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  1. 1. Graphene: enter to the 2D world Made by %username%
  2. 2. ⫸What is «graphene»?• Graphene is a single layer of graphite (structure like honeycomb). 2
  3. 3. ⫸Properties of graphene• Thinnest imaginable material (and first truly 2D material ever made)• Strongest material ever measured (theoretical limit)• Stiffest known material (stiffer than diamond)• Most stretchable crystal (up to 20% elastically)• Record thermal conductivity (outperforming diamond)• Highest current density at room temperature (million times of those in Cu) 3
  4. 4. • Conducts electricity in the limit of no electrons • Zero rest mass of charge carriers (not electrons!) • Largest surface area (~3,000 m^2 per gram) • Allows to observe quantum phenomena at room TThe electronic structure of graphene (sp2 hybridisation) 4
  5. 5. ⫸Biography of Prof. Andre K. Geim:from Ignoble to Nobel PrizeIn every pencilline we can observegraphene scales.Andre Geim & histeam done morethan just observe. 5
  6. 6. First slide from Geim’s Nobel lecture. 6
  7. 7. 1982 MIPT(«FizTeh») graduation. A. Geim: «The pressure to work and to study was so intense that it was not a rare thing for people to break and leave, and some of them ended up with everything from schizophrenia to depression to suicide.» 7
  8. 8. 1987 PhD at the Institute of Solid State Physics, Chernogolovka, RussiaA.Geim: «Message I took away: NEVER TORTURE STUDENTS WITH BORING/DEAD PROJECTS !» 8
  9. 9. • 1987-1990 Research Scientist at the Institute for Microelectronics Technology, Chernogolovka• 1990-1994 Postdoctoral Fellow at the Universities of Nottingham, Bath and Copenhagen• 1994 -2000 Associate Professor (UHD), University of Nijmegen, Netherlands• 2001 -2007 Professor of Physics, University of Manchester, UK• 2007 -2010 EPSRC Senior Research Fellow• since 2002 Director, Centre for Mesoscience & Nanotechnology, University of Manchester• since 2007 Langworthy Professor of Physics, University of Manchester, UK 9
  10. 10. • «Friday night experiments»+ Flying Frog (The Ignobel Prize in Physics 2000) In a magnetic field of about 0.1 Tesla (superconductivity) In a magnetic field of about 16 Tesla (molecular magnetism) 10
  11. 11. + Hamster as a PhD Student 11
  12. 12. + A Real Spider-Man (mimicking gecko foot) Hairs + Van der Waals force = Spider-Man ability Each hair producesArray of polyimide hairs a miniscule force ≈10^−7 N, ≈10 N cm^22 micron 12
  13. 13. + Scotch Tape Method making of graphene (first method)They find field-effect in samples and it wasthe main step to
  14. 14. «For groundbreaking experiments regarding thetwo-dimensional material graphene»
  15. 15. ⫸ApplicationsProperties: mechanical properties, electrical and thermal conductivityApplications: composite materials with superior mechanical properties, electrical and thermal conductivityGraphene paper from
  16. 16. Properties: electrical conductivity, optical transparencyApplications: transparent conductor (LCDs, touch-screens, solar cells, etc.)
  17. 17. Properties: electronic transport properties, 2D natureApplications: chemical sensorsProperties: outstanding mobility, good transconductance, ultimate thicknessApplications: high-frequency electronicsMIT graphene transistor (1000 GHz)
  18. 18. Sources:⫸REVIEWS OF MODERN PHYSICS, VOLUME 83, JULY–SEPTEMBER 2011// Nobel Lecture: Random walk to graphene// Andre K. Geim⫸NATURE NANOTECHNOLOGY | ADVANCE ONLINE PUBLICATION | // Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes⫸A.Geim’s Nobel lecture slides⫸GRAPHENE: MATERIALS IN THE FLATLAND// Nobel Lecture, December 8, 2010 By KONSTANTIN S. NOVOSELOV⫸Tuning electronic properties of graphene by confinement and disorder, Oleg Yazyev// Department of Physics University of California, Berkeley// Materials Sciences Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  19. 19. Thank you!Questions?