Adam DrewnowskiLos Humanos y el Dulzor:¿Porquénosgustanlascosasdulces?<br />
Los Humanos y el Dulzor:<br />¿Porquénosgustanlascosasdulces?<br />Adam Drewnowski, PhD<br />Director, Center for Public H...
We choose foods by taste<br />Energy <br />density<br />Pleasure<br />Taste <br />Cost<br />Taste <br />Consumer<br />Food...
Good-tasting foods were once viewed as the most nutritious<br />Whatever is the most delicious is also the most nutritious...
Sugar is delicious: France 1825<br /><ul><li>Sugar is the universal flavoring; its applications have an infinite variety…
Mixed with water, sugar produces sugar water, a refreshing, healthy, pleasant drink.</li></ul>Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savari...
Sugar is nutritious: US 1948<br />The energy of sunshine is crystallized in Dextrose sugar<br />
Taste is the main influence on food behavior<br />
Sweetness equals nutrition<br />Bitterness equals dietary danger<br /><ul><li>A single taste cell has many receptors for b...
Humans have 3-4 different taste receptors for sweet
Sugars and intense sweeteners are structurally related
Humans have 40-80 different taste receptors for bitter
Compounds that elicit bitter taste are completely unrelated
Bitter compounds are often toxic  </li></li></ul><li>Infants like sweet!<br />Facial expressions of 3-day old infants Stei...
3-day old infants like sweet and reject bitter tastes<br />Liking <br />for sweet<br />Rejection<br />of bitter<br />Menne...
Children like familiar sweet foods<br />chocolate<br />Wardle et al., Appetite 2001;37:217-223<br />tofu<br />avocado<br /...
Children liked energy-dense fruit best<br />Wardle al, Appetite 2003<br />Banana<br />Potatoes<br />Grapes<br />Apple<br />
What do adults “crave”?Foods that are energy-dense, with fat, sugar, and/or salt<br />Sweet beverages are liked but are no...
Energy density (MJ/kg) and water content<br />oil = 9 kcal/g<br />oil<br />butter<br />candy<br />sugar<br />soft drinks<b...
Energy density (MJ/kg) and water content<br />oil = 9 kcal/g<br />oil<br />butter<br />candy<br />carbohydrate = 4 kcal/g<...
Energy density (MJ/kg) and water content<br />oil<br />oil<br />butter<br />candy<br />carbohydrate = 4 kcal/g<br />cheese...
Energy density (MJ/kg) and water content<br />oil<br />oil<br />butter<br />candy<br />cheese<br />sugar<br />meat<br />gr...
 What is the impact of sweet foods and beverages on the diet?Where do sugar calories come from?<br />
Soda, sports &  energy drinks<br />5.5%<br />
Added sugars consumption (tsp/d) declines with age – obesity and diabetes go up<br />    Added sugars intake by age       ...
Added sugars, obesity and diabetes by race/ethnicity and education Data are estimated least square mean intakes of added s...
What about sweetness, satiety, and appetite control?<br />Is it true that liquid calories have no satiating power?<br />Wh...
Solids versus liquids: still not settled<br />Liquified foods (soups) are more satiating than solids, as measured by food ...
Hunger and energy intakes at lunch after solid vs. liquid preloads (125 or 225 kcal)<br />Protein = milk versus cheese<br ...
The preload study design that we use<br />satiation<br />satiety<br />Appetitive ratings<br />Hunger, fullness, desire to ...
 Lunch meal: 1734 kcal<br />Additional servings of the same foods <br />available from a side buffet<br />
Is if food form (liquid versus solid)or is it time?<br />Almiron-Roig, Flores, Drewnowski, Physiol & Behav 2004;82:671<br />
Study design: 2 time delays<br />Keep energy constant (300 kcal)– vary texture and time lag<br />2h<br />1.5h<br />Lunch<b...
Hunger, satiety, thirst after soda or cookies<br />Breakfast<br />Lunch<br />Almiron-Roig, Flores, Drewnowski, Physiol & B...
Can cola spoil your appetite? Yes<br />*<br />Prediction: Degree of compensation may depend on time to the next meal.<br /...
What about sweetness, satiety, and appetite control?<br />Is it true that liquid calories have no satiating power?<br />Wh...
Compare diet and regular beverages<br />satiety<br />Appetitive ratings<br />Hunger, fullness, desire to eat, thirst<br />...
Beverage volume affects satiety<br />N = 37 volunteers (19 men; 18 women), age 23y<br />Body mass index: 23.4 (men), 21.9 ...
Hunger and satiety after 6 beverages<br />LUNCH<br />PRELOAD<br />Hunger<br />Fullness<br />Perrigue et al. Presentation a...
Hunger and satiety after LCS and milk<br />LUNCH<br />PRELOAD<br />Hunger<br />Fullness<br />Perrigue et al. AJCN 2007<br />
Diet soft drink did not affect food consumption at lunch<br />Same as for no beverage<br />Perrigue et al. AJCN 2007<br />
Lunch consumption after 6 beverages<br />Some compensation (not much)<br />Perrigue et al. AJCN 2007<br />
What the science tells us<br />Liquids are as satiating as solids<br />Soft drinks vs. cookies<br />Liquid sugars have sat...
What about sweetness, satiety, and appetite control?<br />Is it true that liquid calories have no satiating power?<br />Wh...
Final question:Who are LCS consumers and what is their diet quality?<br />
Who are LCS consumers?<br />Data from 2001-2 NHANES Rehm and Drewnowski<br />[1] Excluded from analysis due to small numbe...
Was there a reduction in added sugar and carbs?<br />[1] Mean is adjusted for age group, gender and energy. Values represe...
What are their diets like?<br />Data from 2001-2 NHANES Rehm and Drewnowski<br />[1] Mean is adjusted for age group, gende...
Did diet soda consumers have better diets?   Yes<br />
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Adam drewnowski

  1. 1. Adam DrewnowskiLos Humanos y el Dulzor:¿Porquénosgustanlascosasdulces?<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Los Humanos y el Dulzor:<br />¿Porquénosgustanlascosasdulces?<br />Adam Drewnowski, PhD<br />Director, Center for Public Health Nutrition<br />Director, UW Center for Obesity Research<br /> School of Public Health and Community Medicine<br />University of Washington<br />Seattle, WA<br />Serie Cientifica Latinoamericana<br />Simposio de Edulcorantes no Caloricos, Bogota, Colombia, Agosto 24 y 25, 2011<br />
  4. 4. We choose foods by taste<br />Energy <br />density<br />Pleasure<br />Taste <br />Cost<br />Taste <br />Consumer<br />Food<br />Behavior<br />Access/<br />time<br />Health<br />Variety<br />
  5. 5. Good-tasting foods were once viewed as the most nutritious<br />Whatever is the most delicious is also the most nutritious<br />Magninus of Milan 17th C<br />If the human body is healthy, then the foods that taste the best are also the most nutritious <br />Aldebrandin of Siena 1606<br />Jean-Pierre Flandrin Histoire de l’Alimentation, Paris, 1996<br />
  6. 6. Sugar is delicious: France 1825<br /><ul><li>Sugar is the universal flavoring; its applications have an infinite variety…
  7. 7. Mixed with water, sugar produces sugar water, a refreshing, healthy, pleasant drink.</li></ul>Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin 1825<br />Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin 1825<br />
  8. 8. Sugar is nutritious: US 1948<br />The energy of sunshine is crystallized in Dextrose sugar<br />
  9. 9. Taste is the main influence on food behavior<br />
  10. 10. Sweetness equals nutrition<br />Bitterness equals dietary danger<br /><ul><li>A single taste cell has many receptors for bitter and sweet
  11. 11. Humans have 3-4 different taste receptors for sweet
  12. 12. Sugars and intense sweeteners are structurally related
  13. 13. Humans have 40-80 different taste receptors for bitter
  14. 14. Compounds that elicit bitter taste are completely unrelated
  15. 15. Bitter compounds are often toxic </li></li></ul><li>Infants like sweet!<br />Facial expressions of 3-day old infants Steiner, 1977<br />Infants prefer sweet liquids<br />to plain water<br />Desor, Maller and Greene, 1978<br />Sweet Sour Bitter<br />
  16. 16. 3-day old infants like sweet and reject bitter tastes<br />Liking <br />for sweet<br />Rejection<br />of bitter<br />Mennella and Beauchamp, Nutr Rev 1998<br />
  17. 17. Children like familiar sweet foods<br />chocolate<br />Wardle et al., Appetite 2001;37:217-223<br />tofu<br />avocado<br />melon<br />leeks<br />
  18. 18. Children liked energy-dense fruit best<br />Wardle al, Appetite 2003<br />Banana<br />Potatoes<br />Grapes<br />Apple<br />
  19. 19. What do adults “crave”?Foods that are energy-dense, with fat, sugar, and/or salt<br />Sweet beverages are liked but are not “craved” like chocolate.<br />Their energy density is too low<br />
  20. 20. Energy density (MJ/kg) and water content<br />oil = 9 kcal/g<br />oil<br />butter<br />candy<br />sugar<br />soft drinks<br />water = 0 kcal/g<br />
  21. 21. Energy density (MJ/kg) and water content<br />oil = 9 kcal/g<br />oil<br />butter<br />candy<br />carbohydrate = 4 kcal/g<br />cheese<br />sugar<br />meat<br />ice cream<br />milk<br />soft drinks<br />water = 0 kcal/g<br />
  22. 22. Energy density (MJ/kg) and water content<br />oil<br />oil<br />butter<br />candy<br />carbohydrate = 4 kcal/g<br />cheese<br />sugar<br />meat<br />grains<br />ice cream<br />milk<br />soft drinks<br />water = 0 kcal/g<br />
  23. 23. Energy density (MJ/kg) and water content<br />oil<br />oil<br />butter<br />candy<br />cheese<br />sugar<br />meat<br />grains<br />ice cream<br />milk<br />soft drinks<br />water = 0 kcal/g<br />
  24. 24. What is the impact of sweet foods and beverages on the diet?Where do sugar calories come from?<br />
  25. 25. Soda, sports & energy drinks<br />5.5%<br />
  26. 26. Added sugars consumption (tsp/d) declines with age – obesity and diabetes go up<br /> Added sugars intake by age Obesity and diabetes by age<br />NHANES 2003-4 24h NHIS 2005 screener<br />Thompson et al. Added sugars intake, SES and race/ethnicity JADA 2009;109:1376<br />Mokdad et al. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity related health risk factors JAMA 2003:289:76-79<br />
  27. 27. Added sugars, obesity and diabetes by race/ethnicity and education Data are estimated least square mean intakes of added sugars in tsp/d (1 tsp = 4g)<br /> Added sugars intake by age Obesity and diabetes by age<br />Thompson et al. Added sugars intake, SES and race/ethnicity JADA 2009;109:1376<br />
  28. 28. What about sweetness, satiety, and appetite control?<br />Is it true that liquid calories have no satiating power?<br />What do we know about the effects of low calorie sweeteners on satiety?<br />Can low calorie beverages help in the management of body weight?<br />
  29. 29. Solids versus liquids: still not settled<br />Liquified foods (soups) are more satiating than solids, as measured by food intake reduction.<br />Kissileff AJCN 1985<br />Solid carbohydrates (jelly beans) elicited precise 100% dietary compensation; liquids (soda) elicited none.<br />DiMeglio & Mattes IJO 2000<br />Solid watermelon led to more compensation at lunch compared to watermelon juice (24% vs 6%). Beverages elicited a weaker compensatory response than did solid foods. No effect on hunger or satiety ratings was observed.<br />Mourao, Bressan, Campbell & Mattes IJO 2007<br />Solid apples, semisolid apple sauce, and liquid apple juice (300 kcal) did lead to different hunger/satiety ratings. <br />No effect on energy intakes was observed.<br />Mattes & Campbell JADA 2009<br />
  30. 30. Hunger and energy intakes at lunch after solid vs. liquid preloads (125 or 225 kcal)<br />Protein = milk versus cheese<br />Carbohydrate = watermelon versus watermelon juice<br />Fat = coconut meat versus coconut milk<br />Mourao, Campbell and Mattes Int J Obesity 2007; 31: 1688.<br />
  31. 31. The preload study design that we use<br />satiation<br />satiety<br />Appetitive ratings<br />Hunger, fullness, desire to eat, thirst<br />Next <br />meal<br />Liquid<br />This <br />meal<br />Food <br />records<br />Solid<br />Variable interval: 15 min – 6h<br />time<br />Expectation: Subjects ingesting a preload will eat less at this/next meal<br />
  32. 32. Lunch meal: 1734 kcal<br />Additional servings of the same foods <br />available from a side buffet<br />
  33. 33. Is if food form (liquid versus solid)or is it time?<br />Almiron-Roig, Flores, Drewnowski, Physiol & Behav 2004;82:671<br />
  34. 34. Study design: 2 time delays<br />Keep energy constant (300 kcal)– vary texture and time lag<br />2h<br />1.5h<br />Lunch<br />Breakfast<br />2h<br />1.5h<br />Lunch<br />Breakfast<br />20 min<br />3.5 h<br />Lunch<br />Breakfast<br />20 min<br />3.5 h<br />Breakfast<br />Lunch<br />Almiron-Roig, Flores, Drewnowski, Physiol&Behav 2004;82:671<br />
  35. 35. Hunger, satiety, thirst after soda or cookies<br />Breakfast<br />Lunch<br />Almiron-Roig, Flores, Drewnowski, Physiol & Behav 2004;82:671<br />
  36. 36. Can cola spoil your appetite? Yes<br />*<br />Prediction: Degree of compensation may depend on time to the next meal.<br /> Short interval = more compensation.<br /> Long interval = little or no compensation.<br />
  37. 37. What about sweetness, satiety, and appetite control?<br />Is it true that liquid calories have no satiating power?<br />What do we know about the effects of low calorie sweeteners on satiety?<br />Can low calorie beverages help in the management of body weight?<br />
  38. 38. Compare diet and regular beverages<br />satiety<br />Appetitive ratings<br />Hunger, fullness, desire to eat, thirst<br />Next <br />meal<br />LCS<br />Calories<br />time<br />Interval 60-90 min<br />Expectation: calorie effects and volume effects have different time course<br />
  39. 39. Beverage volume affects satiety<br />N = 37 volunteers (19 men; 18 women), age 23y<br />Body mass index: 23.4 (men), 21.9 (women)<br />Hunger, thirst, fullness, and desire to eat measured every 30 min (9-point scale)<br />Lunch foods pre-weighed by experimenters. Plate and water waste measured.<br />
  40. 40. Hunger and satiety after 6 beverages<br />LUNCH<br />PRELOAD<br />Hunger<br />Fullness<br />Perrigue et al. Presentation at Experimental Biology 2006 in San Francisco April 2006<br />
  41. 41. Hunger and satiety after LCS and milk<br />LUNCH<br />PRELOAD<br />Hunger<br />Fullness<br />Perrigue et al. AJCN 2007<br />
  42. 42. Diet soft drink did not affect food consumption at lunch<br />Same as for no beverage<br />Perrigue et al. AJCN 2007<br />
  43. 43. Lunch consumption after 6 beverages<br />Some compensation (not much)<br />Perrigue et al. AJCN 2007<br />
  44. 44. What the science tells us<br />Liquids are as satiating as solids<br />Soft drinks vs. cookies<br />Liquid sugars have satiating power<br />Soft drinks vs. juices or milk<br />Low calorie sweeteners do not promote hunger<br />Aspartame vs. milk<br />
  45. 45. What about sweetness, satiety, and appetite control?<br />Is it true that liquid calories have no satiating power?<br />What do we know about the effects of low calorie sweeteners on satiety?<br />Can low calorie beverages help in the management of body weight?<br />
  46. 46. Final question:Who are LCS consumers and what is their diet quality?<br />
  47. 47. Who are LCS consumers?<br />Data from 2001-2 NHANES Rehm and Drewnowski<br />[1] Excluded from analysis due to small numbers and unstable estimates <br />[2] Age-adjusted to US standard population (2000) <br />
  48. 48. Was there a reduction in added sugar and carbs?<br />[1] Mean is adjusted for age group, gender and energy. Values represent those for individuals who consume 2,000 calories. <br />Data from 2001-2 NHANES Rehm and Drewnowski<br />
  49. 49. What are their diets like?<br />Data from 2001-2 NHANES Rehm and Drewnowski<br />[1] Mean is adjusted for age group, gender and energy. Values represent those for individuals who consume 2,000 calories. <br />[2] Higher score represents better diet quality. Component scores are HEI 1 – 12 are score as either 5, 10 or 20 points. Higher scores always indicate better quality (e.g., higher vegetables or lower sodium). <br />
  50. 50. Did diet soda consumers have better diets? Yes<br />
  51. 51. Recent issues about LCS:<br />The press has raised questions about LCS:<br />They over-stimulate sweet taste receptors.<br />They make you hungry.<br />They trick the body into overeating.<br />They create sweet taste addictions.<br />They may fuel the obesity epidemic.<br />What does science tell us?<br />
  52. 52. What the science tells us<br />Low calorie sweeteners (LCS) provide sweet taste without calories.<br />LCS have no impact on satiety beyond a transient volume effect.<br />The addition of LCS to a plain beverage does not lead to overeating.<br />LCS may lead to lower energy intakes at the end of the day<br />In replacing SSB, LCS have contributed to weight loss.<br />
  53. 53.
  54. 54. How people choose foods<br />Taste<br />Energy <br />density<br />Money<br />Cost<br />Time<br />Food <br />Selection<br />Eating <br />behavior<br />Access<br />Nutrient <br />density<br />Health<br />Nutrition<br />knowledge<br />Weight <br />concerns<br />
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