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Electric Vehicle Grid Integration in the U.S., Europe, and China
Electric Vehicle Grid Integration in the U.S., Europe, and China
Electric Vehicle Grid Integration in the U.S., Europe, and China
Electric Vehicle Grid Integration in the U.S., Europe, and China
Electric Vehicle Grid Integration in the U.S., Europe, and China
Electric Vehicle Grid Integration in the U.S., Europe, and China
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Electric Vehicle Grid Integration in the U.S., Europe, and China

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Summarizes a study of key drivers of electric vehicle adoption, with an emphasis on vehicle-charging scenarios and infrastructure and an eye toward identifying options that can maximize benefits from …

Summarizes a study of key drivers of electric vehicle adoption, with an emphasis on vehicle-charging scenarios and infrastructure and an eye toward identifying options that can maximize benefits from greater EV use to both consumers and the grid.

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  • 1. Electric Vehicle Grid Integration in the U.S., Europe, and China
 Challenges and Choices for Electricity and Transportation Policy
 " A report commissioned by ICCT and RAP and written by M.J. Bradley & Associates! July, 2013!
  • 2. How will electric vehicles impact the grid?" 4,044 5,212 - 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 2013 2040 TWh U.S. Power Generation and EV Consumption Showing high, mid, and low EV penetration scenarios 12% EVs 29% EVs 72% EVs Projected Generation •  EVs can help mitigate climate change by reducing emissions from oil" •  Policies in the U.S., Europe, and China, among other regions, promote EVs" •  Adoption of EVs will increase electricity demand – how much electricity and where will it come from?" Source: MJB&A"
  • 3. Electricity mix varies by region" 0%! 10%! 20%! 30%! 40%! 50%! 60%! 70%! 80%! 90%! 100%! California! Midwest! New England! France! Germany! China! Percentofelectricitymix! Oil/other! Hydro! Renewables! Nuclear! Natural Gas! Coal! •  Charging an electric vehicle with California’s relatively clean electricity mix will reduce emissions compared to a conventional vehicle, but in China an electric vehicle may actually increase emissions due to coal" •  Renewable sources of electricity are expected to become more prevalent in the future in all regions" Source: ICCT, using data presented in MJB&A (2013)"
  • 4. When should EV owners plug in?" •  Charging at peak load times (e.g. evening) requires off-line generators to be turned on, increasing cost and emissions " •  Charging at off-peak times (e.g. early morning) utilizes excess electricity capacity – this is more efficient" 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 1:00 5:00 9:00 13:00 17:00 21:00 1:00 5:00 9:00 13:00 17:00 21:00 $/MWhMW Time of Day Electric Load and Real-Time Hourly Wholesale Prices 48 hour periods in July 2012 and January 2013 Load Prices January July In Eastern Massachusetts." Source: ISO-NE, MJBA" 5pm! 3am!
  • 5. Maximizing benefits" §  Smart charging at off-peak times helps the grid and saves EV owners money" §  Fast charging is convenient for EV owners, but may be difficult for grid operators to manage" §  EVs could potentially provide ancillary services, such as storing excess electricity in its battery during off-peak times and returning it to the grid at peak load" Figure shows summer load. Source: NREL"
  • 6. Policy recommendations for smart EV- grid integration" §  Limit negative grid impacts like exacerbating peak load or creating local load pockets" §  Realize full potential of grid benefits like slow charging at off-peak times, which will lower costs and emissions! §  Expand economic incentives for drivers through time of use charging, ability to provide ancillary services, and policies that reward purchase of EVs and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions! §  Avoid creating stranded assets through subsidies by limiting public investment in high capital cost charging equipment that is at risk of being underutilized."

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