Electric Vehicle Grid Integration in the U.S., Europe, and China


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Summarizes a study of key drivers of electric vehicle adoption, with an emphasis on vehicle-charging scenarios and infrastructure and an eye toward identifying options that can maximize benefits from greater EV use to both consumers and the grid.

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Electric Vehicle Grid Integration in the U.S., Europe, and China

  1. 1. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration in the U.S., Europe, and China
 Challenges and Choices for Electricity and Transportation Policy
 " A report commissioned by ICCT and RAP and written by M.J. Bradley & Associates! July, 2013!
  2. 2. How will electric vehicles impact the grid?" 4,044 5,212 - 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 2013 2040 TWh U.S. Power Generation and EV Consumption Showing high, mid, and low EV penetration scenarios 12% EVs 29% EVs 72% EVs Projected Generation •  EVs can help mitigate climate change by reducing emissions from oil" •  Policies in the U.S., Europe, and China, among other regions, promote EVs" •  Adoption of EVs will increase electricity demand – how much electricity and where will it come from?" Source: MJB&A"
  3. 3. Electricity mix varies by region" 0%! 10%! 20%! 30%! 40%! 50%! 60%! 70%! 80%! 90%! 100%! California! Midwest! New England! France! Germany! China! Percentofelectricitymix! Oil/other! Hydro! Renewables! Nuclear! Natural Gas! Coal! •  Charging an electric vehicle with California’s relatively clean electricity mix will reduce emissions compared to a conventional vehicle, but in China an electric vehicle may actually increase emissions due to coal" •  Renewable sources of electricity are expected to become more prevalent in the future in all regions" Source: ICCT, using data presented in MJB&A (2013)"
  4. 4. When should EV owners plug in?" •  Charging at peak load times (e.g. evening) requires off-line generators to be turned on, increasing cost and emissions " •  Charging at off-peak times (e.g. early morning) utilizes excess electricity capacity – this is more efficient" 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 1:00 5:00 9:00 13:00 17:00 21:00 1:00 5:00 9:00 13:00 17:00 21:00 $/MWhMW Time of Day Electric Load and Real-Time Hourly Wholesale Prices 48 hour periods in July 2012 and January 2013 Load Prices January July In Eastern Massachusetts." Source: ISO-NE, MJBA" 5pm! 3am!
  5. 5. Maximizing benefits" §  Smart charging at off-peak times helps the grid and saves EV owners money" §  Fast charging is convenient for EV owners, but may be difficult for grid operators to manage" §  EVs could potentially provide ancillary services, such as storing excess electricity in its battery during off-peak times and returning it to the grid at peak load" Figure shows summer load. Source: NREL"
  6. 6. Policy recommendations for smart EV- grid integration" §  Limit negative grid impacts like exacerbating peak load or creating local load pockets" §  Realize full potential of grid benefits like slow charging at off-peak times, which will lower costs and emissions! §  Expand economic incentives for drivers through time of use charging, ability to provide ancillary services, and policies that reward purchase of EVs and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions! §  Avoid creating stranded assets through subsidies by limiting public investment in high capital cost charging equipment that is at risk of being underutilized."