Business and Bankruptcy
National American University

LA3100
Instructor S. Johnston
LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
Learning Plan 6 Outline
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.

Factors In Business Entity Formation
Noncorporate Entities
Corporate Entit...
I.

Factors in Business Entity Formation
Factors for Comparison:
A. Liability for Owners
B. Structure of Organization

C. ...
II. Noncorporate Entities
A. Sole Proprietorship
B. General Partnership

C. Limited Partnership

[NONCORPORATE ENTITIES]

...
A. SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP
Consists of one person owning and operating a
business.
 Liability: Responsible for the payment of...
B. GENERAL PARTNERSHIPS
An "association of two more persons to carry on a
business for profit.“
 Liability: Partners equa...
C. LIMITED PARTNERSHIPS
One or one or more general partners and one or more limited partners.
 General partners: manage t...
III. Corporate Entities
 Separate and distinct legal entity from owners
 Continuity of existence despite death (Buy/Sell...
III. Corporation Entities
Structure of Corporations
Shareholders
owners of corporation
voting rights
Board of Directors
el...
III. Corporation Entities
Other types of corporations:

[CORPORATE ENTITIES]

LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
IV. Limited Liability Entities
A. Limited Liability Corporation
 Hybrid between corporation and partnership.
 Combines “...
IV. Limited Liability Entities
B. Limited Liability Partnership

 Lawyers and accountants only
 Pass through tax treatme...
V. Filing Requirements
 Sole Proprietorship: May be required to file a fictitious name statement.
 General Partnership: ...
VI. Comparisons
Entity
Sole proprietorship

Advantages

Partnership

Inexpensive to create; simple to form;
and operate an...
LP9: CREDIT & BANKRUPTCY
I. Credit
A debt is an obligation for money owed to a creditor.

Generally, debt can be divided into two categories:
 Sec...
I. Credit
A. Secured Debt
Secures liens to warranty against loan default. Collateral may be either
real property (land and...
I. Credit
B. Unsecured Debt
Unsecured debt refers to debt that is not secured by collateral.
 Examples of unsecured debt ...
II. Bankruptcy
 Bankruptcy laws derive from the Constitution (Article 1,
Section 8, Clause 4).
 Designed to motivate deb...
II. Bankruptcy
A. Chap. 7: Fresh Start
 Automatic Stay
 Trustee
 Secures Property You Want to Keep (Car)
 Exception: S...
II. Bankruptcy
D. Chap. 12: Regular Joe and Farmer Consolidation
 Consolidate debt
 Regular income
 Family farmer or fa...
Business and Bankruptcy
National American University

LA3100
Instructor S. Johnston
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Learning plans 6 & 9

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Learning plans 6 & 9

  1. 1. Business and Bankruptcy National American University LA3100 Instructor S. Johnston
  2. 2. LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  3. 3. Learning Plan 6 Outline I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Factors In Business Entity Formation Noncorporate Entities Corporate Entities Limited Liability Entities Filing Requirements Comparisons LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  4. 4. I. Factors in Business Entity Formation Factors for Comparison: A. Liability for Owners B. Structure of Organization C. Formalities of Formation [FORMATION FACTORS] LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  5. 5. II. Noncorporate Entities A. Sole Proprietorship B. General Partnership C. Limited Partnership [NONCORPORATE ENTITIES] LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  6. 6. A. SOLE PROPRIETORSHIP Consists of one person owning and operating a business.  Liability: Responsible for the payment of all debts incurred by the business.  Structure: Owner may hire and employ several employees to assist in the day-today operation of the business. But Owner is entitled to receive all profits generated by the business. [NONCORPORATE ENTITIES] LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  7. 7. B. GENERAL PARTNERSHIPS An "association of two more persons to carry on a business for profit.“  Liability: Partners equally share responsibility for losses, including the actions of each other.  Structure: General partners contribute their labor and resources to the partnership. Partners equally buy property and incur debts in the partnership name. [NONCORPORATE ENTITIES] LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  8. 8. C. LIMITED PARTNERSHIPS One or one or more general partners and one or more limited partners.  General partners: manage the partnership business and are personally liable for the debts of the business.  Limited partners: invest in the partnership business, but have no management authority. Limited partners are liable only for the amount that they have invested in the partnership, or the amount that they have agreed to invest in the business.  Structure: Although a limited partner may not participate in the management of the partnership business, many states allow the limited partner to engage in certain activities that are not considered management. [NONCORPORATE ENTITIES] LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  9. 9. III. Corporate Entities  Separate and distinct legal entity from owners  Continuity of existence despite death (Buy/Sell Agreement)  No personal shareholder liability (only corporation will be liable for debts)  Limitations (cannot appear in pro per in court except Small Claims actions)  Alter Ego/Piercing Corporate Veil Issues [CORPORATE ENTITIES] LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  10. 10. III. Corporation Entities Structure of Corporations Shareholders owners of corporation voting rights Board of Directors elected by Shareholders on annual basis management and control policy and major decisions Officers (President, Secretary, Treasurer) elected by Board of Directors on annual basis responsible for daily operations [CORPORATE ENTITIES] LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  11. 11. III. Corporation Entities Other types of corporations: [CORPORATE ENTITIES] LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  12. 12. IV. Limited Liability Entities A. Limited Liability Corporation  Hybrid between corporation and partnership.  Combines “pass through” tax treatment of partnership with limited liability of a corporation  Structure: centralized management is optional and may be by managers and/or members [LIMITED LIABILITY ENTITIES] LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  13. 13. IV. Limited Liability Entities B. Limited Liability Partnership  Lawyers and accountants only  Pass through tax treatment with corporate liability shield  Registered with Sec. Of State  General Partnership with shield from liability  No vicarious personal liability for partnership acts  Annual franchise tax fee (same as LLC) [LIMITED LIABILITY ENTITIES] LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  14. 14. V. Filing Requirements  Sole Proprietorship: May be required to file a fictitious name statement.  General Partnership: Per state law- generally as the Uniform Partnership Act. Agreement can be written or oral; Statute of Frauds if entity will last more than a year and/or purchase property.  Limited Partnership: Spelled out in each state. If persons attempting to forma limited partnership do not substantially comply with statutes governing the formation of such partnerships, then the limited partners may become personally liable for the debts of the partnership business.  Corporations: Must be formed with Sec. Of State by filing Articles of Incorporation, preparation of Bylaws and Minutes.  LLC/LLP: Must file Articles of Organization with Sec. Of State; parties enter into Operating Agreement; professional associations required. [FILING REQUIREMENTS] LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  15. 15. VI. Comparisons Entity Sole proprietorship Advantages Partnership Inexpensive to create; simple to form; and operate and owners/partners report their share of profit or loss on their personal tax returns. Limited partners have limited personal liability for business debts as long as they don't participate in management; General partners can raise cash without involving outside investors in management of business. Limited Partnership Inexpensive to create; owner authority, and receipt of profits. Disadvantages Owner liability, limited ability to raise funds, and limited duration of the sole proprietorship; SOF requirements Owners (partners) personally liable for business debts General partners personally liable for business debts; More expensive to create. Corporation No personal shareholder liability Double taxation; expensive to create; complicated formalities No personal liability; less expensive and fewer filing requirements than a corporation. No double taxation. Must file Articles of Organization with Sec. Of State; parties enter into Operating Agreement.; Annual franchise fee. No personal liability; less expensive and fewer filing requirements than a corporation. No double taxation. Lawyers and accountants only LLC LLP [COMPARISONS] LP6: BUSINESS ENTITIES
  16. 16. LP9: CREDIT & BANKRUPTCY
  17. 17. I. Credit A debt is an obligation for money owed to a creditor. Generally, debt can be divided into two categories:  Secured debt Any debt in which the creditor possesses a lien or security interest in specific property of the debtor.  Unsecured debt Debt secured without collateral. [CREDIT] LP9: CREDIT & BANKRUPTCY
  18. 18. I. Credit A. Secured Debt Secures liens to warranty against loan default. Collateral may be either real property (land and fixtures) or personal property. a. Mortgage lien: Lien using real property as collateral. b. Mechanic's lien: Filed against the property by a contractor who has not been paid for materials or services furnished to the property. c. Judgment lien: Filed entered against a person for an obligation unrelated to real property (for example failure to pay a credit card balance). d. Personal Property: Cars, boats, jewelry, etc. used as collateral via security agreement and a "financing statement" in accordance with Article 9 of the UCC. [SECURED CREDIT] LP9: CREDIT & BANKRUPTCY
  19. 19. I. Credit B. Unsecured Debt Unsecured debt refers to debt that is not secured by collateral.  Examples of unsecured debt include credit cards, and medical bills.  Debtor is motivated to comply with loan repayment terms by consequence of credit reporting and lawsuit.  In bankruptcy, secured debt is returned to creditor. Unsecured debt is discharged. (with the exception of student loans and child support). [UNSECURED CREDIT] LP9: CREDIT & BANKRUPTCY
  20. 20. II. Bankruptcy  Bankruptcy laws derive from the Constitution (Article 1, Section 8, Clause 4).  Designed to motivate debt repayment and productive wage earning.  Prior responses were debtor’s prisons, "sins of the father" and indentured servitude.  Federal law abolished debtor’s prisons in 1833; By 1850 most states had diminished penalties.  Imprisonment for debt usually limited now to failure to pay criminal fines or child support. [BANKRUPTCY] LP9: CREDIT & BANKRUPTCY
  21. 21. II. Bankruptcy A. Chap. 7: Fresh Start  Automatic Stay  Trustee  Secures Property You Want to Keep (Car)  Exception: Student Loans B. Chap 9: Reorganization of municipalities C. Chap. 11: Large Business Consolidation  Consolidate debt  Terminate contracts and leases  Recover assets  Reorganize operations [BANKRUPTCY] LP9: CREDIT & BANKRUPTCY
  22. 22. II. Bankruptcy D. Chap. 12: Regular Joe and Farmer Consolidation  Consolidate debt  Regular income  Family farmer or family fisherman with seasonal income E. Chap. 13: Prevent Foreclosure  Reorganize mortgage  Regular income  Income less than certain standard (means test) F. Chap. 15: Foreign Bankruptcy Filing and Protection  Prevents discrimination against foreign debtors  Allows foreign creditors to secure repayment [BANKRUPTCY] LP9: CREDIT & BANKRUPTCY
  23. 23. Business and Bankruptcy National American University LA3100 Instructor S. Johnston
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