Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcomes (PLO’s) are able to:
Analyze the structure and function of biological molecules in living systems, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
Demonstrate a knowledge of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis as applied to organic polymers.
Differentiate among carbohydrates , lipids , proteins , and nucleic acids with respect to chemical structure.
Recognize the following molecules in structural diagrams:
ATP DNA disaccharide glucose glycerol
Hemoglobin monosaccharide neutral fat
phospholipid polysaccharide (glycogen, starch and cellulose)
ribose RNA saturated & unsaturated fatty acids
Recognize the empirical formula of a monosaccharide as C n H 2n O n .
List the main functions of carbohydrates.
Differentiate among monosaccharides (e.g. glucose), disaccharides (e.g. maltose), and polysaccharides.
Differentiate among starch, cellulose, and glycogen with respect to function, type of bonding and level of branching.
Describe the location, structure and function of the following in the human body: neutral fats, steroids, and phospholipids.
Compare saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in terms of molecular structure.
And….more PLO’s…this is a big unit!!
List the major functions of proteins.
Draw a generalized amino acid and identify the amine, acid (carboxyl), and R-groups.
Identify the peptide bonds in dipeptides and polypeptides.
Differentiate among the following levels of protein organization with respect to structure and types of bonding: primary, secondary (alpha helix, beta pleated sheet), tertiary, and quaternary (e.g. hemoglobin).
List the major functions of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA).
Name the four nitrogenous bases in ribonucleic acid (RNA) and describe the structure of RNA using the following terms:
Compare the general structural composition of DNA and RNA.
Relate the general structure of the ATP molecule to its role as the “energy currency” of cells.
So here we go!!
1) Organic Molecules
Only the molecules that contain carbon .
Usually associated with the following elements: H, O, S, N, and P .
2) Biological Molecules
These are organic molecules essential to life and are divided into four classes:
Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic acids .
The building blocks/ unit molecules of organic/biological molecules.
The digestive system breaks down food into monomers through hydrolysis reactions.
Includes the following: amino acids , monosaccharides/glucose , fatty acids , glycerol , and nucleotides .
SAT prepping kid #1: What's 'hydrolysis'?
SAT prepping kid #2: Dude, don't you play Grand Theft Auto? Hydrolysis is what makes the cars bump up and down.
SAT prepping kid #3: Um ... Hydrolysis is the splitting of things in water.
SAT prepping kid #2: Whatever. Same thing.
Examples of hydraulics…I mean hydrolysis
phospholipids + H 2 O hydrolysis glycerol + fatty acids (polymer) (monomers)
maltose + H 2 O hydrolysis glucose + glucose
Monomers bonded together to make larger molecules through synthesis reactions.
Enzymes, collagen, keratin, anti-bodies, hormones, hemoglobin (Hb), starch, cellulose, glycogen, neutral fats (triglycerides), phospholipids, steroids, DNA ( D eoxyribo n ucleic a cid), RNA ( R ibo n ucleic a cid), ATP ( A denosine t ri p hosphate).
áá1 + áá2 + áá3 dehydration synthesis Polymer/protein + H 2 O
glucose + glucose dehydration synthesis Polymer/maltose + H 2 O
‘ organic polymers ’ are therefore macromolecules consisting of the elements C, H, O, N, P, and/or S.
Organic polymers include proteins , carbohydrates , lipids and nucleic acids . These polymers are a chain of specific monomers bonded together through dehydration synthesis reactions.
H 2 0 H 2 0 Hydrolysis Dehydration synthesis Monomers Polymer
Let’s jump into the polymers ! Carbohydrates
Elements: C, H, and O .
Empirical Formula of a monosaccharide
The simplest whole number ratio of atoms, i.e. C n H 2n O n or CH 2 O has a ratio of 1:2:1 of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen.
If n=6 in the empirical formula, the chemical formula for glucose (monsaccaharide) is C 6 H 12 O 6 .
http://www.coolschool.ca/lor/BI12/unit2/U02L03.htm (Video on empirical formula)
Functions of Carbs
1.) Source of energy ( glucose ).
2.) Storage of energy ( glycogen ) in the liver and muscle cells; in plants as starch.
3.) Structural component found in plant cell walls ( cellulose ).
4.) Structural component found in DNA ( deoxyribose ) and RNA ( ribose )
5.) Structural component found in glycoproteins and glycolipids ( carbohydrate chains, i.e. C 6 H 12 O 6 ) attached to cell membrane proteins & phospholipids.
Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), fructose, and ribose.
Usually a ring form but the exact shape of the ring differs.
Named by the number of carbons.
Ribose is a “ pent ose” sugar because it has 5 carbons. Glucose and fructose are “ hex ose” sugars because they have 6 carbons.