Helps with protein synthesis by mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), and rRNA (ribosomal RNA).
DNA Structure and Function
Found in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast.
Consists of a double helix or α-helix / alpha helix of nucleotides; (looks like a ‘twisted ladder’).
Contains the sugar, deoxyribose ( 1 less oxygen).
N-bases include adenine , thymine , cytosine and guanine .
DNA Structure and Function
Complementary base pairing of nucleotides with H-bonds (i.e. Purines always combine with pyrimidines and these matching N-bases are referred to as complementary bases )
e.g. A denine of one strand is always H-bonded to T hymine on the other; G uanine is always paired with C ytosine etc. A – T; T – A; G – C; C – G
Backbone of sugar-phosphate . http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/teachers/biology/activities.shtml (Link to DNA)
DNA Structure DNA has the same backbone as RNA, i.e. alternating P-S-P-S…
http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch09/dna_close-up.html (Animation of DNA structure)
Functions of DNA
Stores genetic information.
Maintains growth and repair.
Controls all cellular activities.
Contains protein codes.
Ensures each daughter cell & gamete receives exact genetic information.
Structural (and functional) Comparison of DNA & RNA Structural (and functional) Comparison of DNA & RNA A , U , G , C A , T , G , C N-bases Ribose Deoxyribose Sugar 1 2 # of strands Linear, single strand Double helix or α - helix Structure/shape RNA DNA
DNA RNA -Helps with protein synthesis by mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (transfer RNA), and rRNA (ribosomal RNA). -Stores genetic information. -Maintains growth and repair. -Controls all cellular activities. -Contains protein codes. -Ensures each daughter cell & gamete receives exact genetic information. Functions/roles Cytoplasm, nucleus Nucleus & mitochondria Location in cell
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
A nucleotide with three attached phosphate groups but NOT classified as a nucleic acid!
It is the “ energy carrier molecule ” of cells.
Functions for the cell (ATP) that is…
Readily available source of energy for:
Building molecules, transport of materials in/out of cells, such as active transport, endo/exocytosis, Na+/K+ pumps, absorption of materials, cell division, movement, and growth and repair of cells.
All chemical reactions of cells.
ATP consists of 3 parts:
5-C sugar ribose
3 phosphate groups
You know the drill…name the parts…
ATP: Relating the structure to its role as the “energy currency” of cells
ATP is like a “ coin/currency ” and when it is required, ATP can be used to provide a readily available source of energy for synthesis of molecules, nerve impulses, muscle contraction, chemical reactions, transport of molecules etc.
ATP as “energy currency”
The high-energy bond of the 3rd phosphate group is broken, i.e. hydrolysis and energy is released for the cell to do work!
ATP energy + ADP + phosphate group
Note: ATP is broken down and removed at a higher rate when metabolic activity increases.
ADP is reusable but requires energy to reattach the third phosphate group to produce another ATP molecule.