If Properly Led Cadet manual

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If Properly Led Cadet manual

  1. 1. If Properly Led LTC (Ret)Charles Schuman @ 2009 All Rights Reserved 1
  2. 2. Leadership Principles from the Battle of Gettysburg My men can do anything, if properly led. – Robert E. Lee, enroute to Gettysburg As Chamberlain commented, Gettysburg is a “vision-place” for the soul. Its fields bare witness a thousand times over to the power behind those words of Jesus, who said “Greater love had no one than this that he lay down his life for his friends” 2
  3. 3. “In great deeds something abides. On great fields something stays. Forms change and pass; bodies disappear, but spirits linger, to consecrate ground for the vision- place of souls. And reverent men and women from afar, and generations that know us not and that we know not of, heart-drawn to see where and by whom great things were suffered and done for them, shall come to this deathless field to ponder and dream; And lo! the shadow of a mighty presence shall wrap them in its bosom, and the power of the vision pass into their souls.” -- October 3, 1889, Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, Gettysburg, PA. (One of the Heroes of Little Round Top) And if enemies came against the land (for enemies will arise) and there was war, would you be the first in the charge and the last in the retreat? --Aslan to the new King of Narnia 3
  4. 4. Table of Contents Overview of the Battle 7-9 Organization of the Armies 10 Gen John Buford 11 Gen John Reynolds 12 Intro to Foresight 13-17 Assignment for Thursday 18 The Identity of the Leader 19-21 Importance of Cemetery Hill 22-24 Developing Foresight Discussion 26-30 Two Critical Tasks of a Leader 32-41 Cause and Community 42-44 Flying the Flag 45-55 Language of Leadership 55-68 Leadership Challenge 69-76 Learning Method 77 Thinking as a Military Leader 78 Senior Leaders 79-81 Gettysburg Address 82 Bibliography 83 4
  5. 5. Brief Overview of the Battle of Gettysburg The Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863 Wednesday, July 1, 1863 The fighting started early on July 1st, 1863 as Union Calvary under Gen. John Buford attempted to hold off the Confederate advance west of town. At around 10:30 am, the Union I Corps under Gen. John Reynolds arrived and relieved General Buford’s cavalrymen. By the afternoon, however, the Confederates were attacking west and north of town. The Union I and IX Corps were forced to retreat through the town and up to the high ground known as Cemetery Hill, south of Gettysburg. Thursday, July 2, 1863 The second day of battle saw fighting on both ends of the Union line—now Dark: Union occupying the high Confederate Gray: ground from Culps Hill to Cemetery Hill down along Cemetery Ridge to the Round Tops. 5
  6. 6. Confederate General James Longstreet led the main thrust of the attacks on the left end of the Union Army, attacking in the areas of Little Round Top, Devil’s Den, the Wheatfield, and the Peach Orchard. As the fighting concluded on the left, the hostilities quickly shifted to the far right end of the Union line with Confederate assaults on Culp’s Hill and East Cemetery Hill. Friday, July 3, 1863 The final day of the conflict started early when the Federals launched attacks at the base of Culps Hill, attempting to retake earthworks they had lost the evening before. The fighting lasted nearly seven hours. By late morning, the Union Army had retaken their trenches and the Confederates on that end of the battlefield were spent. Following a brief lull, Lee launched his final attack, Pickett’s Charge. The Virginians led the way, as the Confederates attempted and failed to crush the center of the Union line. “Two great armies in battle are like two giants in a wrestle; a stump, a projecting 6
  7. 7. root, or a tuft of grass may serve to brace the one or trip the other; on such slender threads does the fate of nations depend.” – Victor Hugo ARMY OF THE POTOMAC 1 Corps = 3 Divisions 1 Division = 3 Brigades 1 Brigade = 4 to 5 Regiments 1 Regiment = 10 Companies=1,100 officers and men 1 Company = 2 to 3 Platoons=100 officers and men 1 Platoon = 5 Squads - 1 officer & 50 men ARMY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA 1 Corps = 3 Divisions 1 Division = 4 to 5 Brigades 1 Brigade = 4 to 6 Regiments 1 Regiment = 10 Companies = 1,100 officers and men 1 Company = 2 to 3 Platoons=100 officers and men 7
  8. 8. 1 Platoon = 5 Squads = 1 officer & 50 men Gen. John Buford, He knew the value of good ground. An experienced Cavalry officer, John Buford seemed to see the whole forth-coming battle in his mind. He knew how to read the ground and he realized before the battle began that the high ground south and east of Gettysburg would ultimately determine the result of the battle. Deploying for a defense in depth, Buford used Herr Ridge and McPherson Ridge to delay the Confederates long enough for Reynolds and the 1st Corps to arrive. 8
  9. 9. Gen. John Reynolds Gen. John Reynolds, the most highly respected officer in the Army of the Potomac Arrives in Gettysburg with the 1st Corps around 10 am. Commending Buford and his choice of ground, Reynolds dashed off a message to Gen Meade concluding it with “I will fight them inch by inch, and if driven into the town, I will barricade the streets and hold them as long as possible.” Reynolds then directed his Corps into the fight at McPherson’s Ridge. At the 9
  10. 10. head of his troops, he was soon felled by a sniper musket ball —demonstrating what he always believed, volunteer troops were better led than driven. Leadership Principle #1: Leaders Have Foresight Foresight: The Ability to See the _____________ in Such a Way that You _________ What Needs to be Done. Two Aspects of Foresight Seeing The Future & Knowing What Needs to Be Done Leaders know the value of foresight… You can’t predict the future, but you must assess the futurity of present events. -- Peter Drucker: 10
  11. 11. A mark of leaders, an attribute that puts them in a position to show the way for others, is that they are better than most at pointing the direction to go. Foresight is the “lead” that the leader has. Once leaders lose this lead and events start to force their hand, they are leaders in name only.-- Robert Greenleaf Of Issachar, men who had understanding of the times, to know what Israel ought to do, 200 chiefs, and all their kinsmen under their command. 1 Chronicles 12:32 Preferred Future Foresight The Leader’s Lead What to do? Probable future 11
  12. 12. Two Aspects of Foresight Seeing The Future - the probable future - the preferred future & Knowing What Needs to Be Done Foresight: The Ability to See the Future in Such a Way that you know what needs to be done. Two Aspects of Foresight – Seeing The Future & Knowing What Needs to Be Done (Refer to Diagram pg. 7) View Video Clips… Buford’s Foresight Issac Trimble’s Report Discussion/Thought Question 12
  13. 13. Look for the constant reference to “seeing:” In each clip, what was the probable future and what was the preferred future? Who led and who didn’t? Thought/Discussion Question: How did Buford and Reynolds demonstrate foresight? Where does foresight come from? 13
  14. 14. How do you as a leader develop it? In what ways is courage related to foresight? Imagine that you are John Buford, riding into Gettysburg leading two brigades of cavalry. Reynolds is behind you leading the 1st Corps of the Army of the Potomac. You are the eyes of the Army. Practice “seeing the big picture.” Try to see the future . . . and imagine the weight of deciding what needs to be done. Practice thinking like a military leader: Norman Schwarzkopf’s Checklist What is my mission? 14
  15. 15. What is the terrain? What are my resources? What do I know about the enemy? (In your leadership arena, what are the equivalents to “mission, terrain, resources, and knowledge of the enemy?”) Read Exodus 17:8-16. What was Moses doing on top of the hill? Are you sure? Why was the altar called: The Lord is my Banner? Importance of Cemetery Hill Reynold’s note to Meade when he arrived on the battlefield. “The enemy is advancing in strong force, and I fear he will get the heights beyond the town before I can. I will fight him inch by inch, and if driven back into the town I will barricade the streets, and hold him back as long as possible.” Lee to Ewell: “Take the heights beyond the town, if practicable.” Between 3 and 4 pm, General Lee arrived on the battlefield and immediately recognized the 15
  16. 16. strategic nature of the high ground south and east of town. He sent a verbal message to Ewell that he should follow-up his advantage and take the heights beyond the town, “if practicable.” Ewell decided it wasn’t practicable—despite disagreement among some of his senior officers. From our discussions, what kept Ewell from taking these hills (Cemetery, Culps)? What did he fail to see? What keeps us from acting? Buford’s Plea John Buford wrote the following note to Gen. Pleasonton at 3:20 p.m. A tremendous battle has been raging since 9:30 am with varying success. At the present moment the battle is raging on the road to Cashtown within short cannon range of this town. The 16
  17. 17. enemies’ line is in a semi-circle on the heights from north to south. General Reynolds was killed this morning. In my opinion there seems to be no directing person. P.S. We need help now. At 4:00 p.m., Buford to Commanding General Meade on July 1st, 1863: “For God’s sake send up Hancock. Everything is going at odds, Reynolds is killed and we need a controlling spirit.” From these comments, what is Buford’s frustration? What is a follower’s greatest frustration? Hancock’s Conversation with Howard: General Winfield Scott Hancock arrived on Cemetery Hill at around 4:00 pm. Meade had directed him to take control of the field at Gettysburg, even 17
  18. 18. though both Howard and Sickles outranked him by one day. Hancock reported “as soon as I arrived on the field. . . I rode directly to the crest of the hill where General Howard stood, and said to him that I had been sent by General Meade to take command of all the forces present; that I had written orders to that effect with me and asked him if he wished to read them. He replied that he did not . . . but acquiesced in my assumption of command.” The conversation, however, went like this according to another observer. At this “General Howard woke up a little and replied that he was senior . . . ‘I am aware of that, General, but I have written orders in my pocket from General Meade which I will show you if you wish to see them.’” Howard replied that he did not doubt Hancock’s word, adding wit a certain illogic, “You can give no orders here while I am here.” Hancock refused to debate military protocol in such an emergency and said that Meade had also directed him to 18
  19. 19. select the battleground on which the army would make its stand. Hancock then said, looking around at Cemetery Hill and Culps Hill: “But I think this is the strongest position by nature upon which to fight a battle that I ever saw, and if it meets your approbation I will select this as the battlefield.” Howard observed that he also thought it “a very strong position.” To which Hancock replied, “Very well, sir, I select this as the battlefield.” At that, he immediately “turned to rectify our lines.” To his credit, Howard worked alongside Hancock to bolster the chosen strong point on Cemetery Hill and Culps Hill. Developing Foresight: The Ability to See the Future in Such a Way that You Know What Needs to Be Done 1. Recognize a Follower’s Greatest Frustration with Leadership: _____________________________________ Dante’s Inferno: First Level of Hell This is the sorrowful state of souls unsure, 19
  20. 20. Whose lives earned neither honor nor bad fame, Who, neither rebellious to God nor faithful to Him, Chose neither side, but kept them selves apart Now Heaven expels them . . . And Hell rejects them To the memory of them, the world is deaf Jim Kouzes: On Boldness “Only those leaders who act boldly in times of crisis and change are willingly followed.” The leader is always the first person to step out in a new direction--the first to seize opportunities, to accept risk. You must make a decision, but that decision needs to be the best decision you can make. How do you “see the future in such a way that you know what needs to be done?” How do decide what to do to get you to that preferred future? 2. Face Current _________________ --Root out Misinformation Actively gather information, data, impressions, opinions, insights, etc. to develop an instinctive sense for: 20
  21. 21. What is relevant and what is not? Leaders know how to keep things focused--they don’t let side issues overwhelm them. What is latent or potential in the present? Leaders are better than others at identifying opportunities and possibilities.--Tom Marshall Robert E. Lee always asked his subordinates before a battle: What opportunities do we have before us? Leadership begins with: Confronting the brutal facts and acting on the implications. Leaders discover the truth. P. Senge: Watch Your Ego Ego and self-esteem always intertwine with our ability to lead . . . there is always the tendency to put a positive spin on everything imaginable, while ignoring evidence to the contrary. 21
  22. 22. We easily lose sight of what is really happening. Comprehensive framework about what leaders do and why ! • 1: Shape the future. Leaders answer the question “where are we going?” and make sure that others understand the direction as well. Leaders are strategists and practical futurists. They figure out what the organization needs to succeed and map the direction they must go based on current and planned resources. They work effectively with others to figure out how to get from the present to the desired future. They manage the paradox of being open-minded about the possibilities while also staying rooted in reality. • 2: Make things happen. How will you make sure you get to where you’re going? If you 22
  23. 23. are a leader that makes things happen, then you are an executor (as in, one who executes). Executors translate strategy into action. They put systems in place that help others do the same. They focus on getting things done. Good leaders ensure a clear line of sight between the short term and the long term. They meet promises by taking action. • 3: Engage today’s talent. Effective leaders know how to engage others to get immediate results by drawing the right talent close: communicating well, and connecting the individual to the mission. They are in way talent managers, generating intense personal,professional, and organizational loyalty. They understand what skills are required to carry out their mission, and they know how to attract the right talent to their organization. 23
  24. 24. • 4: Build the next generation. Who stays and sustains the next generation? Leaders with this focus are human capital developers. They ensure long- term leadership development and focus on assuring the growth and progress of their organization. They can spot future talent and understand how to develop those who possess it. These leaders work to build a cadre of people with the longer-term competencies for strategic success. They create a workforce plan focused on future talent, develop that talent, and help the talented leaders find a future in their organization. • 5: Invest in yourself. Great leaders always ask themselves: “Am I prepared for what’s next?” They invest in themselves by constantly learning. Leaders are learners: they learn from their successes and from failures, they read books, 24
  25. 25. take classes and learn from life itself. “Effective leaders inspire loyalty and goodwill in others because they themselves act with integrity and trust.” They are decisive and have a passion for making bold and courageous moves. 3. Dare to Dream or Envision of “what could be?” Force yourself to Imagine or See a _____________________ Future. E.g. Buford and Reynolds: we could hold the high ground! Recognize the Tension: The Present The Future X The Current Reality The Dream The Stockdale Paradox for Leaders 25
  26. 26. “Retain absolute faith that you can and will prevail in the end, regardless of the difficulties AND at the same time confront the most brutal facts of your current reality, whatever they might be.” 4. Be Clear in the Face of Uncertainty. False Thinking: “If I were a good leader, I would know exactly what to do. I’m supposed to stand up and give direction with absolute certainty.” Reality: “The greater your responsibility as a leader, the more uncertainty you’ll have to manage. We will always be uncertain, but we can’t afford to be unclear.” Clarity is Key: If the leader does nothing else as a leader, be clear. 5._______________ both Confidence and Humility 26
  27. 27. Confidence: Move Boldly in the Direction You have Determined Be Committed to Act -- Clear about Direction -- Uncertain about the Outcome Humility: Acknowledge that Your Decision is Only an Educated Guess 5. Get ______________ Don’t Pretend. Buford knew the value of good ground. How did he know what good ground was? How did he know the value of it? Experience 27
  28. 28. Education and Study Sought Counsel Time Role Models “but the people who know their God shall stand firm and take action.” Daniel 11:32 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. Leadership Principle # 2: Practice the Two Critical Tasks of the Leader:– Care and Courage Leadership Metaphor: The Leader as a Certain Trumpet Key Leader: Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain A Leadership Metaphor: The Leader as a Certain Trumpet: Again, if the trumpet does not sound a clear call, who will get ready for battle? 1Cor 14:8 A Leadership Model: 30
  31. 31. Three Realities: To Every Leadership Situation Leaders Followers Shared Goals A leader is one who mobilizes others toward a goal shared by leader and followers.--Garry Wills Leadership is the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations. --Kouzes and Posner 31
  32. 32. Lincoln’s leadership was a matter of mutually determinative activity, on the part of the leader and the followers. Followers have “a say” in what they are being lead to. A leader who neglects the fact soon finds himself without followers. To sound a certain trumpet does not mean just trumpeting one’s own certitudes. It means sounding a specific call to a specific people capable of response. . . He or she takes others to the object of their joint quest. --- Garry Wills 32
  33. 33. Joshua and Leadership Numbers 27:12 Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go up this mountain in the Abarim range and see the land I have given the Israelites. 13 After you have seen it, you too will be gathered to your people, as your brother Aaron was, 14 for when the community rebelled at the waters in the Desert of Zin, both of you disobeyed my command to honor me as holy before their eyes." These were the waters of Meribah Kadesh, in the Desert of Zin. 15 Moses said to the LORD, 16 "May the LORD, the God of the spirits of all mankind, appoint a man over this community 17 to go out and come in before them, one who will lead them out and bring them in, so the LORD's people will not be like sheep without a shepherd." 18 So the LORD said to Moses, "Take Joshua son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and lay your hand on him. 19 Have him stand before Eleazar the priest and the entire assembly and commission him in their presence. 20 Give him some of your authority so the whole Israelite community will obey him. 21 He is to stand before Eleazar the priest, who will obtain decisions for him by inquiring of the Urim before the LORD. At his command he and the entire community of the Israelites will go out, and at his command they will come in." 33
  34. 34. 22 Moses did as the LORD commanded him. He took Joshua and had him stand before Eleazar the priest and the whole assembly. 23 Then he laid his hands on him and commissioned him, as the LORD instructed through Moses. What was Moses’ reaction to the Lord’s words about his departure? Did the anticipation of seeing the land add to that reaction? How? Describe sheep without a shepherd. What do they look like? What are they doing? How do they survive? When do sheep most need a shepherd? What were the primary tasks that Moses saw for the person God would put over the community of Israelites? (see 1 Samuel 18:5-16) Why did God choose Joshua? What was Joshua’s primary task? How would he accomplish it? 34
  35. 35. Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain Prof of Rhetoric Christian-offended by Slavery Hero Of Little Round Top Leading Battlefield Commander in the Union Two things an officer must do to lead men: 1. You must ______________for your men’s welfare. 2. You must display physical _____________. Our Leadership Model: Leaders 35
  36. 36. Courage in Care for Your the Battle: People’s “You must Welfare lead them “You must out! lead them in! Followers Shared Goals Critical Questions to Ask In Every Leadership Situation: How am I caring for my people’s welfare? How am I doing at Creating Community? And: Where do I display “physical courage? Where do I Attack Courageously the Cause? View Gettysburg Film Clips: 36
  37. 37. 1st Clip: Chamberlain attempts to “lead in” 120 deserters into his community of soldiers. 2nd Clip: Chamberlain displays physical courage--“leads out”---in battle Soul of a Lion, the Heart of a Woman I came upon brave old Sickel lying calm and cheerful, with a shattered limb, and weakened by loss of blood while “fighting it through,” but refusing to have more attention than came in his turn. Still pictured in my mind his splendid action where I left him rallying his men, I sat down by him to give him such cheer as I could. He seemed to think I needed the comforting. The heroic flush was still on his face. “General,” he whispers, smiling up, “you have the soul of the lion and the heart of the woman.” “Take benediction to yourself,” was my reply: “you could not have thought that, if you had not been it.” And that was our thought at parting for other trial, and through after years. For so it is: might and love,--they are the all; -- fatherhood and motherhood of God 37
  38. 38. himself, and of every godlike man. – Chamberlain Inherent Conflict and Inherent Cohesion between Care and Courage: Inherent Conflict between these Values Psm 23: “green pastures, quiet waters” vs. “shadow of death, presence of enemies” Inherent Cohesion between these values Men join to fight in a cause. The best armies with the highest morale are on the move, engaging the enemy, taking up the cause!! Men stay in the fight because of community. -- Because of their brothers – their comrades in war!! 38
  39. 39. Commitment to the ______________ The inspiration of a noble cause involving human interests wide and far, enables men to do things they did not dream themselves capable of before, and which were not capable of alone. This is the great reward of service, to live, far out and on, in the life of others; this is the mystery of Christ -- to give life’s best for such high sake that it shall be found again unto life eternal.--Chamberlain Commitment to a __________________ Men fight in masses. To be brave they must be inspired by the feeling of fellowship. Shoulder must touch shoulder. As gaps are opened the men close together, and remain formidable. --William Thompson Lusk, 79th New York 39
  40. 40. The man who can go out alone and fight against overwhelming odds is very rare, and for every such one there are thousands who can touch the elbow and go forward to what seems almost certain death. - E. L. Marsh, Iowa Volunteers Related Point: Large armies do not win wars; small units within armies win wars. Related Thought: Twin Leadership Challenges: Accomplishing the Mission and Developing Your People 40
  41. 41. Leadership Principle #3 _______________to a Worthy Cause ___________________________________ “Fear” By Building Community Leadership Metaphors: Leaders as Recruiters Leaders as Community Builders Key Leaders: Gen. George Pickett Gen. Lo Armistead Key Biblical Passages: Mark 3:13-19; Matt. 4:18-22; Luke 5: 1-11; Matthew 28:18-20; Luke 10:1-24; Neh. 2-3; 4:6-14. The Relationship between Cause and Community See McPherson’s For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War 1st Point: Men _______________ because they believe in the cause. "The inspiration of a noble cause involving human interest wide and far, enables men to do things they did not dream 41
  42. 42. themselves capable of before, and which they were not capable of alone. The consciousness of belonging, vitally, to something beyond individuality, of being part of a personality that reaches we know not where, in space and time, greatens the heart TO THE LIMITS OF THE SOUL'S IDEAL, and builds out the supreme character.” “It is not that these men are dead, but that they have so died...that they offered themselves willingly to death in a cause vital and dear to humanity; and what is more, a cause they comprehended as such, and looking at it, in all its bearings and its consequences, solemnly pledged to it all that they had and were.... This comprehension of the cause, this intelligent devotion, this deliberate dedication of themselves to duty, these deaths suffered in testimony of their loyalty, faith and love, make these men worthy of honor today, and these deaths equal to the lauded deaths of martyrs. Not merely that the cause was worthy but that they were 42
  43. 43. worthy.... God grant to us that lesson of devotion and loyalty be not lost....” -- Chamberlain 2nd Point: Men ___________ in the fight because they care for their comrades. Civil War Letters: “We feel like the kindest of brothers together.” 10th Virg. Cav. “You would not believe that men could be so attached to each other, we are all like brothers.” 1st Ohio Art. “We love each other like a band of brothers.” 11th Georgia Inf. “We all seemed like brothers. We have suffered hardships and dangers together and are bound together by more than ordinary ties. 8th Texas Cav 43
  44. 44. William Manchester’s Comment about the Marines in WWII “Those men on the line were my family, my home. They were closer to me than . . . my friends have ever been or ever would be. They had never let me down, and I couldn’t do it to them . . . Men, I now know, do not fight for flag or country, for the Marine Corps or glory or any other abstraction. They fight for one another.” LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLE #4 Fly the Flag: 44
  45. 45. Make the Cause ________________________________ and Create Community around It Leadership Metaphors: The Colors at Gettysburg The Colors as Vision, Mission Statements The Leader as “Color- Bearer.” Primary Examples: Col. Harrison Jeffords 4th Michigan Inf. The Wheat Field 16th Maine on Oak Ridge Charge of 1st Minn. Col Colvill, Jr The Mississippi Memorial Sgt Tozer-20th Maine 45
  46. 46. The Role of Battle Flags in the Civil War Battle Flags Served Two Purposes: 1st ________________________ The battle flag served to identify and to position large bodies of troops. “Where the colors are the regiment is supposed to be.” This command and control function of the battle flag allowed commanders to position or align their troops for battle. A Practical Purpose!! 2nd ___________________________ The battle flag was a “source of motivation; it inspired men to acts of military excellence, of 46
  47. 47. bravery and gallantry above and beyond the call of duty.” A Symbolic Purpose!! Richard Rollins comments on this symbolic purpose behind the Confederate battle flag in particular: The battle flag incorporated the symbolic language of color, shape, design and inscription, weaving them into a new icon that offered a material and highly visible representation of the differences between North and South. It merged myth and fact: the traditions and influence of the past, the reality of the present, and hopes and dreams of the future. . . They had in fact become an inseparable part of them. The Confederate battle flag gave physical presence to all the subjective values that the soldiers had in their hearts and minds. Men carried it, followed it, tried to capture it, fought over it and willingly gave their lives for it, but in combat that always concentrated their attention on it. The struggle over the Confederate 47
  48. 48. battle flag at Gettysburg . . . transformed abstract concepts into immediate physical reality. Rollins “Here is something material, something I can see, feel, and understand. This means victory. This is victory.” - Lincoln’s words when presented with a captured battle flag Today’s Marine Officer’s Guide: Colors or standards must never fall into enemy hands. How did the “Colors” elicit such sacrifices? Symbolic Role: 1st-It represented the ____________ 2nd-It represented their ___________ their home! 48
  49. 49. “Battle flags came to represent the cause and the community from which units of the army sprang. The armies of the Civil War are different than today’s armies. Although we will return to this critical reality, it is important to realize that the companies and regiments in which the Civil War soldier served were drawn from, and thus were part of, the local community in which he lived. He went to war not by himself, nor with a group of strangers from different parts of the country. He enlisted with his brothers, his cousins, his friends and acquaintances. If he survived the war, he’d return to the same community. He went to war with people who knew him, who knew his family. When their companies or regiments were given a flag, it grew to symbolize the emotional ties of family and community. It represented home to him.” 49
  50. 50. Chamberlain’s Thoughts about a Noble CAUSE: "The inspiration of a noble cause involving human interest wide and far, enables men to do things they did not dream themselves capable of before, and which they were not capable of alone. The consciousness of belonging, vitally, to something beyond individuality, of being part of a personality that reaches we know not where, in space and time, greatens the heart TO THE LIMITS OF THE SOUL'S IDEAL'. 26th N.C. Monument on Cemetery Ridge: The men of the 26th Regiment would dress on their colors in spite of the world! 50
  51. 51. Application to the Leadership Task: First, leaders find a way to make the cause _____________________. We don’t have battle flags today, but we do have other visible symbols. Vision statements, logos, key images in story-form, and brands are ways to make the purposes of an organization visible. Great leaders develop or employ such symbols. As much as possible, leaders ensure that the symbols reflect the cause. Leaders remember that their greatest leverage over their followers is their shared sense of destiny. Symbols must capture this common commitment to a common cause. 51
  52. 52. Vision statements -- statements painting a potential future --- ought to be the most visible to leaders and followers. Such statements encase the energy of the cause fulfilled. They motivate in powerful ways. 1: What are we living for? PURPOSE 2: What are we shooting for? MISSION 3: What are we standing for? VALUES 4: What are we rooting for? VISION Second, great leaders ________________ their efforts under the physical guidance of the symbol. They make sure that the followers are ________________ by it. The battle flags’ role was not only to inspire. 52
  53. 53. The colors also aligned the troops for battle. Troops formed up on the flag, they marched in alignment with the flag, they moved forward as the flag moved forward. Great leaders use the vision— mission--core values--the cause to align and direct their actions and their followers’ actions. Goals, for example, must be tied directly to the vision and mission. Hidden motives behind goals will soon be ferreted out. Followers do not follow flags of a different regiment. 53
  54. 54. Third, leaders create ____________ around the visible symbol. They purposely fly the flag, raise the colors, cast the vision, and tell the story. Tying the structure of the organization to its visible symbol is critical to great leadership. Followers need to experience “home” around this symbol. Great leaders ensure there is a direct line between followers and what they do and the ultimate cause of the organization. Followers need to know that they are in the line of sight of the cause that what they do achieves in some way the cause. Great leaders have the ability to “construct and constructively communicate a 54
  55. 55. clear and persuasive story.”--Howard Gardner Fourth, _____________ are the ultimate color bearers of the organization. They must be willing to sacrifice everything for the flag and what it stands for. In Napoleonic warfare, battlefield commanders were always co-located with the flag. They moved their troops by directing movements to their color bearers. Of course, like the color bearers, they were targeted by enemy forces. Staying near the colors was both the most dangerous place and the most critical place for commanders. The system broke down whenever the battlefield commanders moved away from places of inspiration and alignment (Iverson’s NC at Oak Hill). 55
  56. 56. Great leaders recognize this and stay as close as possible to the visible symbols which represent the noble cause. Summary Statement: Every organization needs a visible symbol, a battle flag, a standard to raise up high which captures in it the nobility of their cause. This visible symbol, whatever form it takes, will both align and inspire the members of an organization. Key Question: What are the visible symbols that inspire and align your organization? 56
  57. 57. Leadership Principle #5 Learn the _________________________ of Leadership. Leadership Metaphors: Leaders as, Painters, Poets and Philosophers Key Leaders: Abraham Lincoln Martin Luther King Jr Learning The Language of Leadership The difference between leadership and mere management is communication. Winston Churchill The language of leadership is our ability to “call out of people a commitment to the deeper values of our shared cause.” 57
  58. 58. Key Biblical Passage: Ahithophel vs Hushai 2 Samuel 16:23 Now in those days the advice Ahithophel gave was like that of one who inquires of God. That was how both David and Absalom regarded all of Ahithophel's advice. 17:1 Ahithophel said to Absalom, "I would choose twelve thousand men and set out tonight in pursuit of David. 2 I would attack him while he is weary and weak. I would strike him with terror, and then all the people with him will flee. I would strike down only the king 3 and bring all the people back to you. The death of the man you seek will mean the return of all; all the people will be unharmed." 4 This plan seemed good to Absalom and to all the elders of Israel. 5 But Absalom said, "Summon also Hushai the Arkite, so we can hear what he has to say." 6 When Hushai came to him, Absalom said, "Ahithophel has given this advice. Should we do what he says? If not, give us your opinion." 7 Hushai replied to Absalom, "The advice Ahithophel has given is not good this time. 8 You know your father and his men; they are fighters, and as fierce as a wild bear robbed of her cubs. Besides, your father is an 58
  59. 59. experienced fighter; he will not spend the night with the troops. 9 Even now, he is hidden in a cave or some other place. If he should attack your troops first, whoever hears about it will say, 'There has been a slaughter among the troops who follow Absalom.' 10 Then even the bravest soldier, whose heart is like the heart of a lion, will melt with fear, for all Israel knows that your father is a fighter and that those with him are brave. 11 "So I advise you: Let all Israel, from Dan to Beersheba-- as numerous as the sand on the seashore-- be gathered to you, with you yourself leading them into battle. 12 Then we will attack him wherever he may be found, and we will fall on him as dew settles on the ground. Neither he nor any of his men will be left alive. 13 If he withdraws into a city, then all Israel will bring ropes to that city, and we will drag it down to the valley until not even a piece of it can be found." 14 Absalom and all the men of Israel said, "The advice of Hushai the Arkite is better than that of Ahithophel." For the LORD had determined to frustrate the good advice of Ahithophel in order to bring disaster on Absalom. 59
  60. 60. Discuss: Who gave the best advice? Whose advice was listened to? Why? 1. The Best Leaders are _____________. Leaders must paint or draw a ______________ in their followers’ minds! Left Brain step-by-step reasoning logical mathematical speaking linear engineers, scientists 60
  61. 61. Right Brain mystical musical "creative" visual-pictorial circular artists, musicians, storytellers The ear is 1/10th the organ of the eye. -- W. Churchill Leaders must help people see ________________ not reasons. The human mind is not a debating hall, but a picture gallery. The link between the mind and the will is the imagination. You must appeal to it. 61
  62. 62. Martin Luther King’s “I have a Dream” Exercise: Circle all the images and word pictures. Circle the Concrete Words vs. Abstract words Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of captivity. But one hundred years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is 62
  63. 63. still languishing in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. So we have come here today to dramatize an appalling condition. In a sense we have come to our nation's capital to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men would be guaranteed the inalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note insofar as her citizens of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check which has come back marked "insufficient funds." But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. So we have come to cash this check . . . Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to Georgia, go back 63
  64. 64. to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair. I say to you today, my friends, that in spite of the difficulties and frustrations of the moment, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal." I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slaveowners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day the state of Alabama, whose governor's lips are 64
  65. 65. presently dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. This is our hope. This is the faith with which I return to the South. With this faith we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing 65
  66. 66. with a new meaning, "My country, 'tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the pilgrim's pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring." And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let freedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania! Let freedom ring from the snowcapped Rockies of Colorado! Let freedom ring from the curvaceous peaks of California! But not only that; let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia! Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee! Let freedom ring from every hill and every molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let freedom ring. When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing 66
  67. 67. in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!" 2. The Best Leaders are ___________________. “The greatest thing of all is to be master of metaphor.”-Aristotle Poetry -- figurative language: metaphor, similes, parables, allegories, stories, narratives, fables, images, symbols---- turns people’s “ears into eyes.” Leaders Master the Use of __________________ Metaphor is a verbal transfer--”a figure of speech whereby we speak about one thing in terms which are seen to be suggestive of another” 67
  68. 68. All our truth, or all but fragments, is won by metaphor. - C.S. Lewis Important Truth: Images ‘feed’ concepts; concepts ‘discipline’ images. Images without concepts are blind; concepts without images are sterile.  Sallie McFague  Illustration: Lincoln Won the War by Metaphor His favorite books: KJ Bible, Aesop’s Fables, Pilgrims Progress, Shakespeare’s Plays Ship of State A House Divided Slavery Like a Poisonous Snake Chamberlain’s Speech --“we are an army to set men free.” A fact is like a sack—it won’t stand up if it’s empty. To make it stand up, first you have to put in it all the 68
  69. 69. reasons and feelings that caused it in the first place.-- Luigi Parandello Leaders Master the Use of Stories. Fall in love with Stories! 3. The Best Leaders are _________________________ Leaders can choose to communicate at the various levels with those they lead. Purpose, Philosophy, Policies, Procedures and Practices 69
  70. 70. The best leaders communicate ______________ the line. Chamberlain’s Speech---“we are an army to set men free.” Shakespeare’s Henry V The Battle of Agincourt: St Crispan’s Day Speech If you want to build a ship, don’t command men to gather wood, don’t divide the work and give orders. Instead, teach them to yearn for the vast and endless sea.  Antione de Saint Exupery The Leadership Challenge By– Kouzes and Posner The Practices and Commitments of Exemplary Leadership 70
  71. 71. 1. Challenge the Process Leaders Search for Opportunities: Confront and change the status quo. Leaders Experiment and Take Risks: Learn from Mistakes and Successes. Leaders venture out…all leaders challenge the status quo. Leaders are pioneers— people who are willing to step out into the unknown. They’re willing to take risks, to innovate and experiment to find new and better ways of things. The leader’s primary contribution is the recognition of good ideas, the support of those ideas, and the willingness to challenge the system to get new products, processes, 71
  72. 72. services, and systems adopted. Leaders are early adopters of innovation. Leaders are learners; they learn from their failures and their successes. 2. Inspire a Shared Vision Leaders envision the future: Imagining Ideal Scenarios Leaders enlist others: Attract People to Common Purposes Leaders inspire a shared vision. They gaze across the horizon of time, imagining the attractive opportunities that are in store . . . Leaders have a desire to make something happen, to change the way things are, to create 72
  73. 73. something that no one else has ever created before. Leaders live their lives backward. They see pictures in their mind’s eye . . . their clear image of the future pulls them forward. Leadership is a dialogue, not a monologue. To enlist people in a vision, leaders must know their constituents and speak their language. Leaders breathe life into the hopes and dreams of others and enable them to see the exciting possibilities that the future holds. Leaders forge a unity of purpose by showing constituents how the dream is for the common good. Leaders communicate their passion through vivid 73
  74. 74. language and expressive style. 3.Enable Others to Act Foster Collaboration: Promote Cooperative Goals and Mutual Trust Strengthen Others: Share Power and Information Leadership is a team effort. A simple test to detect whether someone is on the road to becoming a leader is the frequency of the use of the word “we.” Exemplary leaders enlist the support and assistance of all those who must make the project work--all those who have a stake in the vision. Leaders involve, in some way, all those who must live with the results, and they make it 74
  75. 75. possible for others to do good work. They enable others to act. Leaders know that no one does his or her best when feeling weak, incompetent, or alienated; they know that those who are expected to produce the results must feel a sense of ownership. Leaders enable others to act not by hoarding the power they have but by giving it away. Teamwork, trust and empowerment are essential elements of a leader’s efforts. Leadership is a relationship, founded on trust and confidence. Without trust and confidence, people don’t take risks. 75
  76. 76. 4. Model the Way Set the Example: Do What You Say You Will Do Achieve Small Wins: Build Commitment to Action Titles are granted, but it’s your behavior that wins you respect. Leaders go first. They set an example and build commitment through simple, daily acts that create progress and momentum. Leaders model the way through personal example and dedicated execution. To model effectively, leaders must first be clear about their guiding principles. Leaders are supposed to stand up for their beliefs, so they better have some beliefs to stand up for. 76
  77. 77. Leaders’ deeds are more important than their words and must be consistent with them. Leaders need operational plans; they must steer projects along a predetermined course. . . Leaders build confidence by producing small wins. In so doing, they strengthen commitment to a long-term future. 5. Encourage the Heart Recognize Contributions: Link Rewards with Performance. Celebrate Accomplishments: Value the Victories. People become exhausted, frustrated, and disenchanted. 77
  78. 78. They’re often tempted to give up. Leaders encourage the heart of their constituents to carry on. Genuine acts of caring can uplift the spirits and draw people forward. Encouragement can come from dramatic gestures or simple actions. It’s part of the leader’s job to show people that they can win. Encouragement through recognition and celebration is curiously serious business. It’s how leaders visibly and behaviorally link rewards with performance. Love may be the best kept leadership secret of all. 78
  79. 79. Learning Method -- Applying Military Leadership Principles To The Key Tasks of All Leadership 1. Leadership Principles 2. Leadership Metaphors 3. Key Biblical Passages 4. Primary Examples: Battle of Gettysburg via film, site visits, examples 5. Reflection Journaling 6. Reflection: The Leadership Challenge by Kouzes and Posner, Appendix 1 79
  80. 80. Thinking as a Military Leader Norman Schwarzkopf’s Checklist What is my mission? What is the terrain? What are my resources? What do I know about the enemy? Sun Tzu’s Art of War 1. The Tao of Leadership: Moral Influence, Politics-- that which causes people to be fully in accord with the ruler’s plan. Willingness to die with him, live with him, not fear danger 2. Heaven: climate, weather, cold and heat, constraints of seasons, weather. 3. Earth: terrain, near or far, difficult or easy, expansive or confined, high or low 4. Commander: General, Leader, wisdom, credibility, benevolence, courage, strictness 5. Doctrine and Vision: organization and regulations, tao of command, logistics, training, strength of forces 80
  81. 81. Senior Leaders at Gettysburg George G.Meade Robert E. Lee 81
  82. 82. Confederate Corps Commanders James Longstreet 1st Corps Dick Ewell 2nd Corps A.P. Hill 3rd Corps 82
  83. 83. Key Union Corps Commanders Daniel Sickles 3rd Corps John Reynolds QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. 1st Corps Oliver Howard 11th Corps Winfield Hancock 2nd Corps 83
  84. 84. Gettysburg Address Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate - we cannot consecrate - we cannot hallow - this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that from these honored dead we may take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain - that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. Abraham Lincoln - November 19, 1863 84
  85. 85. Bibliography Killer Angels by Michael Shara In the Name of Jesus by Henri Nouwen The Leadership Challenge by Kouzes and Posner Understanding Leadership by Tom Marshall The Gettysburg Campaign: A Study in Command by Edwin B. Coddington Preaching and Teaching with Imagination by Warren Wiersbe The Union Soldier in Battle by Earl J. Hess In the Hands of Providence: Joshua L. Chamberlain & the American Civil War by Alice R. Trulock The Story Factor by Annette Simmons Gettysburg by Stephen W. Sears Lost Triumph: Lee's Real Plan at Gettysburg--And Why It Failed by Tom Carhart 85
  86. 86. Heroic Leadership by Chris Lowney The Secret Language of Leadership by Stephen Denning In great deeds something abides. On great fields something stays. Forms change and pass; bodies disappear, but spirits linger, to consecrate ground for the vision- place of souls. And reverent men and women from afar, and generations that know us not and that we know not of, heart-drawn to see where and by whom great things were suffered and done for them, shall come to this deathless field to ponder and dream; And lo! the shadow of a mighty presence shall wrap them in its bosom, and the power of the vision pass into their souls. -- October 3, 1889, Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, Gettysburg, PA. 86
  87. 87. The Identity of the Leader Luke 4:1-13: Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan and was led around by the Spirit in the wilderness for forty days, being tempted by the devil. And He ate nothing during those days, and when they had ended, He became hungry. And the devil said to Him, "If You are the Son of God, tell this stone to become bread." And Jesus answered him, "It is written, 'MAN SHALL NOT LIVE ON BREAD ALONE.'" And he led Him up and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. And the devil said to Him, "I will give You all this domain and its glory; for it has been handed over to me, and I give it to whomever I wish. "Therefore if You worship before me, it shall all be Yours." Jesus answered him, "It is written, 'YOU SHALL WORSHIP THE LORD YOUR GOD AND SERVE HIM ONLY.'" And he led Him to Jerusalem and had Him stand on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to Him, " If You are the Son of God, throw Yourself down from here; for it is written, 'HE WILL COMMAND HIS ANGELS CONCERNING YOU TO GUARD YOU,' and, 'ON their HANDS THEY WILL BEAR YOU UP, SO THAT YOU WILL NOT STRIKE YOUR FOOT AGAINST A STONE.'" And Jesus answered and said to him, "It is said, 'YOU SHALL NOT PUT THE LORD YOUR GOD TO THE TEST.'" When the devil had finished every temptation, he left Him until an opportune time. 87
  88. 88. The Identity of the Leader (Why do we do ministry? Why do we lead? How do we see ourselves?) The Three Temptations Facing Every Leader 1. To Be _____________________ . I am “__________________.” Wild Animal________________ Nouwen’s Solution: _____________________________ 2. To Be ___________________ I am “__________________.” Wild Animal________________ 88
  89. 89. Nouwen’s Solution: _____________________________ 3. To Be _____________________ . I am “__________________.” Wild Animal________________ Nouwen’s Solution: _____________________________ Why was Jesus able to resist the devil’s stratagems? I Am The _____________________ Leadership begins and ends with the assurance of our unconditional sonship, of 89
  90. 90. the unbelievable love of our heavenly Father. 90

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