Plant Parts
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Plant Parts

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  • 1. Parts of the plant and their functions
  • 2. Importance of plants
    • Without plants life on earth would not exist
  • 3. Plants:
    • Primary source of food for people and animals
    • Produce oxygen
    • help to keep us cool
    • renew the air
  • 4. Plants:
    • slow wind speed
    • provide a home for wildlife
    • beautify surroundings
    • perfume the air
    • furnish building materials and fuel
  • 5. Parts of a plant
    • Four basic parts
      • leaves
      • stems
      • roots
      • flowers
  • 6. Leaves
    • the food factory of the plant
    • produce the food used by the plant or stored for later use
  • 7. Shape and size of leaves
    • vary among plants
    • used for identification of plants
  • 8. Leaf arrangement
    • alternate
    • opposite
    • whorled
      • arranged in a circle around the stem
  • 9. External leaf structure
    • petiole - leaf stalk
    • leaf blade (leaf)
      • has veins
      • forms structural framework of the leaf
  • 10. Midrib
    • large center vein from which all other leaf veins extend
  • 11. Margins
    • edges of leaves
    • assists in plant identification
  • 12. Internal leaf structure
    • epidermis
      • skin of the leaf
      • single layer of cells
      • protects leaf from loss of too much moisture
  • 13. Guard Cells
    • open and close the small pore on the underside of the leaf
  • 14. Stomates
    • allow the plant to breathe and transpire
      • give off moisture
  • 15. Chloroplasts
    • contain chlorophyll
    • located inside the food making cells
  • 16. Photosynthesis
    • process by which CO2 and H2O in the presence of light are converted to sugar and oxygen
  • 17. Chemical formula
    • 6CO2 + 6H2O
    • -----> in reaction with sunlight and chlorophyll ------>
    • C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2
  • 18. food
    • manufactured in the leaves moves downward through the stem to the roots
      • used by the plant
      • stored in stem or root and leaf in the form of sugar, starch or protein.
  • 19. Respiration
    • plants respire 24 hours a day
    • consume O2 and give off CO2
    • plants produce more O2 through ps. Than they consume during respiration and growth.
  • 20. Stems
    • have two main functions
      • movement of water and minerals from the roots upward and movement of manufactured food down
  • 21. Stem functions
    • support of leaves and reproductive structures
  • 22. Stems also
    • used for food storage and reproduction of plants involving cuttings
    • Green stems manufacture food just as leaves do
  • 23. External Stem Structure
    • lenticels- breathing pores
    • bud scale scars-indicate where terminal bud has been located previous year.
  • 24. Leaf Scars
    • shows where leaf was attached
    • Distance between the two represents one year of growth.
  • 25. Internal Stem Structure
    • phloem- bark, carries manufactured foods down.
    • Xylem- wood, carries water and minerals up.
    • Cambium- separates the 2 and produces all new cells.
    • Characteristic of dicots
  • 26. Internal Stem Structure
    • dicot- dicotyledon, a plant with 2 seed leaves
  • 27. Monocot
    • Monocotyledon - a plant with one seed leaf.
    • Have vascular bundles, contain both xylem and phloem in each small bundle
  • 28. Monocot
    • stems have no cambium
    • cells enlarge to create size of mature stem
  • 29. Economic Importance
    • food
    • building materials
  • 30. Roots
    • Usually underground
    • functions:
      • anchor plant and hold upright
      • absorb water and minerals form soil and conduct to stem
      • store food, & propagation
  • 31. Root Structure
    • internal
      • similar to stems
      • older roots have xylem, phloem and cambian
  • 32. external
      • root cap
        • produces continuous supply of new cells
        • protects roots as they push through soil
  • 33. Structure
    • root hairs
      • absorb moisture and minerals
    • small roots
  • 34. Functions other than water and mineral absorption
    • cash crops for food
      • carrots
      • beets
      • radishes
      • sweet potatoes
    • propagation
  • 35. Type of root systems
    • fibrous-grasses
      • easier transplanting
      • shorter, smaller, more compact
    • lap root-carrot
      • longer and fewer roots
  • 36. Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds
    • pollination- color of flower attracts insects to fertilize flower
      • beginning of fruit and seed formation
    • fruits and seed are attractive to birds who eat and spread seeds .
      • Reproduces plant
      • some seeds carried on animals coats
  • 37. Parts of the Flower
    • differ in size, shape, and color, some basic parts
    • sepal
      • green leaf-like part, covers and protects bud before opening
  • 38. Petals
    • are actually leaves
    • usually bright colors to attract pollinating insects.
  • 39. Parts of the Flower
    • stamens
      • male part of flower
      • has two parts
        • filament-stalk
  • 40. Anther
    • anther- sac-like structure on top of filament, contains pollen
  • 41. Parts of the Flower
    • Pistil - female part
    • in the center of flower
    • has three parts
  • 42. Pistil
    • three parts
    • stigma - top - sticky
    • style - tube leading from stigma to ovary
  • 43. Ovary
    • egg cells develop here
    • grows to become fruit or seedcoat
  • 44. Types of Flowers
    • complete
      • contains 4 main parts
  • 45. Incomplete
    • does not have all 4 main parts
  • 46. Perfect
    • has stamens and pistils
  • 47. Imperfect
    • lacks stamens or pistils
  • 48. Types of Flowers
    • monoecious
      • stamens and pistils are found in separate flowers on the same plant
        • ex: Corn
  • 49. dioecious
    • male or staminate flowers found on one plant, female or pistilate flowers on another plant
    • ex: holly