Main ideas of ecosystem management• Ecosystems are multi-dimensional• Boundaries are only as real as you want them to be• Manage for overall integrity• Always collect and synthesize primary data• Engage in monitoring• Inter-Agency cooperation• Humans embedded in nature• Adaptive Management – experiment and learn• Open to organizational change as fits the system• Values are more important than facts and logic
Values and Goals• You get this from social, economic, and political• Most important• Not science or quantitative but drives everything
Planned (some forethought) vs NaturalExperiments (need long-termmonitoring before)
OpenShift ExampleAdaptive management and plannedexperiments
No differencedata: responses out of sentsample estimates:prop A prop B0.04800000 0.0533333395 percent confidence interval:-0.02169480 0.01102814X-squared = 0.3396, df = 1, p-value = 0.5601alternative hypothesis: two.sided Type I = saying there is a difference when there isn’t Type II = saying there is no difference when there is
What adaptations can you make based on knowledge gained?
Take homes• Be more quant• Do experiments don’t just do• Take advantage of natural experiments• Manage your ecosystem for key indicators• Diversity is important• Take the analogy of ecosystems farther and learn from them