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Media in World Politics - Defining mass media (week2)
 

Media in World Politics - Defining mass media (week2)

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    Media in World Politics - Defining mass media (week2) Media in World Politics - Defining mass media (week2) Presentation Transcript

    • Media in World Politics 2 Defining MASS MEDIA
    • Outline  Medium/Media?  Group - Crowd - Public - Mass  4 Big Themes  Macro-models  Feedback
    • 'medium' medium |ˈmiˈdɪəm| noun (pl.media or mediums) 1 an agency or means of doing something: their primitive valuables acted as a medium of exchange. • a means by which something is communicated or expressed: here the Welsh language is the medium of instruction. 2 the intervening substance through which sensory impressions are conveyed or physical forces are transmitted: radio communication needs no physical medium between the two stations. • the substance in which an organism lives or is cultured. these cells are grown in a nutrient-rich medium. • a liquid (e.g. oil or water) with which pigments are mixed, with a binder, to make paint. 3 the material or form used by an artist, composer, or writer: oil paint is the most popular medium for glazing.
    •  From Latin medius – something in-between other things  What are the mass media 'in-between'? 'medium'
    • Elements of 'mass media'  People  Technologies  Companies  Professional groups  Audiences  'Texts' (all types of content)
    • Lasswell's Comm. Model  Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect? WHO says WHAT in which CHANNEL to WHOM what EFFECT The Structure and Function of Communication in Society, 1948
    • Lasswell's Comm. Model  Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect?
    • Lasswell's Comm. Model  Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect? WHO Communicat or WHAT message CHANNE L medium WHOM receiver EFFECT effect
    • Lasswell's Comm. Model  Who says what in which channel to whom with what effect? WHO Communicat or WHAT message CHANNE L medium WHOM receiver EFFECT effect Control Analysis Content Analysis Media Analysis Audience Analysis Effect Analysis
    • What is the 'mass'?  Of all the different types of communication media we distinguish between 'mass' media and others. MASS media OTHER media
    • Group, crowd, public, mass  Group: members know each other, share identity, stable relations over time  Crowd: shared locality, temporary, event- based  Public: larger, dispersed, enduring, issue-based  Mass: very large, widely dispersed, anonymous, passive, receptive, unstructured H.Blumer, 1939
    • Mass: political outlook  With positive implications...  Genuinely 'popular'  Solidarity  Strength  Cooperation
    • Mass: political outlook  With pejorative implications...  Uneducated  Ignorant  Potentially irrational  Unruly  Perhaps even violent!
    • Mass Media/Communications  A type of communication designed specifically to reach a “mass”  Professional / organisational “sender”  Impersonal / distant relationship  Senders have authority  Communicational flow mainly in one direction
    • Big Themes  Media Power  Social Integration  Mass Information  Problem media
    • “The media is powerful”  Propaganda  Entertainment  Public opinion
    • Albert Speer on Hitler “Hitler's dictatorship differed in one fundamental point from all its predecessors in history. His was the first dictatorship [...] which made the complete use of all technical means for domination of its own country. Through technical devices like the radio and loudspeaker, 80 million people were deprived of independent thought. It was thereby possible to subject them to the will of one man.” A. Speer, Minister for Armaments and War Production, Nuremberg Trials, 1946
    • V. I. Lenin Iskra (Spark) 1900-1905 Pravda (Truth)
    • Lenin on newspapers  The necessity to concentrate all forces on establishing a regularly appearing and regularly delivered organ[newspaper] …  Learn, propagandise, organise – and the pivot of this activity can and must be only the organ of the party V.I.Lenin, Our Immediate Task (Rabochaya Gazeta) 1899
    • “The media links people”  Industrialisation  Urbanisation 1900: 13% 1950: 29% [2030: 60%]
    • Urbanisation
    • New problem, new solution  Crime and immorality  Loneliness, alienation
    • New problem, new solution  Crime and immorality  Loneliness, alienation  Mass media it was thought would contribute to.. A new type of social cohesion ('mass culture') Supporting democratic mass politics
    • “Mass information”  Growth of popular education  Spread of literacy / libraries  Increasing enfranchisement Gradual spread of adult male suffrage 1850s -1920s Women's suffrage: NZ 1893, Norway 1913, UK 1928, Japan 1945
    • “Inform, educate, entertain”  The BBC's mission: To enrich people's lives with programmes and services that inform, educate and entertain.  Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) http://www.bbc.co.uk/aboutthebbc/insidethebbc/whoweare/mission_and_values/
    • “Inform, educate, entertain”  The BBC's mission: To enrich people's lives with programmes and services that inform, educate and entertain.  Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) http://www.bbc.co.uk/aboutthebbc/insidethebbc/whoweare/mission_and_values/
    • Approaches to mass media  Transmission model Process of passing in information. Behaviouristic: stimulus-response. Media effects.
    • Approaches to mass media  Transmission model Process of passing in information. Behaviouristic: stimulus-response. Media effects.  Ritual / Expressive model Non-utilitarian. Sharing, participation, association, fellowship, emotional satisfaction.
    • Approaches to mass media  Transmission model Process of passing in information. Behaviouristic: stimulus-response. Media effects.  Ritual / Expressive model Non-utilitarian. Sharing, participation, association, fellowship, emotional satisfaction.  Publicity model Attention-getting (important commercially)
    • Approaches to mass media  Transmission model Process of passing in information. Behaviouristic: stimulus-response. Media effects.  Ritual / Expressive model Non-utilitarian. Sharing, participation, association, fellowship, emotional satisfaction.  Publicity model Attention-getting (important commercially)  Reception model Encoding/decoding. Mis-communication?
    • For next week...  Prepare to think about 'media effects' by reading: “Media Effects: Quantitative Traditions” A Handbook of Media and Communication Research Ed. Klaus Bruhn JENSEN Routledge 2012