Nucleic Acids

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Nucleic Acids

  1. 1. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Chemical Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Elements: C, H, O, N, and P. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 types of nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). </li></ul>
  2. 2. Monomers <ul><li>nucleotides , which are made up of three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) Phosphate (phosphoric acid) </li></ul><ul><li>(b) N-base (Nitrogenous base) </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Sugar ~ ribose or deoxyribose </li></ul>
  3. 3. Nitrogenous bases (N-bases) are: <ul><li>A – A denine (2 Rings = Purine base ) </li></ul><ul><li>G – G uanine </li></ul><ul><li>C – C ytosine (1 Ring = Pyrimidine base ) </li></ul><ul><li>T – T hymine </li></ul><ul><li>U – U racil </li></ul>
  4. 4. Structure of a Nucleotide <ul><li>These are the monomers of nucleic acids. </li></ul>
  5. 7. http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch09/dna_subunits_adv.html (Animation of N-bases & DNA)
  6. 8. Formation <ul><li>Formation of a nucleic acid polymer through dehydration synthesis ( -H 2 0 ). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. DNA or RNA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A bond forms between the adjoining nucleotides and is assisted by polymer ases . </li></ul><ul><li>A backbone of S-P-S-P-S- etc. is formed. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Formation Continued!! <ul><li>Formation of nucleic acid monomers through hydrolysis ( +H 2 0 ). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bonds between the adjacent nucleotides are destroyed within the nucleic acid polymer. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Overall equation: <ul><li>Dehydration synthesis (-H 2 O) </li></ul><ul><li>( polymer ases ) </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleotide 1 + Nucleotide 2  nucleic acid + H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>(RNA or DNA) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> Hydrolysis ( + H 2 O) </li></ul>
  9. 11. Polymers of nucleic acids <ul><li>There are two types of nucleic acid polymers, RNA and DNA </li></ul>
  10. 12. RNA Structure and Function <ul><li>Found in the nucleus and cytoplasm. </li></ul><ul><li>Linear, single strand of nucleotides. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the sugar, ribose . </li></ul><ul><li>N-bases include adenine , uracil , cytosine and guanine . </li></ul><ul><li>Backbone of sugar-phosphate . </li></ul><ul><li>3 types of RNA: mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), and rRNA (ribosomal RNA). </li></ul>
  11. 13. *RNA structure: single-strand molecule Note: Backbone consists of alternating P-S-P-S-P- etc…
  12. 14. *RNA structure: single-strand molecule Note: Backbone consists of alternating P-S-P-S-P- etc…
  13. 15. RNA Function <ul><li>Helps with protein synthesis by mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), and rRNA (ribosomal RNA). </li></ul>
  14. 17. DNA Structure and Function <ul><li>Found in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast. </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of a double helix or α-helix / alpha helix of nucleotides; (looks like a ‘twisted ladder’). </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the sugar, deoxyribose ( 1 less oxygen). </li></ul><ul><li>N-bases include adenine , thymine , cytosine and guanine . </li></ul>
  15. 18. DNA Structure and Function <ul><li>Complementary base pairing of nucleotides with H-bonds (i.e. Purines always combine with pyrimidines and these matching N-bases are referred to as complementary bases ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. A denine of one strand is always H-bonded to T hymine on the other; G uanine is always paired with C ytosine etc. A – T; T – A; G – C; C – G </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Backbone of sugar-phosphate . http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/teachers/biology/activities.shtml (Link to DNA)
  17. 20. DNA Structure DNA has the same backbone as RNA, i.e. alternating P-S-P-S…
  18. 21. http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch09/dna_close-up.html (Animation of DNA structure)
  19. 22. Functions of DNA <ul><li>Stores genetic information. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains growth and repair. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls all cellular activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains protein codes. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures each daughter cell & gamete receives exact genetic information. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Structural (and functional) Comparison of DNA & RNA Structural (and functional) Comparison of DNA & RNA A , U , G , C A , T , G , C N-bases Ribose Deoxyribose Sugar 1 2 # of strands Linear, single strand Double helix or α - helix Structure/shape RNA DNA
  21. 24. DNA RNA -Helps with protein synthesis by mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), and rRNA (ribosomal RNA). -Stores genetic information. -Maintains growth and repair. -Controls all cellular activities. -Contains protein codes. -Ensures each daughter cell & gamete receives exact genetic information. Functions/roles Cytoplasm, nucleus Nucleus & mitochondria Location in cell
  22. 25. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) <ul><li>A nucleotide with three attached phosphate groups but NOT classified as a nucleic acid! </li></ul><ul><li>It is the “ energy carrier molecule ” of cells. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Functions for the cell (ATP) that is… <ul><li>Readily available source of energy for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building molecules, transport of materials in/out of cells, such as active transport, endo/exocytosis, Na+/K+ pumps, absorption of materials, cell division, movement, and growth and repair of cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All chemical reactions of cells. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Structure <ul><li>ATP consists of 3 parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5-C sugar ribose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 phosphate groups </li></ul></ul>
  25. 28. You know the drill…name the parts…
  26. 29. ATP: Relating the structure to its role as the “energy currency” of cells <ul><li>ATP is like a “ coin/currency ” and when it is required, ATP can be used to provide a readily available source of energy for synthesis of molecules, nerve impulses, muscle contraction, chemical reactions, transport of molecules etc. </li></ul>
  27. 30. ATP as “energy currency” <ul><li>The high-energy bond of the 3rd phosphate group is broken, i.e. hydrolysis and energy is released for the cell to do work! </li></ul><ul><li>ATP  energy + ADP + phosphate group </li></ul><ul><li>Note: ATP is broken down and removed at a higher rate when metabolic activity increases. </li></ul>
  28. 31. Recharging <ul><li>ADP is reusable but requires energy to reattach the third phosphate group to produce another ATP molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>ADP + Phosphate group + energy  ATP </li></ul>
  29. 35. Identify each of the following chemicals
  30. 36. And some more
  31. 37. And some more….
  32. 38. And finally!!! Yes!! Done!!!

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