Artistic rendition of the circulatory system. Use of perspective to draw in the viewer. *** Is this image problematic. For example it presents and inverse representation of spatial scale.
  • August 2006 – photo of Beirut air-strike that was digitally manipulated by Adnon Hajj and then submitted to Reuters. The image, which appeared on several news web sites, had been doctored in Adobe Photoshop to show more smoke billowing higher into the sky.
  • This image comparison speaks to how we interpret information relative to context. The image on the right speaks of empowerment. The image on the left speaks of subjugation.
  • This image illustrates the importance of symbols to knowledge construction or information interpretation. Symbols can mislead our interpretation in other cultural or environmentals contexts. This slide can be used to discuss the importance of symbols and their cultural origin. When I saw these posters (and the hundreds like them for every other candidate) I thought they were "[NO] Belusconi" signs. What they mean in American is "Check this box on election day!"
  • This visual imparts the importance of pattern recognition in our ability to decode information and draw meaning from it. We interpret the world via. common patterns that we recognize at a subconscious level. When new patterns of information display are used they can lead to confusion or misunderstanding. Illusions often created by novel pattern displays. Below are what might appear as blobs of color when you first look at them. Your impression of the color blobs provides an example of awareness at a sensory level. If you continue to look at the blobs, four english words will emerge. You needn't try to organize the blobs. The organization process will occur without any overt striving on your part. These blobs have been created to slow the perceptual process so that you can experience what typically occurs speedily in subjective time. From http://dragon.uml.edu/psych/organize.html

Newest  visual literacy Newest visual literacy Presentation Transcript

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  • Visual Literacy The ability to create images, use them to communicate ideas and solve problems, and understand their aesthetic and Instructive value.
  • Visual Literacy Factors Technology Abstraction & Meaning Critical Analysis Graphical Design Communication Cognitive Theory & Perception Pattern Recognition
  • Some Motivating Factors
    • Greater level of flexibility, variety, and efficiency
    • Increased opportunity for collaborative discussion, interactivity, and student collaboration
    • Easier to explain concepts and make connections to the applications of theory
    • Opportunity to present up-to-date information
    • Enhanced situational and contextual scaffolding
    • Ability to hold students responsible for reviewing images
    • Greater awareness of pedagogical methodology
    • New course possibilities (e.g., data visualization)
  • Digital Visualization is Changing How Faculty Teach David Green, Using Digital Images in Teaching and Learning: Perspectives from Liberal Arts Institutions . Academic Commons (October 2006). http:// www.academiccommons.org/imagereport .
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  • After Berry et al. 2008. The role of emotion in teaching and learning History: a scholarship of teaching exploration.
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  • 1. Water 2. Over-fishing 3. Predatory-Prey http://site.arbico-organics.com/images/japanese-beetle-lifecycle.jpg
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  • http://www.chrisjordan.com/
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  • http://www.sciencemag.org/vis2008/show/
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  • Some Pedagogy
    • Use images that require interpretation and raise questions
    • Use images from other disciplines and everyday life
    • Distinguish between memorizing and image and understanding what it represents
    • Be prepared to teach students how to analyze images
  • Some Challenges
    • New teaching technologies require new skills
    • Ad hoc use of imagery vs. meaningful classroom activities
    • Copyright
    • Lack of comparative study and documentation
    • Tenure track – demands and rewards
    • Visual Imagery
    • Brings intuitive meaning to data
    • Facilitates long-term memory and knowledge retention
    • Provides a rich contextual background to scaffold ideas
    • Offers a structure to explain concepts or theoretical arguments
    • Generates unique perspectives
    • Encourages student, creativity, interactivity, and discussion