Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Pr...
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Pr...
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Pr...
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Pr...
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Pr...
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Pr...
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Pr...
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Pr...
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Pr...
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Pr...
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
 New Area of Focus: Genetics
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Please list three physical and behavioral
similarities you have with your parents or
siblings.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. ...
• Is there anyone in this class who shares
similar genetic traits to you……? Ummm?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Can you do any of the following?
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Can you do any of the following?
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Can you do any of the following?
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Can you do any of the following?
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Can you do any of the following?
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Genetics Available Sheets
• Genetics Available Sheets
What is your number 1-50?
Does anyone share your number?
Go one step at a time from the
middle outward toward your genetic
number.
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
• This unit has a lot of difficult vocabulary.
• This unit has a lot of difficult vocabulary.
– Learning and understanding the meaning of
these words is the key to succe...
• Video Link! Genetics 101 Part I
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xlR6GkE6lg
o&feature=related
• Genetics Available Sheets
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
 Traits:
 Heredity:
 Purebred:
 Genes:
 Alleles:
 Genotype:
 Phenotype:
 Homozygous:
 Heterozygous:
 Dominant Al...
• Student volunteers will be asked to do
some reading over the next set of slides.
• Student volunteers will be asked to do
some reading over the next set of slides.
• Student volunteers will be asked to do
some reading over the next set of slides.
“The definitions to the
important
vocab...
• Gregor Mendel: The father of modern
Genetics.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• He counted his results and kept statistical
notes.
– Much like your science journal.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The year was 1851, a young priest from
Vienna studied mathematics and science
at the university.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P....
• The year was 1851, a young priest from
Vienna studied mathematics and science
at the university. Upon finishing, he went...
• The year was 1851, a young priest from
Vienna studied mathematics and science
at the university. Upon finishing, he went...
• He worked with pea plants and became
curious as to why some pea plants had
different characteristics or traits.
Copyrigh...
• He worked with pea plants and became
curious as to why some pea plants had
different characteristics or traits.
Copyrigh...
• Video Link! Genetics 101 Part II SNP’s
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=51q6fsfPkJI
&feature=related
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Does anyone know what this is?
– Hint, It has to do with selective breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This is a device used to collect semen (sperm)
from prize animals for selective breeding.
– People pay big dollars for p...
• Selective Breeding: The intentional breeding of
organisms with desirable traits in an attempt to
produce offspring with ...
• Corn 6,000 to 10,000 years ago looked much
different than it does today.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Corn 6,000 to 10,000 years ago looked much
different than it does today.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Corn 6,000 to 10,000 years ago looked much
different than it does today.
– By breeding the best corn species of a crop t...
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Copyr...
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Copyr...
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Copyr...
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Copyr...
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Copyr...
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Copyr...
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Copyr...
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Copyr...
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unit...
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unit...
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unit...
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unit...
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unit...
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unit...
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unit...
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unit...
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unit...
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unit...
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unit...
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unit...
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unit...
• Mendel started doing experiments with
purebred plants, or plants that always
produce offspring with the same trait as
th...
• Mendel started doing experiments with
purebred plants, or plants that always
produce offspring with the same trait as
th...
• For example, short pea plants always
produce short offspring. Mendel then
decided to cross short pea plants with tall
pe...
• For example, short pea plants always
produce short offspring. Mendel then
decided to cross short pea plants with tall
pe...
• For example, short pea plants always
produce short offspring. Mendel then
decided to cross short pea plants with tall
pe...
• For example, short pea plants always
produce short offspring. Mendel then
decided to cross short pea plants with tall
pe...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) A...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) A...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) A...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) A...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) A...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) A...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) A...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) A...
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
“What the
heck is
going on
here?”
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This confused Mendel. He then decided to
breed all of these tall plants.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This confused Mendel. He then decided to
breed all of these tall plants.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This confused Mendel. He then decided to
breed all of these tall plants.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some ...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some ...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some ...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some ...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some ...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some ...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some ...
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some ...
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
“Wait a
minute, the
information for
the small plants
was hidden in
the all tall
generation”
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• In the next F2 generation, ¼ of the pea
plants were short, ¾ were tall.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The shortness was hidden (not gone) the
time he bred the tall and short and got all tall.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• An organisms phenotype is its physical
appearance or its visible traits.
• An organisms phenotype is its physical
appearance or its visible traits.
• What are some of your phenotypes?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What are some of your phenotypes?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
PTC?
“Hey”
• Video Link! Genetics 101 Part IV Phenotypes
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHWJqzlHl3w
• An organisms genotype is its genetic
makeup, or allele combinations
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• An organisms genotype is its genetic
makeup, or allele combinations
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Learn more about genotype and
phenotype and the flow of information
at…
http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/B
ioInfo/SD.Ge...
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA through transcription makes mRNA.
– mRNA = Messenger RNA.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• mRNA through translation makes proteins
with the help of ribosomes.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• .
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Video Link! (Optional) Transcription,
Translation Crash Course.
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=itsb2SqR-R0
• DNA replication: The double helix is
unwound and bases are matched to create a
new identical strand.
• DNA replication: The double helix is
unwound and bases are matched to create a
new identical strand. Hopefully 
• Proteins and enzymes pull DNA strands
apart.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Proteins and enzymes pull DNA strands
apart.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Transcription is when a segment of DNA is
c...
• Activity! Each group 1-5 needs to verbalize to
the class the corresponding base pair before
it attaches to the DNA.
– Te...
• Primers add new nucleotides A-T, C-G
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Nucleus: Largest organelle in the cell
– (dark spot)
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Contains genetic information (DNA)
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA makes RNA which make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Proteins: Very important for cell functions.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Proteins: Very important for cell functions.
–Anything that you can describe happening
in a living organism, most likely...
• Chromosomes / Chromatin.
• Contains genetic information.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Contains genetic information.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Contains genetic information.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Video! DNA wrapping
– How does DNA fit a lot of information into a small
space?
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OjPcT1u...
• Composed of DNA
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Thicken for cellular division.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Thicken for cellular division.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Set number per species.
– Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs).
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Set number per species.
– Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs).
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Set number per species.
– Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs).
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Set number per species.
– Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs).
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Set number per species.
– Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs).
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Round dark spot shape in nucleus.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Only visible when cell is not dividing.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Activity! Chromatin and Chromosomes
– Teacher cuts each group large length of string.
(several meters)
• Activity! Chromatin and Chromosomes
– Teacher cuts each group large length of string.
(several meters)
– Students wind c...
• Activity! Chromatin and Chromosomes
– Teacher cuts each group large length of string.
(several meters)
– Students wind c...
• Contains RNA for protein manufacturing.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Makes ribosomes that travel out of nucleus.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Makes ribosomes that travel out of nucleus.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Makes ribosomes that travel out of nucleus.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Ribosomes attach outside of nucleus and
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Each cell contains thousands.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Each cell contains thousands.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Each cell contains thousands.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Each cell contains thousands.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Each cell contains thousands.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Amino Acids: The building blocks of
proteins. 20 variations.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Composes 25% of cell's mass.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Most are embedded in rough
endoplasmic reticulum. Some free in
cytoplasm.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Site of Protein Synthesis.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Site of Protein Synthesis.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Miniature protein factories (Protein synthesis).
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Proteins (ONCH) are very important to our
cells and body.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA makes RNA, RNA has information to make
proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Draw Ribosomes and mRNA zipper.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Activity! Techno Dance, Nucleus, E.R, and
Ribosomes,
– Create nucleus and nucleolus in classroom and place two
students ...
Nucleus
Nucleus
Nucleus Nucleolus
Nucleus Nucleolus
Nuclear Membrane
Nucleus Nucleolus
Nuclear Membrane
Nuclear Pores
Spin and
dance
(student)
Protein
Synthesis
Protein
Synthesis
• If you stand around and act bored than you
can never complain about this class being
boring.
– I am playing techno music...
• Some background music for this dance.
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GoEjVF8_LYg
 Protein Synthesis:
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
DNA is unwound
and mRNA is
prod...
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA directs cellular organelles called
rib...
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA directs cellular organelles called
rib...
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA directs cellular organelles called
rib...
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA directs cellular organelles called
rib...
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA directs cellular organelles called
rib...
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA directs cellular organelles called
rib...
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA directs cellular organelles called
rib...
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA directs cellular organelles called
rib...
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA directs cellular organelles called
rib...
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA directs cellular organelles called
rib...
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA directs cellular organelles called
rib...
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA directs cellular organelles called
rib...
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
the genetic code carried by messenger
RNA directs cellular organelles called
rib...
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Each triplet / codon matches with
a the opposite pair on mRNA
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Each triplet / codon matches with
a the opposite pair on mRNA
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Each triplet / codon matches with
a the opposite pair on mRNA
A
mi
no
Ac
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Each triplet / codon matches with
a the opposite pair on mRNA
A
mi
no
Ac
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Each triplet / codon matches with
a the opposite pair on mRNA
A
mi
no
Ac
Amino
Acid
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
A
mi
no
Ac
Amino
Acid
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
A
mi
no
Ac
Amino
Acid
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
A
mi
no
Ac
Amino
Acid
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
A
mi
no
Ac
Amino
Acid
 Protein Synthesis: The process in which
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
A
mi
no
Ac
Amino
Acid
• Step by step drawing of Protein Synthesis.
Complete mRNA however you wish.
• Proteins Synthesis Animation.
– To make proteins.
– Ribosomes are units that help read RNA.
– RNA is the information cod...
• Video! Protein Synthesis
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJxobgkPEAo
• Protien Synthesis! Crazy video from 70’s
(Optional)
– Question? How are proteins made?
– What was higher education like ...
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• An organism’s genotype is its genetic
makeup, or allele combinations
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• An organism’s genotype is its genetic
makeup, or allele combinations
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• An organism’s genotype is its genetic
makeup, or allele combinations
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• From all of Mendel’s’ results, he reasoned
that individual factors must control the
inheritance of traits in peas.
Copyr...
• From all of Mendel’s’ results, he reasoned
that individual factors must control the
inheritance of traits in peas. Mende...
• From all of Mendel’s’ results, he reasoned
that individual factors must control the
inheritance of traits in peas. Mende...
• From all of Mendel’s’ results, he reasoned
that individual factors must control the
inheritance of traits in peas. Mende...
• From all of Mendel’s’ results, he reasoned
that individual factors must control the
inheritance of traits in peas. Mende...
• From all of Mendel’s’ results, he reasoned
that individual factors must control the
inheritance of traits in peas. Mende...
• Warning! Real Images of bacteria
Reproduction!
“Please don’t
watch me.”
“Fission is so
awkward.”
• What are these bacteria missing that you
and I have to make babies?
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Answer!
• A Pee-pee-dee-pee and Ahoosy ma whatsy.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Binary Fission: The process by which a
bacterium multiplies by splitting in two.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• In asexual reproduction, one individual
produces offspring that are genetically
identical to itself.
Copyright © 2010 Ry...
• Sexual Reproduction: Genetic material from
two different individuals combines into a
genetically unique offspring.
Copyr...
• Sexual Reproduction: Genetic material from
two different individuals combines into a
genetically unique offspring.
Copyr...
• Sexual Reproduction: Genetic material from
two different individuals combines into a
genetically unique offspring.
Copyr...
• Sexual Reproduction: Genetic material from
two different individuals combines into a
genetically unique offspring.
Copyr...
• Which animation is sexual reproduction
and which is asexual?
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Which animation is sexual reproduction
and which is asexual?
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Sexual Reproduction
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Some bacteria use Conjugation
– (Still considered asexual)
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• A few ways animals reproduce without two
parents.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Budding: Offspring develop as a growth on
the body of the parent.
• Budding: Offspring develop as a growth on
the body of the parent.
Offspring
• Fragmentation: As certain tiny worms grow
to full size, they spontaneously break up
into 8 or 9 pieces.
Copyright © 2010...
• Fragmentation: As certain tiny worms grow
to full size, they spontaneously break up
into 8 or 9 pieces. Each of these fr...
• Fragmentation: As certain tiny worms grow
to full size, they spontaneously break up
into 8 or 9 pieces. Each of these fr...
• Fragmentation: As certain tiny worms grow
to full size, they spontaneously break up
into 8 or 9 pieces. Each of these fr...
• Fragmentation: As certain tiny worms grow
to full size, they spontaneously break up
into 8 or 9 pieces. Each of these fr...
• Parthenogenesis ("virgin birth"), the
females produce eggs, but these develop
into young without ever being fertilized.
...
• Parthenogenesis ("virgin birth"), the
females produce eggs, but these develop
into young without ever being fertilized.
...
• Parthenogenesis ("virgin birth"), the
females produce eggs, but these develop
into young without ever being fertilized.
...
• Parthenogenesis ("virgin birth"), the
females produce eggs, but these develop
into young without ever being fertilized.
...
• Parthenogenesis ("virgin birth"), the
females produce eggs, but these develop
into young without ever being fertilized.
...
• Parthenogenesis ("virgin birth"), the
females produce eggs, but these develop
into young without ever being fertilized.
...
• Parthenogenesis ("virgin birth"), the
females produce eggs, but these develop
into young without ever being fertilized.
...
• Parthenogenesis ("virgin birth"), the
females produce eggs, but these develop
into young without ever being fertilized.
...
“Check out my
snazzy genes.”
• Today’s scientists call the factors that
control traits genes.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Today’s scientists call the factors that
control traits genes.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Today’s scientists call the factors that
control traits genes.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Today’s scientists call the factors that
control traits genes.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
“Does this
help?”
• Video Where do your genes come from?
• Video Link! Genetics 101 Part III, Where do
your genes come from?
– http://www.yo...
• Video Where do your genes come from?
• Video Link! Genetics 101 Part III, Where do
your genes come from?
– http://www.yo...
• Video Where do your genes come from?
• Video Link! Genetics 101 Part III, Where do
your genes come from?
– http://www.yo...
• Scientists call the different forms of a gene
alleles.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Scientists call the different forms of a gene
alleles.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• A dominant allele is one whose trait
always shows up in the organism when
the allele is present.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P....
• A dominant allele is one whose trait
always shows up in the organism when
the allele is present.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P....
• A dominant allele is one whose trait
always shows up in the organism when
the allele is present.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P....
• A dominant allele is one whose trait
always shows up in the organism when
the allele is present.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P....
• A recessive allele is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it. A hybrid has
two different alleles
Copyright© 2010...
• A recessive allele is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it. A hybrid has
two different alleles
Copyright© 2010...
• A recessive allele is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it. A hybrid has
two different alleles
Copyright© 2010...
• A recessive allele is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it. A hybrid has
two different alleles
Copyright© 2010...
• A recessive allele is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it. A hybrid has
two different alleles
Copyright© 2010...
“That’s it, the
small pea
plants were
recessive and
didn’t appear
because the tall
were dominant”
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. ...
“Glad I didn’t
Just get
frustrated
and quit.”
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
• TT = Two dominant
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
• TT = Two dominant
• tt = Two recessive
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
• TT = Two dominant
• tt = Two recessive
• Tt = One dominant, one recessive
Copyright© 2010...
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
• TT = Two dominant
• tt = Two recessive
• Tt = One dominant, one recessive
Copyright© 2010...
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
• TT = Two dominant
• tt = Two recessive
• Tt = One dominant, one recessive
Copyright© 2010...
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
• TT = Two dominant
• tt = Two recessive
• Tt = One dominant, one recessive
Copyright© 2010...
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
• TT = Two dominant
• tt = Two recessive
• Tt = One dominant, one recessive
Copyright© 2010...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele ...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele ...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele ...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele ...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele ...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele ...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele ...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearan...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearan...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearan...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearan...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearan...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearan...
• Vocabulary Review. Answer is…
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physic...
• Vocabulary Review. Answer is…
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physic...
• Vocabulary Review. Answer is…
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physic...
• Vocabulary Review. Answer is…
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physic...
• Vocabulary Review. Answer is…
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physic...
• Vocabulary Review. Answer is…
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physic...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are p...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are p...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are p...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are p...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are p...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are p...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are p...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are p...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are p...
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are p...
• You can now complete page 9 of your
bundled homework.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square: A diagram that is used to
predict the outcome of a particular cross
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square: A diagram that is used to
predict the outcome of a particular cross
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square: A diagram that is used to
predict the outcome of a particular cross
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Video Link! Khan Academy “Punnett
Squares.” (Advanced)
– http://www.khanacademy.org/video/punnett-
square-fun?playlist=B...
• Genetics Available Sheets
• When a man and women decide to have a
child, who determines the gender?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Who
determines
gender?
• Answer! The male, he is the only one who
carries the Y chromosome.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Answer! The male, he is the only one who
carries the Y chromosome. If he gives the
X it is female, if he gives the Y it ...
• Answer! The male, he is the only one who
carries the Y chromosome. If he gives the
X it is female, if he gives the Y it ...
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• In some cultures, women are harassed
and looked down upon when they give
birth to a daughter.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Mu...
• In some cultures, women are harassed
and looked down upon when they give
birth to a daughter.
“I’m too ignorant
to under...
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Really interesting NPR (Radio Lab) Science
Friday. (Optional) Adult Content
– Genghis Khan, the Y chromosome and his 16
...
• Now, the probability that if you flip a coin
four times, is that 50% will land on
heads, and 50% will land tails.
Copyri...
• Now, the probability that if you flip a coin
four times, is that 50% will land on
heads, and 50% will land tails.
– Let’...
• Genetics deals heavily with probability, or
the likelihood that a particular event will
occur.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. M...
• Genetics deals heavily with probability, or
the likelihood that a particular event will
occur.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. M...
• What is the probability that a dice will land
on 6?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Answer: The odds and 1-6 or 16.67%
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Answer: The odds and 1-6 or 16.67%
• Anyone want to bet against me that I roll a
6? I only get one chance? Are the odds
...
• And the winner is…
• And the winner is…
• People who look at this machine do not
understand probability.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This machine keeps track of the colors
and numbers on roulette.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This machine keeps track of the colors
and numbers on roulette.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This machine keeps track of the colors
and numbers on roulette.
– “Hey Jimmy, the history board shows that red
hasn’t co...
• History doesn’t determine probability in
mathematics. If the probability is 50/50, it
will always be 50/50. Black will b...
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
“Dude” “Black is hot right
now.” “Bet Black.”
• Roulette isn’t a 50/50 chance of winning
because of the two green slots is where
the house wins if you didn’t place your...
• Roulette isn’t a 50/50 chance of winning
because of the two green slots is where
the house wins if you didn’t place your...
“Jeepers!” “Probability
showed I would lose
and I did.” “How did
this happen?”
• Activity! Visit a virtual coin flip engine
online.
– What are the odds of flipping heads on a coin
10 times?
– What are ...
• Activity! Visit a virtual coin flip engine
online.
– What are the odds of flipping heads on a coin
10 times? 5/10 50/50
...
• Activity! Visit a virtual coin flip engine
online.
– What are the odds of flipping heads on a coin
10 times? 5/10 50/50
...
• Activity! Visit a virtual coin flip engine
online.
– What are the odds of flipping heads on a coin
10 times? 5/10 50/50
...
• The more numbers you get, the true
probability becomes more apparent or
accurate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous- Has two identical
alleles TT or tt
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous- Has two identical
alleles TT or tt
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous- Has two identical
alleles TT or tt
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous Dominant: All dominant /
Capital Letters.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous Dominant: All dominant /
Capital Letters.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous Dominant: All dominant /
Capital Letters.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous Dominant: All dominant /
Capital Letters.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Heterozygous: Has two different alleles
Tt, One capital, and one lower case.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Heterozygous: Has two different alleles
Tt, One capital, and one lower case.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Heterozygous: Has two different alleles
Tt, One capital, and one lower case.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Which boxes are homozygous recessive?
1 2
3 4
• Which boxes are homozygous recessive?
1 2
3 4
• In asexual reproduction, the offspring are
identical to the parent.
• In asexual reproduction, the offspring are
identical to the parent.
• In asexual reproduction, the offspring are
identical to the parent.
• In asexual reproduction, the offspring are
identical to the parent.
• In asexual reproduction, the offspring are
identical to the parent.
• Genetics Available Sheets
• Quiz Wiz 1-10 Answers will follow each
questions.
– Word Bank: Homozygous
Dominant, Homozygous
recessive, heterozygous.
...
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Bonus – Name the Movie
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Bonus: The Princess Bride,
• Rob Reiner (1987)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one Punnett Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one Punnett Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. M...
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. M...
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
Copyright© ...
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human...
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human...
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human...
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human...
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human...
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human...
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human...
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human...
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human...
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human...
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• H = Human...
• Video Link (Optional) Heredity – Khan
Academy
– http://www.khanacademy.org/video/introducti
on-to-heredity?playlist=Biol...
• Activity Sheet! Designing your child with
dominant and recessive traits.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Designing your child Activity – Use Face
Creator
– (Print screen and paste to paint, then crop
and print). Or use poster...
• You can now complete the top of page 10
of your bundled homework.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Genetics Available Sheets
• Video Link! Punnett Squares.
– Pause at dihybrid cross (6:50). This slide will
appear again.
– http://www.youtube.com/wa...
• Who here owns a pet?
• We just bought some gerbils (brother and
sister) from the pet store.
– Both gerbils are black in color.
Copyright© 2010 ...
• Black BB Black Bb
• Homozygous Heterozygous
Dominant
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Black BB Black Bb
• Homozygous Heterozygous
Dominant
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Black BB Black Bb
• Homozygous Heterozygous
Dominant
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Nobody at the pet store wanted this one.
– Homozygous recessive is bb, and the gerbil
will be white.
Copyright© 2010 Rya...
• The gerbils explored the cage for a few
hours, ate some food, drank some
water, and then…
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Do the Punnett Square, BB and Bb
– B = Black Dominant
– bb = White Recessive
 Probability of outcome is:
B b
B
B
BB Bb
...
• Do the Punnett Square, BB and Bb
– B = Black Dominant
– bb = White Recessive
 Probability of outcome is:
B b
B
B
BB Bb
...
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Genetics Unit Lesson PowerPoint

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This PowerPoint was one very small part of my DNA and Genetics from the website http://sciencepowerpoint.com/index.html . Teaching Duration = 4+ Weeks
A five part, 3,000+ Slide PowerPoint roadmap delivers daily lessons full of meaningful hands-on activities, important red slide notes, built-in quizzes, video links, projects, 3 PowerPoint Review Games with Answers, discussion questions and much more. A homework package and detailed lesson notes chronologically follow the PowerPoint slideshow

The DNA and Genetics Unit covers science topics associated with the DNA molecule, discovery of DNA, DNA's structure, cellular division, cancer, dangers of smoking, meiosis, and genetics. This unit includes a five part interactive and engaging PowerPoint Presentation of 2000+ slides with built-in class notes (Red Slides), lab activities, project ideas, discussion questions, assessments (Quiz Wiz), challenge questions with answers, video links, and much more. Text is in large print (32 font) and is placed at the top of each slide so it can read from all angles of a classroom. A shade technique and color coded text helps to increase student focus and allows the teacher to control the pace of the lesson. The entire unit except for the videos can be edited to fit any curriculum or time requirement. Also included is a 14 page assessment that chronologically goes with the slideshow for nightly homework, as well as an 8 page modified assessment. 12 pages of class notes with images are also included for students who require modifications, as well as answer keys to both of the assessments for support professionals, teachers, and homeschool parents. 13 video links (.flv files) are provided and a slide within the slideshow cues teacher / parent when the videos are most relevant to play. Video shorts usually range from 2-7 minutes (internet connection needed). One PowerPoint review game is included (125+ slides). Answers to the PowerPoint review game are provided in PowerPoint form so students can self-assess. Lastly, several class games such as guess the hidden picture beneath the boxes, and the find the hidden owl somewhere within the slideshow are provided. Difficulty rating 9/10.

Areas of Focus within The DNA and Genetics Unit:
DNA, DNA Extraction, Structure of DNA, Transcription and Translation, Protein Synthesis, Discovery of the Double Helix, Rosalind Franklin, Nucleotides, RNA, Cell Division, Mitosis, Phases of Mitosis, Chromosomes, Cancer, Ways to Avoid Cancer, What's Inside a Cigarette?, Statistics about Smoking, Anti-Smoking Ads, Meiosis, Phases in Meiosis, Mendelian Genetics, Gregor Mendel, Punnett Squares, Probability, Dihybrid Cross, Codominance, Bio-Ethics, Stem Cell Debate, Cloning Debate.
Sincerely,
Ryan Murphy M.Ed
www.sciencepowerpoint@gmail.com

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Genetics Unit Lesson PowerPoint

  1. 1. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  2. 2. • Part V of this unit will cover… – Some common phenotypes – Genetics and Vocabulary – Gregor Mendel – Genetic Basics – Probability – Punnett Squares – Genetic Disorders – Bioethics
  3. 3. • Part V of this unit will cover… – Some common phenotypes – Genetics and Vocabulary – Gregor Mendel – Genetic Basics – Probability – Punnett Squares – Genetic Disorders – Bioethics
  4. 4. • Part V of this unit will cover… – Some common phenotypes – Genetics and Vocabulary – Gregor Mendel – Genetic Basics – Probability – Punnett Squares – Genetic Disorders – Bioethics
  5. 5. • Part V of this unit will cover… – Some common phenotypes – Genetics and Vocabulary – Gregor Mendel – Genetic Basics – Probability – Punnett Squares – Genetic Disorders – Bioethics
  6. 6. • Part V of this unit will cover… – Some common phenotypes – Genetics and Vocabulary – Gregor Mendel – Genetic Basics – Probability – Punnett Squares – Genetic Disorders – Bioethics
  7. 7. • Part V of this unit will cover… – Some common phenotypes – Genetics and Vocabulary – Gregor Mendel – Genetic Basics – Probability – Punnett Squares – Genetic Disorders – Bioethics
  8. 8. • Part V of this unit will cover… – Some common phenotypes – Genetics and Vocabulary – Gregor Mendel – Genetic Basics – Probability – Punnett Squares – Genetic Disorders – Bioethics
  9. 9. • Part V of this unit will cover… – Some common phenotypes – Genetics and Vocabulary – Gregor Mendel – Genetic Basics – Probability – Punnett Squares – Genetic Disorders – Bioethics
  10. 10. • Part V of this unit will cover… – Some common phenotypes – Genetics and Vocabulary – Gregor Mendel – Genetic Basics – Probability – Punnett Squares – Genetic Disorders – Bioethics
  11. 11. • Part V of this unit will cover… – Some common phenotypes – Genetics and Vocabulary – Gregor Mendel – Genetic Basics – Probability – Punnett Squares – Genetic Disorders – Bioethics
  12. 12. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  13. 13.  New Area of Focus: Genetics Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  14. 14. • Please list three physical and behavioral similarities you have with your parents or siblings. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  15. 15. • Is there anyone in this class who shares similar genetic traits to you……? Ummm? Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  16. 16. • Can you do any of the following? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  17. 17. • Can you do any of the following? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  18. 18. • Can you do any of the following? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  19. 19. • Can you do any of the following? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  20. 20. • Can you do any of the following? Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  21. 21. • Genetics Available Sheets
  22. 22. • Genetics Available Sheets
  23. 23. What is your number 1-50? Does anyone share your number?
  24. 24. Go one step at a time from the middle outward toward your genetic number.
  25. 25. Example
  26. 26. Example
  27. 27. Example
  28. 28. Example
  29. 29. Example
  30. 30. Example
  31. 31. Example
  32. 32. Example
  33. 33. Example
  34. 34. Example
  35. 35. Example
  36. 36. Example
  37. 37. Example
  38. 38. Example
  39. 39. Example
  40. 40. Example
  41. 41. • This unit has a lot of difficult vocabulary.
  42. 42. • This unit has a lot of difficult vocabulary. – Learning and understanding the meaning of these words is the key to success.
  43. 43. • Video Link! Genetics 101 Part I – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xlR6GkE6lg o&feature=related
  44. 44. • Genetics Available Sheets
  45. 45.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy  Record these words in your science journal. Leave a line for their definition.
  46. 46.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  47. 47.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  48. 48.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  49. 49.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  50. 50.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  51. 51.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  52. 52.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  53. 53.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  54. 54.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  55. 55.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  56. 56.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  57. 57.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  58. 58.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  59. 59.  Traits:  Heredity:  Purebred:  Genes:  Alleles:  Genotype:  Phenotype:  Homozygous:  Heterozygous:  Dominant Alleles:  Recessive Alleles:  Hybrids:  Probability: Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  60. 60. • Student volunteers will be asked to do some reading over the next set of slides.
  61. 61. • Student volunteers will be asked to do some reading over the next set of slides.
  62. 62. • Student volunteers will be asked to do some reading over the next set of slides. “The definitions to the important vocabulary will be highlighted in blue.”
  63. 63. • Gregor Mendel: The father of modern Genetics. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  64. 64. • He counted his results and kept statistical notes. – Much like your science journal. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  65. 65. • The year was 1851, a young priest from Vienna studied mathematics and science at the university. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  66. 66. • The year was 1851, a young priest from Vienna studied mathematics and science at the university. Upon finishing, he went back to priesthood and tended a garden outside of the monastery. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  67. 67. • The year was 1851, a young priest from Vienna studied mathematics and science at the university. Upon finishing, he went back to priesthood and tended a garden outside of the monastery. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Learn more about Gregor Mendel at… http://www.biography.com/peo ple/gregor-mendel- 39282?page=1
  68. 68. • He worked with pea plants and became curious as to why some pea plants had different characteristics or traits. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  69. 69. • He worked with pea plants and became curious as to why some pea plants had different characteristics or traits. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  70. 70. • Video Link! Genetics 101 Part II SNP’s – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=51q6fsfPkJI &feature=related
  71. 71. • The change in species can occur through selective breeding. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  72. 72. • The change in species can occur through selective breeding. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  73. 73. • The change in species can occur through selective breeding. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  74. 74. • The change in species can occur through selective breeding. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  75. 75. • The change in species can occur through selective breeding. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  76. 76. • The change in species can occur through selective breeding. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  77. 77. • The change in species can occur through selective breeding. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  78. 78. • The change in species can occur through selective breeding. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  79. 79. • Does anyone know what this is? – Hint, It has to do with selective breeding. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  80. 80. • This is a device used to collect semen (sperm) from prize animals for selective breeding. – People pay big dollars for prize genes. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  81. 81. • Selective Breeding: The intentional breeding of organisms with desirable traits in an attempt to produce offspring with similar desirable characteristics or with improved traits. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  82. 82. • Corn 6,000 to 10,000 years ago looked much different than it does today. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  83. 83. • Corn 6,000 to 10,000 years ago looked much different than it does today. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  84. 84. • Corn 6,000 to 10,000 years ago looked much different than it does today. – By breeding the best corn species of a crop together over thousands of years, the edible part has become much larger. Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  85. 85. • Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants tended to pass traits from parents to offspring, which is called heredity. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  86. 86. • Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants tended to pass traits from parents to offspring, which is called heredity. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Segregation: Separation of genes into different gametes during meiosis
  87. 87. • Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants tended to pass traits from parents to offspring, which is called heredity. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Segregation: Separation of genes into different gametes during meiosis
  88. 88. • Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants tended to pass traits from parents to offspring, which is called heredity. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Segregation: Separation of genes into different gametes during meiosis
  89. 89. • Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants tended to pass traits from parents to offspring, which is called heredity. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Segregation: Separation of genes into different gametes during meiosis
  90. 90. • Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants tended to pass traits from parents to offspring, which is called heredity. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Segregation: Separation of genes into different gametes during meiosis
  91. 91. • Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants tended to pass traits from parents to offspring, which is called heredity. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Segregation: Separation of genes into different gametes during meiosis
  92. 92. • Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants tended to pass traits from parents to offspring, which is called heredity. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Segregation: Separation of genes into different gametes during meiosis
  93. 93. • Law of segregation (Heredity), states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. – A gene can exist in more than one form. – Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait. – When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. – When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive.
  94. 94. • Law of segregation (Heredity), states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. – A gene can exist in more than one form. – Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait. – When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. – When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive.
  95. 95. • Law of segregation (Heredity), states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. – A gene can exist in more than one form. – Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait. – When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. – When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive.
  96. 96. • Law of segregation (Heredity), states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. – A gene can exist in more than one form. – Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait. – When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. – When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive. Which one will fertilize?
  97. 97. • Law of segregation (Heredity), states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. – A gene can exist in more than one form. – Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait. – When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. – When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive.
  98. 98. • Law of segregation (Heredity), states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. – A gene can exist in more than one form. – Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait. – When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. – When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive.
  99. 99. • Law of segregation (Heredity), states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. – A gene can exist in more than one form. – Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait. – When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. – When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive.
  100. 100. • Law of segregation (Heredity), states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. – A gene can exist in more than one form. – Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait. – When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. – When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive.
  101. 101. • Law of segregation (Heredity), states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. – A gene can exist in more than one form. – Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait. – When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. – When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive. Which will fertilize? Which will fertilize?
  102. 102. • Law of segregation (Heredity), states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. – A gene can exist in more than one form. – Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait. – When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. – When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive.
  103. 103. • Law of segregation (Heredity), states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. – A gene can exist in more than one form. – Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait. – When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. – When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive.
  104. 104. • Law of segregation (Heredity), states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. – A gene can exist in more than one form. – Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait. – When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. – When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive.
  105. 105. • Law of segregation (Heredity), states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. – A gene can exist in more than one form. – Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait. – When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele pairs separate leaving each cell with a single allele for each trait. – When the two alleles of a pair are different, one is dominant and the other is recessive.
  106. 106. • Mendel started doing experiments with purebred plants, or plants that always produce offspring with the same trait as the parent. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  107. 107. • Mendel started doing experiments with purebred plants, or plants that always produce offspring with the same trait as the parent. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  108. 108. • For example, short pea plants always produce short offspring. Mendel then decided to cross short pea plants with tall pea plants. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
  109. 109. • For example, short pea plants always produce short offspring. Mendel then decided to cross short pea plants with tall pea plants. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Tall
  110. 110. • For example, short pea plants always produce short offspring. Mendel then decided to cross short pea plants with tall pea plants. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Tall Short
  111. 111. • For example, short pea plants always produce short offspring. Mendel then decided to cross short pea plants with tall pea plants. Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Tall Short