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Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
Lean Manufacturing PP presentation
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Lean Manufacturing PP presentation

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A "static" version of Carlo Scodanibbio multi-media presentation on Lean manufacturing

A "static" version of Carlo Scodanibbio multi-media presentation on Lean manufacturing

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  • 1. Carlo Scodanibbio presents: Next Generation Lean Manufacturing ” if it doesn't add value, it is waste” a training event organised by: ….the world has changed…. Key-Words: lean, manufacturing, power, point, presentation, value, waste, client, service, industry, perform, performance, world, class, operations, adding, management, productive, process, takt, time, pitch, buffer, safety, inventory, finished, goods, supermarket, wip, work, in progress, continuous, flow, processing, batch, push, pull, otdr, on-time, delivery, rate, kanban, production, levelling, stock, unbalance, bottleneck, pipeline, 5S, lot, conveyor, one-piece, one, piece, cell, u-cell, line, sequence, equipment, cycle, vertical, layout, total, quality, poka-yoke, defects, zero, inspection, testing, discipline, mistake-proofing, creativity, set-up, machine, inlet, outlet, people, method, tpm, maintenance, 6, big, losses, autonomous, quick, change, over, change-over, internal, external, stream, mapping, materials, information, current, future, state, map, arrow, diagram, group, technology, razing, kaizen, improvement, hr, human, resources, strategy, strategies, tei, employee, involvement, responsibilities, course, carlo, scodanibbio 1
  • 2. COMPLEXITY 2
  • 3. clients are monsters…. 3
  • 4. manufacturing yesterday today/tomorrow The present market cake is not growing much larger, but variety is, due to diversity of customers’ needs. Approach: Besides, customers request and expect shorter delivery schedules, schedules Make good products higher quality, and high reliability. quality reliability This dictates a “higher variety-small higher variety- cheaply and quickly lots” style of production, featuring lots high quality, speedy delivery and assured safety/reliability. PQCDS approach QCD approach (diversified PRODUCTS, of high QUALITY, at low COST, with (Quality - Cost - Delivery) speedy DELIVERY and assured SAFETY/RELIABILITY) manufacturing yesterday today/tomorrow Seller’s Market Buyer’s Market Clients are no Costs associated longer prepared to with Waste could subsidise be built into manufacturers’ Product’s price costs associated with Waste 4
  • 5. manufacturing yesterday today/tomorrow Factory Management Customers determine determines Production Capacity Production Capacity (Estimate-based Levelling) (Estimate- (Reality-based Levelling) (Reality- Costs + Profit = Selling Price Selling Price - Profit = Costs (Product-Out approach) (Product- (Market-In approach) (Market- manufacturing yesterday today/tomorrow Profit is something that Profit is something comes naturally out of that must be created the manufacturing and and earned through marketing process hard work Manufacturing Cycle Manufacturing Cycle Time Time >> Selling Cycle Time -> = Selling Cycle Time 5
  • 6. manufacturing yesterday today/tomorrow Manufacturing Manufacturing is the business is a of making SERVICE products INDUSTRY why enterprises don’t “perform”... ….the root causes of poor performance date back to over 2 centuries ago….. ago… ….we have gone into the 21st century, with enterprises designed in the 18th and 19th centuries to perform well in the 20th….. 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. VAM VALUE ADDING MANAGEMENT the VAM approach to the productive process process time analysis 8
  • 9. homework ? ..oh, yes !!! SEW SYSTEMATIC ELIMINATION OF WASTE VALUE! 9
  • 10. 10
  • 11. SUMMARY OF THE MAIN TYPES OF WASTE Overproduction Stock Un-needed processing steps Motion Control Defects Waiting/idling Transportation 11
  • 12. WASTE – THE TABLE OF EXCUSES - OLD 1) That's the way we have always done it 2) I didn't know you were in a hurry for it 3) That's not in my department 4) No one told me to go ahead 5) I am waiting for an OK 6) That's his job - not mine 7) Wait till the boss comes back & ask him 8) I forgot 9) I didn't think it was very important 10) I'm so busy I just can't get around to it 11) I thought I told you 12) I wasn't hired to do that WASTE – THE TABLE OF EXCUSES - NEW 1) That's the way we have always done it 2) There is no better way, believe me…. me… 3) This way we know it works…. works… 4) Why change? We are already so busy…. busy… 5) We have tried in the past, and it didn’t work… didn’ work… 6) Managers and consultants…. Only able to mess us up consultants… 7) You mean we are stupid the way we do it??? 8) Impossible 9) We need stock: it’s a good investment it’ 10) Set-up time cannot be reduced further…. Set- further… 11) We must control quality or clients will complain 12) All machines eventually give problems 12
  • 13. spot the waste! the productive process in manufacturing 13
  • 14. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions the productive process in manufacturing some definitions 14
  • 15. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions the productive process in manufacturing some definitions 15
  • 16. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions the productive process in manufacturing some definitions 16
  • 17. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions “catalogue” manufacturing catalogue” the productive process in manufacturing some definitions “catalogue” manufacturing catalogue” 17
  • 18. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions “order” manufacturing order” TRADITIONAL SOLUTION Accommodate a new Customer Order to fit into actual Production Plan or decline new Order. If new Order can be “squeezed in”, often this may only be done at the expenses of delaying Orders- on-hand through a Production Plan reschedule. reschedule the productive process in manufacturing some definitions 18
  • 19. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions the productive process in manufacturing some definitions TAKT TIME - EXAMPLE PRODUCT: Brake Cylinder PRODUCT CODE: BC 0183 MONTH PRODUCTION SCHEDULE 22 Working days 2 Shifts of 8 Hours each Theoretical working time per shift (h:min) 8:00 Breaks & precautionary resting time (h:min) 0:20 Effective working time per shift (h:min) 7:40 Effective working time per day (h:min) 15:20 Effective working time per day (sec) 55.200 REQUIREMENT Monthly requirement (pieces/month) 18.000 Daily requirement (pieces/day) 818 EFFECTIVE WORKING TIME PER DAY 55.200 (seconds/day) TAKT TIME = ------------------------------------------------------ = ------------------------------ = 67 (seconds/piece) DAILY REQUIREMENT 818 (pieces/day) 19
  • 20. spot the waste! Manufacturing Industry - 2 OVERPRODUCTION FACTS AND FIGURES Current sales: 500.000 packs/year – slight peak in summer Current production (only from March to October): 18.000 packs/day (8 hours) packs/day Current TAKT: 6.336.000/500.000 = 12,6 seconds Current speed of production: 28.800/18.000 = 1,6 seconds/pack Production Speed: 7,8 times faster than TAKT 20
  • 21. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions OPERATIONAL TAKT TIME It is used to balance the productive process to cater for possible failures (equipment downtime, absenteeism, sudden change in customer demand…..). Faster than the real Takt Time, it’s a fictitious, precautionary time. time In the previous example (TAKT TIME = 67 seconds), the OPERATIONAL TAKT TIME might be set at 60 seconds. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions PITCH Customers normally expect products to be delivered in standard pack-out pack- quantities (cartons, pallets…..). Pitch is the amount of time – based on TAKT TIME – required for any upstream operation to release a predetermined pack-out quantity of product (or components, sub-assemblies….) to a downstream operation. Therefore PITCH = TAKT TIME x PACK-OUT QUANTITY PACK- In the previous example, if the Brake Cylinders were packed in cartons of 24, the PITCH would be 67 x 24 = 1608 seconds (26,8 minutes) 21
  • 22. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions BUFFER INVENTORY (BUFFER STOCK) Buffer Stock is used when Customer Demand suddenly increases, and the increases productive process is not capable of meeting a reduced TAKT TIME. SAFETY INVENTORY (SAFETY STOCK) Safety Stock is used to cater for possible internal problems (from power outages to poor equipment reliability, quality problems, etc.). in a LEAN environment, both types of Stock are considered temporary measures temporary FINISHED GOODS SUPERMARKET A system used in the most downstream zone of a productive process to store a set amount of finished goods, ready to be despatched to Customers. System used wherever is not feasible to achieve a continuous flow. NB: The SUPERMARKET Stock Level does not include BUFFER nor SAFETY Stocks. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions WIP – WORK IN PROGRESS The number of work-pieces (products, by-products, work- semi-products….) required or anyhow “present” at any processing station for processing. DAYS OF WIP ON HAND Sum of all WIP present along the entire manufacturing process of a product, divided by the (average) daily volume of product delivered to customers. 22
  • 23. which flow component is “eating” lead-time ??? 23
  • 24. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions PUSH and PULL PRODUCTION METHODS the productive process in manufacturing some definitions PUSH and PULL PRODUCTION METHODS 24
  • 25. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions PUSH and PULL PRODUCTION METHODS the productive process in manufacturing BATCH (PUSH) PRODUCTION vs. CONTINUOUS FLOW (PULL) PRODUCTION 25
  • 26. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions ON-TIME DELIVERY RATE (OTDR) Degree of reliability of any upstream operation to release in due time its output to a downstream operation. A Flow System may compound problems and reduce considerably the overall process’ OTDR unless the entire process is improved/streamlined: the kanban method overview 26
  • 27. the kanban method Pull-style re-ordering system by which a downstream process requests goods from an upstream process. The request is by means of a re-ordering Tag re- (kanban kanban). The method may be extended to the entire manufacturing process or only to part of it. It is normally applied to repetitive operations. the kanban method simplified example 27
  • 28. the kanban method simplified example flash 1 the kanban method simplified example flash 2 28
  • 29. the kanban method simplified example flash 3 the kanban method simplified example flash 4 29
  • 30. the kanban method simplified example flash 5 the kanban method simplified example flash 6 30
  • 31. the kanban method simplified example flash 7 the kanban method simplified example flash 8 31
  • 32. the kanban method – the rules work-pieces’ containers must contain always the same (pre-defined) number of items pre-defined the parking area of “full” containers is pre-defined and fixed a kanban tag is always for a pre-defined number of pieces (base quantity) base quantity multiples of the base quantity are produced against a corresponding number of tags the kanban method – the rules tags must necessarily be attached to containers containers may be moved only if the associated tag is there a kanban tag shows: item description - item code - shows quantity of items in the container - total number of items to be produced 32
  • 33. the kanban method – types of kanban: kanban: PRODUCTION Kanban: Kanban Printed Card indicating the number of parts that need to be produced to replenish what customers have pulled WITHDRAWAL Kanban: Printed Card indicating the number of parts to be removed from a previous operation to be supplied downstream SIGNAL Kanban: Printed Card indicating the number of parts that need to be produced to replenish what a downstream operation has pulled the kanban method – benefits - remarks stock and wip can be accurately measured and known at a glance overproduction is eliminated or at least controlled production planning based on the kanban method is easier production planning must consider : non-conformities - equipment losses - set-ups the higher the inefficiencies above, the higher the wip the kanban method is a “pull” production method, but not necessarily a “flow” and “lean” method 33
  • 34. kanban in action the productive process in manufacturing some definitions PRODUCTION LEVELLING Evenly distributing over a day (or a shift) the work required all along the product’s manufacturing process to meet customers demand (based on TAKT TIME) TIME (Unlevelled production means some Processing Stations fall behind with their schedule, causing idle time downstream, while other wait for work) (Production Levelling applies to the entire Manuf. Process) METHODS FOR PRODUCTION LEVELLING CM=“Catalogue” Manufacturing OM=“Order” Manufacturing • Continuous Flow (all situations that allow it – CM and OM) • Kanban (all situations – CM and combination OM/CM) • Paced Withdrawal (narrow variety of products along the same processing line - CM only) • Heijunka Box/Runner system (large variety of products along the same processing line – CM only) 34
  • 35. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions PACED WITHDRAWAL System for moving small batches of product from one Processing Station to the next at time intervals equal to the pitch (or a small multiple of it). The pitch determines the frequency with which containers are released from Processing Station to Processing Station and eventually to shipping. the “stock” issue 35
  • 36. effects of the “push” (and “non-lean” pull) methods the “stock” issue the STOCK issue why does stock pile up ? (…and sometimes floods the factory…) factory… (OBSOLETE) MENTALITY PROCESS UNBALANCES & BOTTLENECKS PRODUCTS CONVERGING FROM VARIOUS PROCESSES PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION TO VARIOUS PROCESSES WAITING FOR “ROAMING” OPERATORS ROAMING” WAITING FOR CHANGE-OVER CHANGE- 36
  • 37. the STOCK issue why does stock pile up ? (…and sometimes floods the factory…) factory… “END-OF-THE-MONTH” FEVER END- OF- THE- MONTH” SEASONAL PRODUCTION/SALES and ERRORS; MISUNDERSTANDINGS; WRONG PLANNING (PRODUCTION and PROCUREMENT); INADEQUATE STORE-KEEPING/ STORE- /ADMINISTRATION/STOCK MANAGEMENT; TECHNICAL/COMMERCIAL OBSOLESCENCE; etc. etc.….. etc.… the STOCK issue how much does stock cost ? …one yearyear of carrying raw …one of carrying raw materials, wip and finished goods can cost 35% materials, wip and finished goods can costof theirof their.. 35% value… value….. 37
  • 38. LEAN MANUFACTURING and FLOW PRODUCTION continuous flow the target: pipeline flow Lean Manufacturing uses less of everything compared with mass production: half the human effort in the factory, half the manufacturing floor space, half the investment in tools, half the engineering hours to develop a new product in half the time. Also it requires keeping far less than half the needed inventory and results in fewer defects….. James P Womack – Daniel T Jones – Daniel Roos (The machine that changed the world) 38
  • 39. APPROACHES to TOTAL PRODUCTIVITY in MANUFACTURING FIGHTING WASTE IN PRODUCTION the enemies and the weapons 39
  • 40. FIGHTING WASTE IN PRODUCTION the enemies and the weapons the “SOCO” (5S) approach 40
  • 41. the non-soco factory a soco story 5S in action 41
  • 42. a soco factory 5S in action a soco factory 5S in action 42
  • 43. LOT (BATCH) PRODUCTION VS. FLOW PRODUCTION LOT PRODUCTION VS. FLOW PRODUCTION 43
  • 44. LOT PRODUCTION VS. FLOW PRODUCTION LOT PRODUCTION VS. FLOW PRODUCTION 44
  • 45. LOT PRODUCTION VS. FLOW PRODUCTION LOT PRODUCTION VS. FLOW PRODUCTION 45
  • 46. fake flow production the conveyor method LOT PRODUCTION VS. FLOW PRODUCTION 46
  • 47. “batch production” vs. “one-piece flow” batch production vs. one-piece flow ANALYSIS analysis 47
  • 48. U-CELL MANUFACTURING ONE-PIECE FLOW U-CELL MANUFACTURING TRADITIONAL LINE/U-LINE COMPARISON LINE/U- 48
  • 49. U-CELL MANUFACTURING TRADITIONAL LINE/U-LINE COMPARISON LINE/U- U-CELL MANUFACTURING MAIN TYPES OF PRODUCTION CELLS 49
  • 50. U-CELL MANUFACTURING MAIN TYPES OF PRODUCTION CELLS cell manufacturing labour-intensive situation 50
  • 51. ASSEMBLY CELLS - ERGONOMICS Remember the three primary ergonomic operating zones: the optimum work zone the optimum grab zone the maximum grab zone parts presentation, the assembly sequence and tool organisation should all be limited to the optimum zones as much as possible Remember: people move in arcs, not straight lines THE CLASSIC 7 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW MANUFACTURING 1. “One-piece” flow 2. Machines/Workplaces positioned in processing sequence 3. “Compact” Equipment (both specialised & general purpose) 4. Multi-process operations (worker moves from operation to operation down the line) 51
  • 52. THE CLASSIC 7 REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW MANUFACTURING 5. Well studied cycle-time (process must be synchronised to keep pace with Clients’ needs/next process’ needs) 6. Multi-skilled workers 7. Standing (chair-free) operations continuous flow golden rules 1st RULE MANUFACTURING CYCLE-TIME = TAKT TIME Production “pitch” co-ordinated with Customers’ needs. pitch” co- Customers’ number of items to be produced = number of items required by Customers (Produce daily what you sell daily....) daily.... 52
  • 53. continuous flow golden rules 1st RULE MANUFACTURING CYCLE-TIME = TAKT TIME MICRO-MIX = MACRO-MIX continuous flow golden rules 2nd RULE BASE EQUIPMENT CAPACITY / / UTILISATION ON TAKT-TIME Large pieces of equipment, intended for batch production or designed for FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System) are not suited for Flow Production/One-Piece Flow 53
  • 54. continuous flow golden rules 3rd RULE PULL PRODUCTION PRINCIPLE Market demand data are directed only to the Assembly process (final process), and from here relayed up-stream continuous flow golden rules 4th RULE VERTICAL LAYOUT (FLOW LAYOUT) An horizontal (job shop) layout is not suited to Flow Production/One-Piece Flow 54
  • 55. cell manufacturing labour/machines situation 55
  • 56. Lean Manufacturing and Total Quality Management THE POKA-YOKE DISCIPLINE POKA- 100% TESTING APPROACHES THE 6 SIGMA METHODOLOGY FLOW PRODUCTION - THE QUALITY ISSUE “If a system is not fundamentally designed for quality, all the SPC consultants in the world won’t help. Your fate is designed in” [Jim Swartz] 56
  • 57. FLOW PRODUCTION - THE QUALITY ISSUE The 5 QA Achievement Levels 1) Factory delivers defective products 2) Factory does not deliver defective products 3) Factory reduces defects 4) Processes do not send defects downstream 5) Processes do not create defects to begin with FLOW PRODUCTION - THE QUALITY ISSUE Flow Production is based on QA level 5: ZERO DEFECTS 57
  • 58. FLOW PRODUCTION - THE QUALITY ISSUE Quality Inspection built-into the built- productive process: 100% inspection Poka-Yoke devices built-into the Poka- built- productive process for guaranteed quality If defects occur, the process is stopped, and the cause/s found and eliminated No double check/double inspection Inspection Department IS the Production Department 6 Sigma methodology in extreme or well suited situations Flash Images of fully automated and semi-automated calibrating and testing lines for the “Common Rail” Diesel Injection System. Lines engineered by AEA Srl of Italy. 100% testing 58
  • 59. 100% testing a world-class enterprise dedicated to 100% quality testing The 6-Sigma 6-Sigma Methodology overview 59
  • 60. poka-yoke 60
  • 61. MISTAKE-PROOFING IN EVERYDAY’S LIFE MISTAKE- EVERYDAY’ MISTAKE-PROOFING IN EVERYDAY’S LIFE MISTAKE- EVERYDAY’ 61
  • 62. MISTAKE-PROOFING IN EVERYDAY’S LIFE MISTAKE- EVERYDAY’ POKA-YOKE APPLICATIONS POKA- 62
  • 63. POKA-YOKE APPLICATIONS POKA- POKA-YOKE APPLICATIONS - CYTOCARE POKA- AFTER Dedicated loading system. No possibility of mistakes. BEFORE Syringes loading by means of rollers and force of gravity. Possibility of mistaken loading. 63
  • 64. YEARS 2000 FACTORS OF COMPETITIVENESS Creativity the 6 thinking hats 64
  • 65. EXERCISE??? …..oh, yes!!! poka-yoke it…. FLOW PRODUCTION - THE QUALITY ISSUE The “turn-this-board” strategy 65
  • 66. FLOW PRODUCTION - THE QUALITY ISSUE The “turn-this-board” strategy FLOW PRODUCTION + U-CELL MANUFACTURING U- the correct approach to equipment Capacity: conservative rather than optimistic Adhere to the one-piece-flow rule Equipment conceived for quality Fast enough to cope with the Takt-Time 66
  • 67. FLOW PRODUCTION + U-CELL MANUFACTURING U- the correct approach to equipment Specialised, inexpensive machines (not GP) Compact, easy to move Standardised, easy to operate Man & Machine: separate value-adding FLOW PRODUCTION + U-CELL MANUFACTURING U- the correct approach to equipment Fast to set-up, easy to maintain Inlet and Outlet on the same side Simple, human automation Simple, fool-proof devices/accessories 67
  • 68. the correct approach to equipment why machine inlet and outlet should be on the same side FLOW PRODUCTION + U-CELL MANUFACTURING U- the correct approach to equipment First improve people, then methods, then equipment Go for the “poor man” approach Be “people oriented” and “customer-oriented” rather than “machine-oriented” 68
  • 69. cell manufacturing labour/machines situation2 U-CELL MANUFACTURING 69
  • 70. cell production one-piece flow continuous flow HEAVY MECHANISATION / AUTOMATION LEAN MANUFACTURING and TPM TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE 70
  • 71. 71
  • 72. “traditional” TPM definition PARTICIPATIVE PROGRAMS DESIGNED TO INCREASE EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS (PRODUCTIVITY - QUALITY - SAFETY) AIMING AT VARIOUS GOALS: ELIMINATION OF THE 6 BIG LOSSES, IN ORDER TO LOSSES MAXIMISE EQUIPMENT EFFECTIVENESS RESTORATION OF EQUIPMENT TO OPTIMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS ELIMINATION OF ACCELERATED DETERIORATION AUTONOMOUS MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES TO MAINTAIN BASIC EQUIPMENT CONDITIONS “traditional” TPM goals INCREASE IN EFFICIENCY AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF MAINTENANCE FUNCTION MAINTAINABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF A MAINTENANCE SYSTEM FOR THE EQUIPMENT LIFE MAINTENANCE PREVENTION INCREASE OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE SKILLS 72
  • 73. “traditional” TPM goals TOTAL INVOLVEMENT OF PEOPLE FROM ALL DEPTS. THAT PLAN, DESIGN, USE OR MAINTAIN EQUIPMENT INVOLVEMENT OF TOP MANAGEMENT MAX. SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT CONSERVATION/ /POLLUTION CONTROL AND OTHERS “today’s” TPM today’s TPM focuses on the entire productive process to assure that the right equipment is part of a value- adding/waste-free series of operations and to assure (by deploying “traditional” TPM approaches) that equipment contributes “effectively” to the primary objective of value-generation 73
  • 74. spot the waste… …around machines… 74
  • 75. THE 6 BIG LOSSES 75
  • 76. THE 6 BIG LOSSES THE 6 BIG LOSSES 76
  • 77. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE AUTONOMOUS MAINTENANCE the hearts of TPM The new relationship between Maintenance and Production CAN TPM BE ASSOCIATED TO OTHER “TECHNICAL” MAINTENANCE DISCIPLINES? TECHNICAL” yes, it can! for instance: PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE (or CBM – CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE) RBI - RISK-BASED INSPECTION (for pressure vessels and piping) RISK- RCM – RELIABILITY CENTRED MAINTENANCE (for critical rotating equipment and as a “maintenance policy-maker”) IPF – INSTRUMENT PROTECTIVE FUNCTION (emergency shut-down systems – gas and fire systems) and others 77
  • 78. ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O 1. Changing-over efficiently and effectively requires a high level of knowledge and ability, which are the result of long training and experience 78
  • 79. OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O 2. Producing in large lots mitigates the effects and counterbalances the costs of long c/o times OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O 3. Producing with the criterion of "economic lot size" does also counterbalance the cost of (large) inventory, consequent to large-lot production 79
  • 80. OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O E.L.S. (ECONOMIC LOT SIZE) = E.O.Q. (ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY) effects of long set-ups 80
  • 81. definitions change-over time = interval of time elapsed between production of last defect-free item (product, by-product, work-piece....) of previous lot, and first defect-free item of next lot definitions INTERNAL CHANGE-OVER TIME Interval of time during which the productive process stops: this should be the real and proper change-over time, that begins when the current lot process finishes, and ends when the next lot process produces the 1st defect-free item. throughout this time no value is added to products 81
  • 82. definitions EXTERNAL CHANGE-OVER TIME Interval of time during processing (of previous and next lot), during which change-over related activities (like transport, preparation, etc.) may and should be implemented by various personnel (fitters, workers, operators....). part of this time may elapse before Internal Change-Over Time, and part after definitions OVERALL CHANGE-OVER TIME = Internal Change-Over Time + External Change-Over Time. 82
  • 83. ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER objectives eliminate waste make easy all c/o operations, so that they can be implemented by medium/low-skilled workers medium/low- minimise time required for (essential) internal c/o activities eliminate/minimise adjustments eliminate/minimise streamline (essential) external c/o activities ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER objectives eliminate waste make easy all c/o operations, so that they can be implemented by medium/low-skilled workers medium/low- minimise time required for (essential) internal c/o activities eliminate/minimise adjustments eliminate/minimise streamline (essential) external c/o activities 83
  • 84. flow production and quick change-over Charlie Rev. 0 the missing link... 22 minutes 84
  • 85. CHANGE-OVER CHECK-TABLE back to Charlie… Charlie Rev. 1 rev. 1 4 minutes 85
  • 86. from SMED to OTED is it possible? Charlie Rev. 5 1 second a QCO case positioning jig for automated robot-welding of silencers 86
  • 87. QCO dream or reality? …are Lean Manufacturing and Flow Production suited to you? 87
  • 88. The answer is always: yes!! LEAN MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLES IN THE MINING INDUSTRY 88
  • 89. LEAN THINKING PRINCIPLES IN THE MINING INDUSTRY 2 main operational processes: the extraction process the ore treatment process Spot the Waste! Mining Industry: Ore Processing EXAMPLES 89
  • 90. LEAN MANUFACTURING AND THE CONTINUOUS PROCESS INDUSTRY LEAN MANUFACTURING AND THE CONTINUOUS PROCESS INDUSTRY Targets: a) balance the Flow: through Continuous Flow techniques b) pull the Flow: relate Operations to the Market Flow: c) assure the Flow: through TPM & other technical Flow: Maintenance disciplines 90
  • 91. LEAN MANUFACTURING AND THE CONTINUOUS PROCESS INDUSTRY Additional Target: eliminate the residual waste around the Flow The Control Room syndrome EXAMPLES 91
  • 92. VALUE STREAM MANAGEMENT VALUE STREAM MANAGEMENT Descending from Value Adding Management and Process Engineering, Value Stream Management (VSM) is a discipline for planning and linking “lean” initiatives. This is done operationally by deploying the Value Stream Mapping technique, that calls for systematic data collection and analysis. The primary target: Manufacturing lead-time (throughput time) reduction lead- through waste elimination Although it might be used for improving any process, VSM is generally adopted to improve the Manufacturing (operations) process. 92
  • 93. VALUE STREAM MANAGEMENT How? Understanding/analysing Flow of Materials and Flow of Information along the selected Value Stream/s. To become effective, VSM must be understood, supported and driven by Top Management – and understood/known operationally by Managers, Supervisors, Team Leaders and key frontline personnel. VSM actually does link the needs of Top Management (aiming at tangible improvement results) with the needs of the operations/improvement groups (needing practical tools). The common tool for both is the VSM storyboard (a poster size framework holding all key data for planning lean initiatives). VALUE STREAM MANAGEMENT VSM storyboard 93
  • 94. VALUE STREAM MANAGEMENT 9 major steps: A) Strong commitment to “lean” B) Identify, select and choose “Value Streams” (per “product” or “class of products”) Value Streams C) Learn “lean” practices D) “Current State” Mapping Current State E) Determine applicable “metrics” F) “Future State” Mapping Future State G) Set Kaizen-style Improvement Plans H) Implement Improvement Plans I) Monitor VALUE STREAM MANAGEMENT A) Strong Commitment to “Lean” Lean” Key Points: Top Management must “understand” LEAN TM must never confuse a lean exercise with a cost-cutting exercise TM must understand that the lean project must be top-driven, supported and monitored in all its stages TM must make a “loud declaration” that the enterprise is now going loud declaration into the lean direction + Appointment of a Lean Project Manager (LPM) 94
  • 95. VALUE STREAM MANAGEMENT B] Identify, select and choose Value Stream/s Value Stream: Stream Is that sequence of processing activities that produce as an output a product or range of products (or service/s, or both). A value stream is a process, the entire process required to produce a product or range of products, including all its processing stations, manufacturing lines, etc. It begins in the incoming raw materials area, and ends at the product/s despatching area. under the VSM angle of view, a value stream begins at supplier's premises and ends at client/s' premises How many Value Streams? VALUE STREAM MANAGEMENT c] Learn lean practices Key Points: Formal and informal training Including: awareness generation/sensitisation to identification + elimination of waste - rather comprehensive presentation of lean benefits, limitations, constraints and implications - an initial, broad presentation of the available lean disciplines and their areas of deployment - illustration of practical VSM procedures and tools - tips on how to generate and maintain the "lean momentum". lean momentum + Train the Trainers program! Train: all those concerned! 95
  • 96. VALUE STREAM MAPPING the “Storyboard” Storyboard” VALUE STREAM MAPPING D) Mapping the “Current State” State” PRELIMINARY STEP: Round-the-table Team work • The LPM re-defines the Project • highlights the reasons for selecting the chosen value stream/s • re-explains briefly the VSM approach/procedures • re-defines the operational Teams appointed for the task • sets time-frames • and assigns duties to the co-ordinators (sub-PM) of the Operational sub-PM Teams 96
  • 97. VALUE STREAM MAPPING D) Mapping the “Current State” State” OPERATIONAL STEPS: 1) Map the Process (Arrow Diagram) – identifying all Processing Arrow Diagram Components (both Value-adding AND non-Value-adding) in the Value- non- Value- adding selected value stream process - clearly identifying Value-adding Operations points (Processing Stations) – draft Process’ Map to Processing Stations scale all physical constraints (pillars, walls, etc.) as well as any difference difference of floor level must be indicated Benefits (for the Future State): • illustrating all physical constraints may come extremely useful to identify both criticalities and opportunities • it open the doors to Process Razing and Group Technology studies PROCESS MAPPING 97
  • 98. PROCESS MAPPING VALUE STREAM MAPPING D) Mapping the “Current State” State” OPERATIONAL STEPS: 2) Preliminary Drafting of the CS The symbols (VSM icons) Or your own! 98
  • 99. VALUE STREAM MAPPING D) Mapping the “Current State” State” OPERATIONAL STEPS: 2) Preliminary Drafting of the CS VALUE STREAM MAPPING D) Mapping the “Current State” State” OPERATIONAL STEPS: 4) Drafting the Current State – Flow of Materials 99
  • 100. VALUE STREAM MAPPING D) Mapping the “Current State” State” OPERATIONAL STEPS: 4) Drafting the Current State – Flow of Materials Use the Time Line in the lower part of the Current State Map to show significant time-related (hours, days or weeks) data, such as: - overall typical or average time to process at each Processing Station - typical/average time gap between Processing Stations – etc. VALUE STREAM MAPPING D) Mapping the “Current State” State” OPERATIONAL STEPS: 5) Data Collection (Current State – Flow of Information) Target: identify all relevant data regarding information flow for the Target selected Value Stream/s between: - Client/s and Enterprise - Enterprise and Supplier/s - within the Enterprise: to Production Management, Planning and Scheduling. Two essential "units" must be investigated: the let's call it Central Processing Unit and the let's call it Production Planning/Control Unit 100
  • 101. VALUE STREAM MAPPING D) Mapping the “Current State” State” OPERATIONAL STEPS: 5) Mapping Current State – Flow of Information VALUE STREAM MAPPING E) Determine applicable “Metrics” Metrics” VITAL! to compare (eventually) the present state of affairs with a proposed, future, leaner one. Details are not so important, especially for Top Management. What TM needs is INDICES! (few, global and meaningful) INDICES the selected Metric Parameters/Indices must be “universally” agreed 101
  • 102. VALUE STREAM MAPPING E) Determine applicable “Metrics” Metrics” Identify and enter in the Storyboard pertinent “Metrics”. Recommended Metric Parameters/Indices describing broadly but effectively the system "performance“: Total Cycle-Time (Σ Value-Adding Time) Σ Throughput Time Ratio: Σ Value-Adding Time/Throughput Time Value- Defective Parts per Million (DPPP) – or Sigma Level Overall Equipment Effectiveness Inventory turns Days of inventory on-hand Total Process’ WIP Process’ Uptime Rate On-time Delivery (OTD) Index VALUE STREAM MAPPING E) Determine applicable “Metrics” Metrics” Identify and enter in the Storyboard pertinent “Metrics” The “Metrics” area should be conveniently subdivided to display: - The Current State Metrics - The Future State Metrics - The proposed System Performance Improvement 102
  • 103. VALUE STREAM MAPPING F) Mapping the “Future State” State” Implemented by the various VSM Teams by deploying: - Their "lean" know-how - Creative Thinking The goal: Produce a proposed, Future State Map that will be "leaner than the leaner" present one (as lean as possible), bringing up a number of Kaizen-style Kaizen- Improvement Projects suited to the circumstance The real targets are: - Continuous Flow - Pulled by the Client/s - With as little residual waste as possible - With the shortest possible Throughput Time - Maximising the main "lean" index: ΣVA-Time / Throughput Time VA- VALUE STREAM MAPPING F) Mapping the “Future State” State” OPERATIONAL STEPS 1) Draw icons representing Client/s, Supplier/s, Central Processing Unit and Production Planning/Control Unit – prepare Data Boxes 103
  • 104. VALUE STREAM MAPPING F) Mapping the “Future State” State” OPERATIONAL STEPS 7) PROCESS RAZING/GROUP TECHNOLOGY STUDY This is where the previously drawn Process Map (using the Arrow Diagram tool) comes handy. The study serves to identify machines/equipment/processing stations required to process a number of products (or parts). Target of the study: “group” together similar families of products or parts, having in common similar processing steps carried out using similar machines/processing stations. Result of the study: a GROUP TECHNOLOGY Line (or Cell)Cell suitable to process all the concerned products/parts. PROCESS ROUTE ANALYSIS - GROUP-TECHNOLOGY GROUP- example 104
  • 105. PROCESS ROUTE ANALYSIS -GROUP-TECHNOLOGY GROUP- example PROCESS ROUTE ANALYSIS - GROUP-TECHNOLOGY GROUP- example 105
  • 106. PROCESS ROUTE ANALYSIS - GROUP-TECHNOLOGY GROUP- example PROCESS ROUTE ANALYSIS - GROUP-TECHNOLOGY GROUP- example 106
  • 107. PROCESS ROUTE ANALYSIS - GROUP-TECHNOLOGY GROUP- example PROCESS ROUTE ANALYSIS - GROUP-TECHNOLOGY GROUP- example The VSM Team tackling this particular area of the Future State may conclude that it is possible to establish "Flow Flow Processing" by means of 2 Processing Group Technology Cells (GT Cells): the first to handle processing of Products b and c, and the second to handle processing of Products a and d - each manned by a multi- skill/multi-function operator 107
  • 108. VALUE STREAM MAPPING F) Mapping the “Future State” State” OPERATIONAL STEPS 8) Brainstorming: is there any physical constraint or limitation imposed by the factory layout (refer to Process Mapping)? On the other hand, is there any hidden opportunity arising from the factory layout that can be exploited? Remember: the force of gravity exists everywhere and is free of charge! charge VALUE STREAM MAPPING F) Mapping the “Future State” State” OPERATIONAL STEPS 8) Brainstorming: how will you then control upstream production: KANBAN? - pure PULL/FLOW ? - IN- KANBAN IN- PROCESS SUPERMARKETS ? - or traditional MRP? MRP The real challenge is to try to go for pure PULL/FLOW all along the future value stream, if at all possible. 108
  • 109. VALUE STREAM MAPPING F) Mapping the “Future State” State” OPERATIONAL STEPS 14) Finally, draw FLOW OF MATERIALS in the Future State Map VALUE STREAM MAPPING F) Mapping the “Future State” State” OPERATIONAL STEPS 15) Draw the Flow of Information (electronic and manual): to/from Customer/Supplier - to/from Production Planning/Control from/to Processing Stations (include Production Supervisors' boxes in between as required) NB1: In a much leaner and pull system the Flow of Information between the Planning/Control Unit and the Processing Stations becomes extremely simple: information on orders to be produced are transmitted to the most downstream Station (4/5/6 in the example) and simultaneously to the others. The entire system then gets into motion in a pull style, and the continuous flow gets established. NB2: In the VSM exercise also the entire Planning/Control Unit, as well as the Central Processing Unit, may get totally "re-engineered" to suit the new system. In a "lean" system no functional area remains untouched! 109
  • 110. VALUE STREAM MAPPING G) SET KAIZEN-STYLE LEAN IMPROVEMENT PLANS KAIZEN- The VSM Teams now have on hand all what is required to get to the Future State system. All data are available. The systems (present and future) are no mystery. The "direction" (the lean direction) is clear. the direction All is clear. What is missing are three main items: A complete list of what needs to be done to get there In what sequence (what comes first, and second, and third......) The "who-is-going-to-be-in-charge-of-what“ issue VALUE STREAM MAPPING G) SET KAIZEN-STYLE LEAN IMPROVEMENT PLANS KAIZEN- Eventually a "Lean Lean Master Plan" can be Plan produced 110
  • 111. WHAT A DIFFERENCE, COMPARED TO A TRADITIONAL IMPROVEMENTS LIST…. VALUE STREAM MAPPING G) SET KAIZEN-STYLE LEAN IMPROVEMENT PLANS KAIZEN- Calculate the overall investment associated with the implementation of the Lean Master Plan Calculate the benefits associated with the implementation of the Lean Master Plan (by comparison: CURRENT METRICS/FUTURE METRICS) METRICS Calculate the ROI Get the LMP formally approved by Top Management Post the approved LMP next to the Storyboard 111
  • 112. VALUE STREAM MAPPING H] IMPLEMENT IMPROVEMENT PLANS KEY POINTS Lean Project Planning! (Last Planner – PPC – 5Why) Planning Last 5Why Review/touch-up as required Implementation Time Span: open debate Span A Lean Project is ongoing! ongoing The target is a moving target. There is no end to the lean trip..... VALUE STREAM MAPPING I] MONITOR KEY POINTS Continuous Monitoring/Control! Monitoring/Control Everybody! Everybody Co-ordinated by LPM Regular reporting to Top Management Celebrate Milestone achievements! FINAL REMARKS No easy/simple shortcut to VSM! In simple cases: Spaghetti Diagram And/or: start from downstream and “hit the wall”! wall 112
  • 113. CAN FLOW PRODUCTION BE EXTENDED FACTORY-WIDE ? RELATIONSHIP WITH SUPPLIERS IN A WORLD-CLASS ENVIRONMENT the “VENDORS’ CLASSIFICATION, EVALUATION & RATING” discipline 113
  • 114. the value-chain 114
  • 115. VENDORS CLASSIFICATION IV CLASS - "NORMAL" III CLASS - "PERFORMING" SUPPLIER II CLASS - "INTEGRATED" I CLASS - "PARTNER" SUPPLIER SUPPLIER (Operational Comakership) SUPPLIER (Business Comakership) CONVENTIONAL APPROACH "IMPROVEMENT" APPROACH OPERATIONAL INTEGRATION STRATEGIC INTEGRATION RELATIONSHIP ° Negotiation focused on price ° Primary attention to quality/price ratio ° Great attention to "total" process ° Great attention to common DEVELOPMENT ° Minimal infos & quality specs ° Large infos ° Long-term relationship regularly (+- yearly) business ° Conflictual interests ° More reciprocal trust reviewed ° Open doors, open "value-chain" ° Little reciprocal trust ° Many open orders & extensive purchases ° Open infos (including market's feed-back) and open info system ° Governed by contractual power planning ° High level of trust ° Benchmarking together ° Single-order purchases with little ° Start-up of long-term relationship ° Mutually agreed vendor's "recovery" ° Full trust: vendor thrives on exception ° Reduction of suppliers number (= selection) procedures vendee's business and vendee ° Short-term purchases horizon ° Some experimental comakership ° Price fluctuations allowed with mutually thrives on vendor's support to ° Many suppliers ° Target: vendor's improvement agreed criteria business ° Decentralization of production and ° Systematic (and jointly defined) vendor's ° Top level agreement on policies responsibilities Kaizen programs (price-quality-process) and strategies ° Open orders as a rule ° Proper business partnership ° Consulting/training services to Vendor with some suppliers QUALITY ° Vendor responsible only for ° Extensive certification of vendor's QA ° Extensive auto-certification ° Maintenance of auto- ISSUE conformity to specs system ° Focus on vendor's CWQC system certification ° Systematic acceptance ° Vendor's rating on "absolute" quality ° Quality guaranteed and auto-certified with ° Focus on GWQC Inspections/Tests jointly agreed criteria) ° Co-design of quality specs and ° Max guarantee only on a 100% test ° Start-up of "auto-certification" programs ° Vendor's global responsibility on QFD basis (sampling/AQL techniques ° Vendor responsible for conformity to use consequences of non-conformities ° Free-pass as a rule and free-pass carry high risk) ° Quality improvement programs imposed (product liability) ° Vendor's globally responsible ° Some inspections at source to vendor ° Free-pass with/without bonus for end-user's satisfaction ° Some "formal" certification (2nd ° Mix tests on acceptance/free-pass ° Integrated improvement programs (QA – and 3rd party) of vendor's QA TQM) system ° Buffer stocks: safe/necessary ° Start-up of JIT supplies (mainly Kanban) ° JIT supplies (frequent/small-lots) directly ° Global vendor's integration in LOGISTICS ° Some buffer stocks to productive areas vendee's productive flow – ° No buffer stocks synchro supplies only ° Some synchro-supplies ° Common informatics and planning PRODUCT- ° None/minimal vendor's involvement ° Some vendor's involvement ° Co-engineering & Co-design ° Extensive, joint PPD and QFD PROCESS ° Vendee's imposition of vendor's process ° Some common use of QFD ° Extensive, joint R & D DEVELOPMENT improvement programs ° Some joint R & D investments investments ° Global involvement ° Price ° QA system evaluation/audit ° Global Process capability audit ° Global Vendor's Organization EVALUATION ° Quality: compliance to specs ° Rating based on "absolute" quality ° Evaluation and rating at Total Costs audit & RATING ° Reliability & Performance ° Evaluation/Rating based on Total Costs of ° Evaluation of QA system (2nd party (non-) quality certification) MOTTO "Shop around for the best price" "Let's improve together" "The productive process starts at "Let's make business together" vendor's premises" 115
  • 116. comakership the present and the future International Lean Supply Chain - example 116
  • 117. EXERCISE??? …..oh, yes!!! earn a diploma… OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT in a lean environment “simple is beautiful!” “small is beautiful!” 117
  • 118. small is beautiful! - 1 Paulaner Bräuhaus Clock Tower Cape Town Waterfront 118
  • 119. 119
  • 120. 120
  • 121. small is beautiful! - 2 Bakeries today 121
  • 122. 122
  • 123. small is beautiful! - 3 william 123
  • 124. william small is beautiful! - 4 edith 124
  • 125. edith LM and PEOPLE and: the importance of Top Management commitment in implementing a LM program 125
  • 126. ….so, you would like your people to be: ?????? Dedicated to their work Responsible ???? Committed to improvement…… Serious and reliable Cost-conscious Accountable Efficient 126
  • 127. ….so, you would like your people to be: Efficient – Responsible - Cost- conscious - Dedicated to their work - Serious and reliable – Accountable – Committed to improvement…… - ???? - ????? - ????????????? ..in a nutshell: you would like your people to perform 127
  • 128. This is possible: it can be achieved… ….it depends on you, entrepreneurs and managers….. ..it’s just your choice.. But: there are 3 necessary steps… ….you would like your people to be: responsible – accountable – efficient - dedicated to their work – committed to improvement…… improvement…… THE 3 NECESSARY STEPS 1) Understand the environmental change and manage it 2) Be prepared to abandon the “formula” 3) Have a clear direction and tell people about it…. 4) ….and something more….. more… 128
  • 129. Why do all traditional HR management and motivational techniques somehow fail? Management by Objectives, Effective Leadership, Diversification, Z Theory, Situational Leadership, Effective Communication, Zero- based-Budgeting, Decentralisation, Team Building, Management by Exception, Dale Carnegie techniques, Interpersonal Skills, Quality Circles, Excellence, Restructuring, Portfolio Management, Interactive Management, Matrix Organisational Structure, Total Quality Management, ISO 9000..... and One-Minute Managing...... Why is communication so difficult in many Traditional Enterprises? Why is there a communication problem in many enterprises? And why is “talking to people” considered a waste of time in many enterprises? ..we have to look at organisational structures… 129
  • 130. ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURES …..that support an effective Employee Involvement scheme and allow higher levels of Performance ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGIES 130
  • 131. effective Human Resources Management Strategies EFFECTIVE HR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 131
  • 132. “...the worst thing that could possibly happen to an enterprise and its employees is the adoption of an ineffective H R Management strategy......” EXAMPLES OF “MIS-MATCH” E2 M2 E1 M1 132
  • 133. finally: a “traditional” enterprise is like a lawn mower… …if a person at the top is the most important, see what happens if a person at the bottom walks away…. away… 133
  • 134. HIGH (TOTAL) INVOLVEMENT in a nutshell TEI is everyone in the Organisation deeply involved, using own brain power, in problem-solving, learning, power, problem-solving, , continuous improvement activities, and systematic search for opportunities As people's best motivations come from their own ideas, TEI stimulates people to release, in a ideas, channelled mode, their own creative energy for the benefit of the Customers, the Organisation's and their own HIGH (TOTAL) INVOLVEMENT in a nutshell TEI is a system for organisational and people's change. change. It is a system that improves people's working conditions by their own actions. TEI is a system for direct participation of people to Organisation's success, by letting them take responsibilities. responsibilities. TEI wants people to be responsible for their own motivation and their own improvement: simply by letting them know the score.... score.... 134
  • 135. HIGH (TOTAL) INVOLVEMENT in a nutshell TEI is a system that stimulates people to become responsible agent for their own security. ….responsible agent for their own security…. the worm 135
  • 136. HIGH (TOTAL) INVOLVEMENT in a nutshell TEI represents a continuous challenge to people, by letting them set the path to their fulfilment at work, enjoying the very process...... high involvement…. 136
  • 137. high involvement in manufacturing…. involvement: special cases 137
  • 138. involvement: special cases Retailing personnel Service establishments personnel Public officials Necessary roles…. with simple job descriptions (1 – 2 items) Bottom-of-the-ladder personnel The IWT triumph! 138
  • 139. high involvement…. getting highly involved…. 139
  • 140. Mc Gregor and the X-Y theory the Pygmalion effect BELIEVE IN PEOPLE! Lega del filo d’oro http://www.legadelfilodoro.it Non-profit Organisation – Osimo – Italy Assisting the blind, deaf and dumb. Communication: MALOSSI 140
  • 141. a practical model for TEI 141
  • 142. ….shift TEI and beyond - TEP: TOTAL EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE from: TGIF to: TGIM!! 142
  • 143. ….so you would like your people to be: responsible – accountable – efficient - dedicated to their work – committed to improvement…… improvement…… THE CHOICE IS YOURS… YOURS… traditional high limited little/none methods waste responsibilities involvement Job Satisfaction?? ….so you would like your people to be: responsible – accountable – efficient - dedicated to their work – committed to improvement…… improvement…… THE CHOICE IS YOURS… YOURS… Job Satisfaction!! involvement responsibilities value added methods high high high lean 143
  • 144. Next Generation Lean Manufacturing A course presented by Carlo Scodanibbio Organised by: CREDITS The documentary material of this course is based on papers and works by: works and on personal experience and development by Carlo Scodanibbio Copyright © Carlo Scodanibbio 2009 Next Generation Lean Manufacturing “a cultural revolution” 144
  • 145. LEAN MANUFACTURING Power Point Presentation by Carlo Scodanibbio Copyright: © Carlo Scodanibbio 2008/09 – All rights reserved A simple copyright statement: you are authorised to install this presentation in one computer station only. You are authorised to print this entire presentation and copy it for exclusive use by employees of your Organisation. You are not authorised to distribute this presentation - by electronic or other means and supports - outside your Organisation. http://www.scodanibbio.com 145

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