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Nucleic Acids
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Nucleic Acids






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    Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acids Presentation Transcript

    • Nucleic Acids
      • Chemical Composition
      • Elements: C, H, O, N, and P.
      • There are 2 types of nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
    • Monomers
      • nucleotides , which are made up of three parts:
      • (a) Phosphate (phosphoric acid)
      • (b) N-base (Nitrogenous base)
      • (c) Sugar ~ ribose or deoxyribose
    • Nitrogenous bases (N-bases) are:
      • A – A denine (2 Rings = Purine base )
      • G – G uanine
      • C – C ytosine (1 Ring = Pyrimidine base )
      • T – T hymine
      • U – U racil
    • Structure of a Nucleotide
      • These are the monomers of nucleic acids.
    • http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch09/dna_subunits_adv.html (Animation of N-bases & DNA)
    • Formation
      • Formation of a nucleic acid polymer through dehydration synthesis ( -H 2 0 ).
        • E.g. DNA or RNA
      • A bond forms between the adjoining nucleotides and is assisted by polymer ases .
      • A backbone of S-P-S-P-S- etc. is formed.
    • Formation Continued!!
      • Formation of nucleic acid monomers through hydrolysis ( +H 2 0 ).
        • E.g. Nucleotides
      • Bonds between the adjacent nucleotides are destroyed within the nucleic acid polymer.
    • Overall equation:
      • Dehydration synthesis (-H 2 O)
      • ( polymer ases )
      • Nucleotide 1 + Nucleotide 2  nucleic acid + H 2 O
      • (RNA or DNA)
      • Hydrolysis ( + H 2 O)
    • Polymers of nucleic acids
      • There are two types of nucleic acid polymers, RNA and DNA
    • RNA Structure and Function
      • Found in the nucleus and cytoplasm.
      • Linear, single strand of nucleotides.
      • Contains the sugar, ribose .
      • N-bases include adenine , uracil , cytosine and guanine .
      • Backbone of sugar-phosphate .
      • 3 types of RNA: mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), and rRNA (ribosomal RNA).
    • *RNA structure: single-strand molecule Note: Backbone consists of alternating P-S-P-S-P- etc…
    • *RNA structure: single-strand molecule Note: Backbone consists of alternating P-S-P-S-P- etc…
    • RNA Function
      • Helps with protein synthesis by mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), and rRNA (ribosomal RNA).
    • DNA Structure and Function
      • Found in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast.
      • Consists of a double helix or α-helix / alpha helix of nucleotides; (looks like a ‘twisted ladder’).
      • Contains the sugar, deoxyribose ( 1 less oxygen).
      • N-bases include adenine , thymine , cytosine and guanine .
    • DNA Structure and Function
      • Complementary base pairing of nucleotides with H-bonds (i.e. Purines always combine with pyrimidines and these matching N-bases are referred to as complementary bases )
        • e.g. A denine of one strand is always H-bonded to T hymine on the other; G uanine is always paired with C ytosine etc. A – T; T – A; G – C; C – G
    • Backbone of sugar-phosphate . http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/teachers/biology/activities.shtml (Link to DNA)
    • DNA Structure DNA has the same backbone as RNA, i.e. alternating P-S-P-S…
    • http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch09/dna_close-up.html (Animation of DNA structure)
    • Functions of DNA
      • Stores genetic information.
      • Maintains growth and repair.
      • Controls all cellular activities.
      • Contains protein codes.
      • Ensures each daughter cell & gamete receives exact genetic information.
    • Structural (and functional) Comparison of DNA & RNA Structural (and functional) Comparison of DNA & RNA A , U , G , C A , T , G , C N-bases Ribose Deoxyribose Sugar 1 2 # of strands Linear, single strand Double helix or α - helix Structure/shape RNA DNA
    • DNA RNA -Helps with protein synthesis by mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), and rRNA (ribosomal RNA). -Stores genetic information. -Maintains growth and repair. -Controls all cellular activities. -Contains protein codes. -Ensures each daughter cell & gamete receives exact genetic information. Functions/roles Cytoplasm, nucleus Nucleus & mitochondria Location in cell
    • ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
      • A nucleotide with three attached phosphate groups but NOT classified as a nucleic acid!
      • It is the “ energy carrier molecule ” of cells.
    • Functions for the cell (ATP) that is…
      • Readily available source of energy for:
        • Building molecules, transport of materials in/out of cells, such as active transport, endo/exocytosis, Na+/K+ pumps, absorption of materials, cell division, movement, and growth and repair of cells.
        • All chemical reactions of cells.
    • Structure
      • ATP consists of 3 parts:
        • Adenine base
        • 5-C sugar ribose
        • 3 phosphate groups
    • You know the drill…name the parts…
    • ATP: Relating the structure to its role as the “energy currency” of cells
      • ATP is like a “ coin/currency ” and when it is required, ATP can be used to provide a readily available source of energy for synthesis of molecules, nerve impulses, muscle contraction, chemical reactions, transport of molecules etc.
    • ATP as “energy currency”
      • The high-energy bond of the 3rd phosphate group is broken, i.e. hydrolysis and energy is released for the cell to do work!
      • ATP  energy + ADP + phosphate group
      • Note: ATP is broken down and removed at a higher rate when metabolic activity increases.
    • Recharging
      • ADP is reusable but requires energy to reattach the third phosphate group to produce another ATP molecule.
      • ADP + Phosphate group + energy  ATP
    • Identify each of the following chemicals
    • And some more
    • And some more….
    • And finally!!! Yes!! Done!!!