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Nucleic Acids

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  • 1. Nucleic Acids
    • Chemical Composition
    • Elements: C, H, O, N, and P.
    • There are 2 types of nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
  • 2. Monomers
    • nucleotides , which are made up of three parts:
    • (a) Phosphate (phosphoric acid)
    • (b) N-base (Nitrogenous base)
    • (c) Sugar ~ ribose or deoxyribose
  • 3. Nitrogenous bases (N-bases) are:
    • A – A denine (2 Rings = Purine base )
    • G – G uanine
    • C – C ytosine (1 Ring = Pyrimidine base )
    • T – T hymine
    • U – U racil
  • 4. Structure of a Nucleotide
    • These are the monomers of nucleic acids.
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7. http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch09/dna_subunits_adv.html (Animation of N-bases & DNA)
  • 8. Formation
    • Formation of a nucleic acid polymer through dehydration synthesis ( -H 2 0 ).
      • E.g. DNA or RNA
    • A bond forms between the adjoining nucleotides and is assisted by polymer ases .
    • A backbone of S-P-S-P-S- etc. is formed.
  • 9. Formation Continued!!
    • Formation of nucleic acid monomers through hydrolysis ( +H 2 0 ).
      • E.g. Nucleotides
    • Bonds between the adjacent nucleotides are destroyed within the nucleic acid polymer.
  • 10. Overall equation:
    • Dehydration synthesis (-H 2 O)
    • ( polymer ases )
    • Nucleotide 1 + Nucleotide 2  nucleic acid + H 2 O
    • (RNA or DNA)
    • Hydrolysis ( + H 2 O)
  • 11. Polymers of nucleic acids
    • There are two types of nucleic acid polymers, RNA and DNA
  • 12. RNA Structure and Function
    • Found in the nucleus and cytoplasm.
    • Linear, single strand of nucleotides.
    • Contains the sugar, ribose .
    • N-bases include adenine , uracil , cytosine and guanine .
    • Backbone of sugar-phosphate .
    • 3 types of RNA: mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), and rRNA (ribosomal RNA).
  • 13. *RNA structure: single-strand molecule Note: Backbone consists of alternating P-S-P-S-P- etc…
  • 14. *RNA structure: single-strand molecule Note: Backbone consists of alternating P-S-P-S-P- etc…
  • 15. RNA Function
    • Helps with protein synthesis by mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), and rRNA (ribosomal RNA).
  • 16.  
  • 17. DNA Structure and Function
    • Found in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast.
    • Consists of a double helix or α-helix / alpha helix of nucleotides; (looks like a ‘twisted ladder’).
    • Contains the sugar, deoxyribose ( 1 less oxygen).
    • N-bases include adenine , thymine , cytosine and guanine .
  • 18. DNA Structure and Function
    • Complementary base pairing of nucleotides with H-bonds (i.e. Purines always combine with pyrimidines and these matching N-bases are referred to as complementary bases )
      • e.g. A denine of one strand is always H-bonded to T hymine on the other; G uanine is always paired with C ytosine etc. A – T; T – A; G – C; C – G
  • 19. Backbone of sugar-phosphate . http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/teachers/biology/activities.shtml (Link to DNA)
  • 20. DNA Structure DNA has the same backbone as RNA, i.e. alternating P-S-P-S…
  • 21. http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch09/dna_close-up.html (Animation of DNA structure)
  • 22. Functions of DNA
    • Stores genetic information.
    • Maintains growth and repair.
    • Controls all cellular activities.
    • Contains protein codes.
    • Ensures each daughter cell & gamete receives exact genetic information.
  • 23. Structural (and functional) Comparison of DNA & RNA Structural (and functional) Comparison of DNA & RNA A , U , G , C A , T , G , C N-bases Ribose Deoxyribose Sugar 1 2 # of strands Linear, single strand Double helix or α - helix Structure/shape RNA DNA
  • 24. DNA RNA -Helps with protein synthesis by mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), and rRNA (ribosomal RNA). -Stores genetic information. -Maintains growth and repair. -Controls all cellular activities. -Contains protein codes. -Ensures each daughter cell & gamete receives exact genetic information. Functions/roles Cytoplasm, nucleus Nucleus & mitochondria Location in cell
  • 25. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
    • A nucleotide with three attached phosphate groups but NOT classified as a nucleic acid!
    • It is the “ energy carrier molecule ” of cells.
  • 26. Functions for the cell (ATP) that is…
    • Readily available source of energy for:
      • Building molecules, transport of materials in/out of cells, such as active transport, endo/exocytosis, Na+/K+ pumps, absorption of materials, cell division, movement, and growth and repair of cells.
      • All chemical reactions of cells.
  • 27. Structure
    • ATP consists of 3 parts:
      • Adenine base
      • 5-C sugar ribose
      • 3 phosphate groups
  • 28. You know the drill…name the parts…
  • 29. ATP: Relating the structure to its role as the “energy currency” of cells
    • ATP is like a “ coin/currency ” and when it is required, ATP can be used to provide a readily available source of energy for synthesis of molecules, nerve impulses, muscle contraction, chemical reactions, transport of molecules etc.
  • 30. ATP as “energy currency”
    • The high-energy bond of the 3rd phosphate group is broken, i.e. hydrolysis and energy is released for the cell to do work!
    • ATP  energy + ADP + phosphate group
    • Note: ATP is broken down and removed at a higher rate when metabolic activity increases.
  • 31. Recharging
    • ADP is reusable but requires energy to reattach the third phosphate group to produce another ATP molecule.
    • ADP + Phosphate group + energy  ATP
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35. Identify each of the following chemicals
  • 36. And some more
  • 37. And some more….
  • 38. And finally!!! Yes!! Done!!!
  • 39.  

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