Carlo Scodanibbio presents:


   achieving quick
     change-over
        the “secret” of Flow Production and
the key that...
manufacturing
     yesterday                         today/tomorrow
                               The present market cake...
manufacturing
       yesterday                        today/tomorrow
  Factory Management
                                ...
manufacturing
   yesterday         today/tomorrow


Manufacturing      Manufacturing
is the business          is a
  of ma...
VAM
VALUE ADDING
MANAGEMENT




               5
the VAM approach to the productive process




process
 time
analysis




      homework ?
       ..oh, yes !!!


        ...
SEW
     SYSTEMATIC
ELIMINATION OF WASTE




VALUE!



                       7
8
SUMMARY OF THE MAIN TYPES OF WASTE
  Overproduction
  Stock
  Un-needed processing steps
  Motion
  Control
  Defects
  Wa...
WASTE – THE TABLE OF EXCUSES - NEW
1) That's the way we have always done it
2) There is no better way, believe me….
      ...
the productive process in manufacturing
                            some definitions
   PUSH and PULL PRODUCTION METHODS

...
the productive process in manufacturing
                            some definitions
   PUSH and PULL PRODUCTION METHODS

...
the productive process in manufacturing
                      BATCH (PUSH) PRODUCTION vs.
                CONTINUOUS FLOW ...
“batch production” vs.
       “one-piece flow”




 LEAN MANUFACTURING
 and FLOW PRODUCTION
 continuous flow
the target:

...
Lean Manufacturing uses less of everything
      compared with mass production:
 half the human effort in the factory, hal...
a soco story




a soco factory




                 16
HEAVY MECHANISATION /
     AUTOMATION
 LEAN MANUFACTURING
       and TPM
 TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE




  THE 6 BIG LOS...
THE 6 BIG LOSSES




THE 6 BIG LOSSES




                   18
ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER




                             definitions


     change-over time
 = interval of time elaps...
OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O


1. Changing-over efficiently
   and effectively requires a
   high level of kno...
OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O

3. Producing with the
     criterion of "economic lot
     size" does also
     ...
OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O




OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O




                                ...
OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O
     large lot result: mitigation of negative effects
      of (long) set-up time...
OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O
 common assumption: change-over time cannot be
                    change-
      ...
4 BASIC STEPS IN THE CHANGE-OVER PROCESS
                      CHANGE-
                 every set-up operation generally i...
ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER
                  today's classification of change-over operations
                           ...
definitions

EXTERNAL CHANGE-OVER TIME
Interval of time during processing (of previous
and next lot), during which change-...
ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER
                     objectives
 eliminate waste


 make easy all c/o operations, so that they...
flow production and quick change-over
                               Charlie Rev. 0
         the missing link...    22 min...
6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER
                                       CHANGE-

STEP 1. FORM a QCO IMPRO...
6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER
                                        CHANGE-

STEP 1. FORM a QCO IMPR...
6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER
                                        CHANGE-

STEP 2. ANALYSE CURRENT...
33
6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER
                                        CHANGE-

STEP 2. ANALYSE CURRENT...
35
6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER
                                       CHANGE-

STEP 2. ANALYSE CURRENT ...
37
6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER
                                       CHANGE-

STEP 3. GET RID OF WASTE...
CHANGE-OVER CHECK-TABLE




 C/O SOCO CHECK-TABLES




      dedicated die-change cart
                die-




          ...
C/O SOCO CHECK-TABLES




                  external drill-bits change-over
                           drill-     change-
...
41
6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER
                                        CHANGE-

STEP 5. STREAMLINE REMA...
bolts-fighting check-list
                                                             B) IMPROVE
•Do we really need all t...
poka-yoke




            44
MISTAKE-PROOFING IN EVERYDAY’S LIFE




MISTAKE-PROOFING IN EVERYDAY’S LIFE




                                      45
MISTAKE-PROOFING IN EVERYDAY’S LIFE




    POKA-YOKE APPLICATIONS




                                      46
POKA-YOKE APPLICATIONS




    back to Charlie…
                       Charlie Rev. 2
         rev. 2         2 minutes


...
48
back to Charlie…
                   Charlie Rev. 3
     rev. 3         1,4 minutes




                                   ...
back to Charlie…
                   Charlie Rev. 4
     rev. 4         10 seconds




                                    ...
51
from SMED to OTED



                is it possible?
                                              Charlie Rev. 5
        ...
2 BEST RULES FOR AQCO
 do not spend money on
  aqco, use your brain!

     do it right now!




  a QCO case
  positioning...
QCO
     dream or reality?



     AQCO and PEOPLE




and: the importance of Top Management commitment
       in implemen...
a practical model for TEI




                            55
achieving quick change-over
 A course presented by Carlo Scodanibbio
                            Organised by:
           ...
achieving quick
       change-over
    “a cultural revolution”




                  ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER
         ...
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Achieving quick Change-Over

  1. 1. Carlo Scodanibbio presents: achieving quick change-over the “secret” of Flow Production and the key that opens the door to Lean Manufacturing a training event organised by: clients are monsters…. 1
  2. 2. manufacturing yesterday today/tomorrow The present market cake is not growing much larger, but variety is, due to diversity of customers’ needs. Approach: Besides, customers request and expect shorter delivery schedules, schedules Make good products higher quality, and high reliability. quality reliability This dictates a “higher variety-small higher variety- cheaply and quickly lots” style of production, featuring lots high quality, speedy delivery and assured safety/reliability. PQCDS approach QCD approach (diversified PRODUCTS, of high QUALITY, at low COST, with (Quality - Cost - Delivery) speedy DELIVERY and assured SAFETY/RELIABILITY) manufacturing yesterday today/tomorrow Seller’s Market Buyer’s Market Clients are no Costs associated longer prepared to with Waste could subsidise be built into manufacturers’ Product’s price costs associated with Waste 2
  3. 3. manufacturing yesterday today/tomorrow Factory Management Customers determine determines Production Capacity Production Capacity (Estimate-based Levelling) (Estimate- (Reality-based Levelling) (Reality- Costs + Profit = Selling Price Selling Price - Profit = Costs (Product-Out approach) (Product- (Market-In approach) (Market- manufacturing yesterday today/tomorrow Profit is something that Profit is something comes naturally out of that must be created the manufacturing and and earned through marketing process hard work Manufacturing Cycle Manufacturing Cycle Time Time >> Selling Cycle Time -> = Selling Cycle Time 3
  4. 4. manufacturing yesterday today/tomorrow Manufacturing Manufacturing is the business is a of making SERVICE products INDUSTRY 4
  5. 5. VAM VALUE ADDING MANAGEMENT 5
  6. 6. the VAM approach to the productive process process time analysis homework ? ..oh, yes !!! 6
  7. 7. SEW SYSTEMATIC ELIMINATION OF WASTE VALUE! 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. SUMMARY OF THE MAIN TYPES OF WASTE Overproduction Stock Un-needed processing steps Motion Control Defects Waiting/idling Transportation WASTE – THE TABLE OF EXCUSES - OLD 1) That's the way we have always done it 2) I didn't know you were in a hurry for it 3) That's not in my department 4) No one told me to go ahead 5) I am waiting for an OK 6) That's his job - not mine 7) Wait till the boss comes back & ask him 8) I forgot 9) I didn't think it was very important 10) I'm so busy I just can't get around to it 11) I thought I told you 12) I wasn't hired to do that 9
  10. 10. WASTE – THE TABLE OF EXCUSES - NEW 1) That's the way we have always done it 2) There is no better way, believe me…. me… 3) This way we know it works…. works… 4) Why change? We are already so busy…. busy… 5) We have tried in the past, and it didn’t work… didn’ work… 6) Managers and consultants…. Only able to mess us up consultants… 7) You mean we are stupid the way we do it??? 8) Impossible 9) We need stock: it’s a good investment it’ 10) Set-up time cannot be reduced further…. Set- further… 11) We must control quality or clients will complain 12) All machines eventually give problems spot the waste! Manufacturing Industry 10
  11. 11. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions PUSH and PULL PRODUCTION METHODS 11
  12. 12. the productive process in manufacturing some definitions PUSH and PULL PRODUCTION METHODS the productive process in manufacturing some definitions PUSH and PULL PRODUCTION METHODS 12
  13. 13. the productive process in manufacturing BATCH (PUSH) PRODUCTION vs. CONTINUOUS FLOW (PULL) PRODUCTION the productive process in manufacturing some definitions ON-TIME DELIVERY RATE (OTDR) Degree of reliability of any upstream operation to release in due time its output to a downstream operation. A Flow System may compound problems and reduce considerably the overall process’ OTDR unless the entire process is improved/streamlined: 13
  14. 14. “batch production” vs. “one-piece flow” LEAN MANUFACTURING and FLOW PRODUCTION continuous flow the target: pipeline flow 14
  15. 15. Lean Manufacturing uses less of everything compared with mass production: half the human effort in the factory, half the manufacturing floor space, half the investment in tools, half the engineering hours to develop a new product in half the time. Also it requires keeping far less than half the needed inventory and results in fewer defects….. the “SOCO” (5S) approach 15
  16. 16. a soco story a soco factory 16
  17. 17. HEAVY MECHANISATION / AUTOMATION LEAN MANUFACTURING and TPM TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE THE 6 BIG LOSSES 17
  18. 18. THE 6 BIG LOSSES THE 6 BIG LOSSES 18
  19. 19. ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER definitions change-over time = interval of time elapsed between production of last defect-free item (product, by-product, work-piece....) of previous lot, and first defect-free item of next lot 19
  20. 20. OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O 1. Changing-over efficiently and effectively requires a high level of knowledge and ability, which are the result of long training and experience OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O 2. Producing in large lots mitigates the effects and counterbalances the costs of long c/o times 20
  21. 21. OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O 3. Producing with the criterion of "economic lot size" does also counterbalance the cost of (large) inventory, consequent to large-lot production OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O E.L.S. (ECONOMIC LOT SIZE) = E.O.Q. (ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY) 21
  22. 22. OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O 22
  23. 23. OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O large lot result: mitigation of negative effects of (long) set-up times and associated costs set- EXAMPLE 1 PRINCIPAL SETUP LOT OPERATION OVERALL OPERATION TIME % IMPR % IMPR TIME SIZE TIME (PER ITEM) (PER ITEM) % % 3 hrs 100 1 min 1 min + (3 x 60)/100 = 2,8 min 100 / 3 hrs 1.000 1 min 1 min + (3 x 60)/1.000 = 1,18 min 42 58 100 / 3 hrs 10.000 1 min 1 min + (3 x 60)/10.000 = 1,018 min 36 64 86 14 EXAMPLE 2 PRINCIPAL SETUP LOT OPERATION OVERALL OPERATION TIME % IMPR % IMPR TIME SIZE TIME (PER ITEM) (PER ITEM) % % 6 hrs 100 1 min 1 min + (6 x 60)/100 = 4,6 min 100 / 6 hrs 1.000 1 min 1 min + (6 x 60)/1.000 = 1,36 min 30 70 100 / 6 hrs 10.000 1 min 1 min + (6 x 60)/10.000 = 1,036 min 23 77 76 24 OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O considerations increasing the size of a small lot brings a increasing the size of a small lot brings a substantial improvement to the (unit) overall substantial improvement to the (unit) overall operation time -- but with further lot size increases, operation time but with further lot size increases, increases, the rate of improvement decreases the rate of improvement decreases the longer the set-up time, the more effective the the longer the set- set-up time, the more effective the time, benefits of increasing lot size benefits of increasing lot size in any case, with traditional approach to set-up in any case, with traditional approach to set- set-up activities, large-lot production apparently is the activities, large- large-lot production apparently is the best method to reduce and even minimise the best method to reduce and even minimise the negative effects of set-up negative effects of set- set-up 23
  24. 24. OBSOLETE, TRADITIONAL ASSUMPTIONS ON C/O common assumption: change-over time cannot be change- drastically reduced BUT IT CAN !! if a 3 hrs set-up time can be reduced to 3 minutes, set- producing in large lots would be meaningless and days of limited product variety and days of limited product variety and large-scale mass production are and large- large-scale mass production are gone forever ....!! gone forever ....!! MAIN TYPES OF CHANGE-OVER OPERATIONS 1. EXCHANGING DIES & BLADES: dies, moulds, drill bits, sawblades BLADES: and other tools, silk-screening plates, etc. - also: cleaning and replacing silk- filters (ex. in plastic extruders) and similar operations which cause a temporary halt to production. 2. CHANGING STANDARD PARAMETERS: in NC machines, dairy PARAMETERS: processes, chemical processes..... 3. "SWITCHOVER" or "RE-TOOLING": "RE- TOOLING": in assembly lines - includes exchanging supplies of components and materials, assembly jigs and equipment, etc. in certain machines – includes new material feed to machine (f.i. new (f.i. rolls of paper in winders, or new rolls of paper/material/plastic films in paper/material/plastic printers, etc. 4. GENERAL SET-UP prior to manufacturing: arranging the equipment, SET- assigning tasks, checking drawings & work schedules, etc. 24
  25. 25. 4 BASIC STEPS IN THE CHANGE-OVER PROCESS CHANGE- every set-up operation generally includes: set- 1. PREPARATION, CHECKING OF PARTS, TOOLS & MATERIALS, AND AFTER-PROCESS ACTIVITIES AFTER- 2. REMOVING AND MOUNTING PARTS, DIES, TOOLS, MATERIALS...... 3. MEASUREMENTS, SETTINGS AND CALIBRATIONS 4. TRIAL RUNS AND ADJUSTEMENTS effects of long set-ups 25
  26. 26. ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER today's classification of change-over operations change- INTERNAL CHANGE-OVER OPERATIONS CHANGE- Those that cannot be implemented unless the process is stopped EXTERNAL CHANGE-OVER OPERATIONS CHANGE- Those that can be implemented independently of the process WASTE Inessential operations (not necessary, or operations that could be avoided or eliminated) and wasteful operations inherent in the two classes above. Examples: waiting for a fork-lift, searching fork- for jigs and tools, un-necessary adjustments....... un- definitions INTERNAL CHANGE-OVER TIME Interval of time during which the productive process stops: this should be the real and proper change-over time, that begins when the current lot process finishes, and ends when the next lot process produces the 1st defect-free item. throughout this time no value is added to products 26
  27. 27. definitions EXTERNAL CHANGE-OVER TIME Interval of time during processing (of previous and next lot), during which change-over related activities (like transport, preparation, etc.) may and should be implemented by various personnel (fitters, workers, operators....). part of this time may elapse before Internal Change-Over Time, and part after definitions OVERALL CHANGE-OVER TIME = Internal Change-Over Time + External Change-Over Time. 27
  28. 28. ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER objectives eliminate waste make easy all c/o operations, so that they can be implemented by medium/low-skilled workers medium/low- minimise time required for (essential) internal c/o activities eliminate/minimise adjustments eliminate/minimise streamline (essential) external c/o activities ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER objectives eliminate waste make easy all c/o operations, so that they can be implemented by medium/low-skilled workers medium/low- minimise time required for (essential) internal c/o activities eliminate/minimise adjustments eliminate/minimise streamline (essential) external c/o activities 28
  29. 29. flow production and quick change-over Charlie Rev. 0 the missing link... 22 minutes traditional improvement vs. AQCO improvement 29
  30. 30. 6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER CHANGE- STEP 1. FORM a QCO IMPROVEMENT TEAM STEP 2. ANALYSE CURRENT C/O OPERATIONS (and categorise them: internal - external - waste) STEP 3. GET RID OF WASTEFUL OPERATIONS (eliminate most of them with the SOCO method) STEP 4. TRANSFORM INTERNAL C/O INTO EXTERNAL C/O STEP 5. STREAMLINE REMAINING INTERNAL C/O STEP 6. STREAMLINE EXTERNAL C/O 6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER CHANGE- STEP 1. FORM a QCO IMPROVEMENT TEAM STEP 2. ANALYSE CURRENT C/O OPERATIONS (and categorise them: internal - external - waste) STEP 3. GET RID OF WASTEFUL OPERATIONS handle aqco as (eliminate most of them with the SOCO method) STEP 4. TRANSFORM INTERNAL C/O INTO EXTERNAL C/O a project! STEP 5. STREAMLINE REMAINING INTERNAL C/O STEP 6. STREAMLINE EXTERNAL C/O 30
  31. 31. 6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER CHANGE- STEP 1. FORM a QCO IMPROVEMENT TEAM key points Primary Team + sub-Teams Co-ordination! AQCO Project Manager + sub-Project Managers sub- Pilot Project? 6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER CHANGE- STEP 2. ANALYSE CURRENT C/O OPERATIONS (and categorise them: internal - external - waste) key points PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS •list all current c/o operations •establish most critical ones and assign priorities to the qco team by using a change-over summary table 31
  32. 32. 6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER CHANGE- STEP 2. ANALYSE CURRENT C/O OPERATIONS (and categorise them: internal - external - waste) key points PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS •if necessary, or in case of large discrepancies between c/o durations (for the same c/o code), analyse further certain c/o operations using a change-over timetable & comparison chart 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. 6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER CHANGE- STEP 2. ANALYSE CURRENT C/O OPERATIONS (and categorise them: internal - external - waste) key points IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF C/O OPERATIONS IN- •using VCR extensively, analyse in detail c/o operation with a change-over operations analysis chart 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. 6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER CHANGE- STEP 2. ANALYSE CURRENT C/O OPERATIONS (and categorise them: internal - external - waste) key points IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS OF C/O OPERATIONS IN- •Brainstorming: team members to fill an appropriate change-over improvement list 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. 6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER CHANGE- STEP 3. GET RID OF WASTEFUL OPERATIONS (eliminate most of them with the SOCO method) STEP 4. TRANSFORM INTERNAL C/O INTO EXTERNAL C/O STEP 6. STREAMLINE EXTERNAL C/O key points •Kill “Preparation Waste” & “Cleanup Waste” using the Waste” Waste” SOCO method 38
  39. 39. CHANGE-OVER CHECK-TABLE C/O SOCO CHECK-TABLES dedicated die-change cart die- 39
  40. 40. C/O SOCO CHECK-TABLES external drill-bits change-over drill- change- back to Charlie… Charlie Rev. 1 rev. 1 4 minutes 40
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. 6 PRACTICAL STEPS FOR ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER CHANGE- STEP 5. STREAMLINE REMAINING INTERNAL C/O key points •kill waste in internal c/o operations REPLACEMENT ADJUSTMENT WASTE WASTE bolts fighting! poka-yoke! bolts-fighting check-list A) AVOID THE NEED (= ELIMINATE) •Can we eliminate bolts altogether? •What else can be used instead of bolts (& nuts, screws...)? •Can we rather use a vice? •Can we use a (mechanical, hydraulic) clamp? •Can we go for any other type of fastener? •Can we rather use a wedge, a taper pin, a knock-pin, spring and knock- check-pin, spring and cam....... check- •Can we possibly use a magnet? And vacuum suction? •How can we create an interlock? •May be with a groove and check-spring? check- •What about going for a "snap-in" cassette style method? "snap- 42
  43. 43. bolts-fighting check-list B) IMPROVE •Do we really need all these bolts, or can we reduce their number? number? •Can we reduce the time spent to tighten and fasten bolts? •Can we do without tools? •Can we build a tool into the bolt (nut, screw......) •Can we reduce the number of turns of this bolt? •Can we make bolts shorter? •Can we do it with only three turns? And one only? And 1/3 only? •Can we avoid to remove nuts and washers? bolts-fighting check-list B) IMPROVE •Can we use a "slip-off" bolt (the "U-slot" method)? "slip- "U- •Can we avoid to remove bolts? Can they stay there? •Can we go for a "pear-shaped" hole method? "pear- •Can we use the "C" (or "U") washer method? •Can we use sliding bolts with side-slots/groves side- (The Split-Thread Method)? Split- 43
  44. 44. poka-yoke 44
  45. 45. MISTAKE-PROOFING IN EVERYDAY’S LIFE MISTAKE-PROOFING IN EVERYDAY’S LIFE 45
  46. 46. MISTAKE-PROOFING IN EVERYDAY’S LIFE POKA-YOKE APPLICATIONS 46
  47. 47. POKA-YOKE APPLICATIONS back to Charlie… Charlie Rev. 2 rev. 2 2 minutes 47
  48. 48. 48
  49. 49. back to Charlie… Charlie Rev. 3 rev. 3 1,4 minutes 49
  50. 50. back to Charlie… Charlie Rev. 4 rev. 4 10 seconds 50
  51. 51. 51
  52. 52. from SMED to OTED is it possible? Charlie Rev. 5 1 second 7 RULES FOR AQCO RULE 1. C/O BEGINS AND ENDS WITH THE SOCO METHOD RULE 2. TRANSFORM INTERNAL C/O INTO EXTERNAL C/O, AND ONLY THEN IMPROVE REMAINING INTERNAL C/O RULE 3. BOLTS ARE OUR ENEMY RULE 4. IF YOU HAVE TO USE YOUR HANDS, MAKE SURE YOUR FEET STAY PUT RULE 5. ELIMINATE THE NEED FOR SPECIAL FINE-TUNING FINE- SKILLS RULE 6. STANDARDS ARE STANDARDS, MEANT TO BE STANDARDS, KEPT AND RESPECTED RULE 7. STANDARDISE C/O OPERATIONS IN SUCH A WAY THAT ANYBODY CAN IMPLEMENT THEM 52
  53. 53. 2 BEST RULES FOR AQCO do not spend money on aqco, use your brain! do it right now! a QCO case positioning jig for automated robot-welding of silencers 53
  54. 54. QCO dream or reality? AQCO and PEOPLE and: the importance of Top Management commitment in implementing an AQCO program 54
  55. 55. a practical model for TEI 55
  56. 56. achieving quick change-over A course presented by Carlo Scodanibbio Organised by: CREDITS The documentary material of this course is based on papers and works of: works and on personal experience and development by Carlo Scodanibbio MUSIC BY Bach – Barry - Beethoven – Grieg – Haydin - Mozart – Muffat – Paganini - Ponchielli – Rimsky-Korsakov - Rossini – R. Strauss - Verdi - Vivaldi – Wagner & others Rimsky- Copyright © Carlo Scodanibbio 2009 56
  57. 57. achieving quick change-over “a cultural revolution” ACHIEVING QUICK CHANGE-OVER Power Point Presentation by Carlo Scodanibbio Copyright: © Carlo Scodanibbio 2008/09 – All rights reserved A simple copyright statement: you are authorised to install this presentation in one computer station only. You are authorised to print this entire presentation and copy it for exclusive use by employees of your Organisation. You are not authorised to distribute this presentation - by electronic or other means and supports - outside your Organisation. http://www.scodanibbio.com 57

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