Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
The Potential Role of Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells in Solving the Climate,
Environmental and Energy
Challenges.

Alan C. Lloyd,...
International Council on Clean Transportation
     Goal of the ICCT is to dramatically reduce
      conventional pollutan...
Outline
  Introduction and background
  Changing global landscape
  Market deployment opportunities
  Fuel cell transp...
Motivation for Deploying Zero to Near
    Zero Emission Technologies

  Conventional air
   and other Pollution
  Potent...
Augmenting CO2: Control to
      Mitigate Climate Change
  In addition to CO2 reduction, need more “fast
   action” polic...
Share of Global Black Carbon
Emissions from all Sources in 2000




     Source: Bond, T.. (2009) Black carbon: Emission s...
Global Warming Potential (GWP)
   Estimated from IPCC 2007

                                      GWP20                   ...
Global Demand for Cars
COUNTRY               POPULATION (Millions)   CARS per 1000 people
Italy                 58.2      ...
Expected Economic Growth
     Country   GDP Growth % 2010
      China            8.6
      India            6.3
     Vietn...
Market Deployment Opportunities
  Global environment and climate challenges require
   actions to increase efficiency and...
Source: Honda Fuel Cell Vehicle Activities presentation by Stephen Ellis,
Manager FCV Marketing


                        ...
Transportation Applications
  Most H2 applications will use fuel cell
   vehicles
  H2 ICE also being demonstrated by BM...
Source: Overview of Mazda Hydrogen Vehicles, DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell
Technical Advisory Committee


                   ...
Source: Overview of Mazda Hydrogen Vehicles, DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell
Technical Advisory Committee

                    ...
Source: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities by Sunita Satyapal,
Acting Program Manager, DOE Fuel Cell Technologi...
Well-to-Wheels Comparison of
Future (2035) Propulsion Systems


   Need Lower
   Carbon Fuels




   Need Lower
   Carbon ...
Challenges: Liquid Fuel Advantage
ENERGY FUTURE: Think Efficiency
                                        Energy density p...
Future Battery Development
Source: On the Road to Sustainable Mobility – Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles by
Michael Schweizer, Product Management – Advan...
Challenges: Development
  Potential barriers to new propulsion systems
    –  Higher vehicle first cost
          •  Lear...
Source: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities by Sunita Satyapal,
Acting Program Manager, DOE Fuel Cell Technologi...
Challenges: Commercialization
  Production build-up issues in addition to potential
   development barriers:
    –  Devel...
Source: GM HTAC Review Automotive Fuel Cells by Keith Cole, Director Advanced
Technology Vehicle Strategy & Legislative Af...
Source: On the Road to Sustainable Mobility – Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles by Michael Schweizer, Product
Management – Advan...
Stationary Source Applications
  Rifkin Third Industrial Revolution Concept;
     –  Buildings as renewable energy source...
Sierra Nevada Brewing Co. – Chico, California, USA




    Natural or bio-gas is fed to the Fuel Cell , where hydrogen ga...
Solutions
       Extended Run Backup Power
  Telecom Base Transceiver Stations
  UPS
  Highway/Railway Signaling and Co...
ElectraGen™ H2-I Images




              Source: IdaTech 2009
Hydrogen Energy California (HECA)
Project:                        Hydrogen-fuelled power plant with carbon capture and seq...
Source: (Revised) Application for Certification for Hydrogen Energy California Kern County,
California by URS Hydrogen Ene...
Top Emitters of GHGs in California,
       2008 (In Metric Tons)
1.    Chevron Refinery, Richmond: 4,792,052
2.    Shell O...
Conclusions
  Environmental, climate and energy challenges present an excellent
   opportunity for H2 and fuel cells

  ...
Global Risk, Global Action

“When I began looking at the subject of climate
 change, what I find first thing to hit me was...
Global Actions
  Global cooperation necessary to confront
   environmental, climate and economic threats
  IPHE is an ex...
Additional Materials




                       Slide 35
Source: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities by Sunita Satyapal,
Acting Program Manager, DOE Fuel Cell Technologi...
Source: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities by Sunita Satyapal,
Acting Program Manager, DOE Fuel Cell Technologi...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Advanced vehicle technologies

2,485

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,485
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
57
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Advanced vehicle technologies"

  1. 1. The Potential Role of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Solving the Climate, Environmental and Energy Challenges. Alan C. Lloyd, Ph.D. President, International Council on Clean Transportation Joint 12th IPHE Implementation and Liaison (ILC) & Steering Committee (SC) Meeting December 2, 2009
  2. 2. International Council on Clean Transportation   Goal of the ICCT is to dramatically reduce conventional pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from all transportation sources in order to improve air quality and human health, and mitigate climate change.   Promotes best practices and comprehensive solutions to: –  Improve vehicle emissions and efficiency –  Increase fuel quality and sustainability of alternative fuels –  Reduce pollution from the in-use fleet, and –  Curtail emissions from international goods movement.   The Council is made up of leading regulators and experts from around the world." www.theicct.org Slide 2
  3. 3. Outline   Introduction and background   Changing global landscape   Market deployment opportunities   Fuel cell transportation applications   Stationary energy generation opportunities   Future needs and prognosis Slide 3
  4. 4. Motivation for Deploying Zero to Near Zero Emission Technologies   Conventional air and other Pollution   Potential dramatic GHG reduction   Energy security/ independence issues
  5. 5. Augmenting CO2: Control to Mitigate Climate Change   In addition to CO2 reduction, need more “fast action” policies (Molina et al. 2009)   Reduction of HFCS with high GWP   Reduction of precursor gases to ozone formation   Reduction of black carbon (B.C. and/or soot)   Strong link between conventional pollutants and GHG Slide 5
  6. 6. Share of Global Black Carbon Emissions from all Sources in 2000 Source: Bond, T.. (2009) Black carbon: Emission sources and prioritization. Presentation at the 2009 International Workshop on Black Carbon. 5-6 Jan 2009. London, UK.
  7. 7. Global Warming Potential (GWP) Estimated from IPCC 2007 GWP20 GWP100 GWP500 Black carbon 1600 460 140 Methane 72 25 7.6 Nitrous oxide 289 298 153 Sulfur oxides -140 -40 -12 Organic carbon -240 -69 -21 Carbon dioxide 1 1 1 Source: ICCT (2009) A Policy-relevant Summary of Black Carbon Climate Science and Appropriate Emission Control Strategies. Available online at http://www.theicct.org Note: The methodology used for black carbon was also used for organic carbon and sulfur oxides. Values for black carbon, organic carbon and sulfur oxides were not published by the IPCC and are not official estimates.
  8. 8. Global Demand for Cars COUNTRY POPULATION (Millions) CARS per 1000 people Italy 58.2 595 Germany 82.7 565 Canada 32.9 561 Australia 20.6 507 France 60.9 496 Sweden 9.1 462 USA 303.9 461 UK 60.0 457 Japan 128.3 441 Norway 4.7 439 S. Korea 48.1 240 India 1,135.6 8 Kenya / Philippines 36.0 / 85.9 9 China 1,331.4 18 Slide 8
  9. 9. Expected Economic Growth Country GDP Growth % 2010 China 8.6 India 6.3 Vietnam 6.0 France 0.9 Germany 0.5 UK 0.6 Canada 2.0 USA 2.4 Brazil 3.8 Source: Economist 2009 Slide 9
  10. 10. Market Deployment Opportunities   Global environment and climate challenges require actions to increase efficiency and decarbonize fuels   Magnitude of challenge will require sustained effort to dramatically reduce pollution and GHG   Hydrogen in transportation and stationary applications can play a role – how significant depends on policies and actions in the next few years Slide 10
  11. 11. Source: Honda Fuel Cell Vehicle Activities presentation by Stephen Ellis, Manager FCV Marketing Slide 11
  12. 12. Transportation Applications   Most H2 applications will use fuel cell vehicles   H2 ICE also being demonstrated by BMW and Mazda   H2 also being used in heavy duty engines in blends with CNG Slide 12
  13. 13. Source: Overview of Mazda Hydrogen Vehicles, DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee Slide 13
  14. 14. Source: Overview of Mazda Hydrogen Vehicles, DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee Slide 14
  15. 15. Source: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities by Sunita Satyapal, Acting Program Manager, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program Slide 15
  16. 16. Well-to-Wheels Comparison of Future (2035) Propulsion Systems Need Lower Carbon Fuels Need Lower Carbon Electricity »  MIT  On  the  Road  in  2035   16
  17. 17. Challenges: Liquid Fuel Advantage ENERGY FUTURE: Think Efficiency Energy density per Energy density per weight volume kWh/liter vs gasoline KWh/kg vs gasoline Gasoline 9.7 13.2 Diesel fuel 10.7 110% 12.7 96% Ethanol 6.4 66% 7.9 60% Hydrogen at 10,000 psi 1.3 13% 39 295% Liquid hydrogen 2.6 27% 39 295% NiMH battery 0.1-0.3 2.1% 0.1 0.8% Lithium-ion battery (present time) 0.2 2.1% 0.14 1.1% Lithium-ion battery (future) 0.28 ? 2.1% Source: American Physical Society, Sept. 2008, Chapter 2, Table 1 17
  18. 18. Future Battery Development
  19. 19. Source: On the Road to Sustainable Mobility – Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles by Michael Schweizer, Product Management – Advanced Product Planning Mercedes- Benz USA Slide 19
  20. 20. Challenges: Development   Potential barriers to new propulsion systems –  Higher vehicle first cost •  Learning & economies of scale not realized –  Fueling •  Storage, infrastructure, range issues •  May be higher or lower (electricity) cost –  Safety, reliability, durability concerns Courtesy AC Transit –  Customer lack of awareness & risk aversion –  Manufacturers risk aversion –  Sunk capital costs in current technology Daimler Fuel Cell Vehicle
  21. 21. Source: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities by Sunita Satyapal, Acting Program Manager, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program Slide 21
  22. 22. Challenges: Commercialization   Production build-up issues in addition to potential development barriers: –  Development lead times and availability across product platforms –  Capital investment required –  Supply of critical systems/components –  Capacity utilization   Competition from continuing improvements from conventional technologies
  23. 23. Source: GM HTAC Review Automotive Fuel Cells by Keith Cole, Director Advanced Technology Vehicle Strategy & Legislative Affairs Slide 23
  24. 24. Source: On the Road to Sustainable Mobility – Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles by Michael Schweizer, Product Management – Advanced Product Planning Mercedes- Benz USA Slide 24
  25. 25. Stationary Source Applications   Rifkin Third Industrial Revolution Concept; –  Buildings as renewable energy sources –  Smart grid –  Hydrogen as storage, potential link with transportation   Portable Power –  Small consumer electronics (mobile phones, laptops) –  Micro fuel cells   Large fuel cells –  FC energy deployment –  UTC applications   Fork lifts   Telecom back-up power Slide 25
  26. 26. Sierra Nevada Brewing Co. – Chico, California, USA   Natural or bio-gas is fed to the Fuel Cell , where hydrogen gas is extracted and combined with oxygen from the air to produce electricity, heat, and water. Heat is then recovered and used to heat water for brewing and the electricity is used throughout the brewery. Fuel Cells are efficient, quiet, and produce extremely low emissions.   Completed one of the largest fuel cell installation in the United States - installing four 250-kilowatt co-generation fuel cell power units to supply electric power and heat to the brewery. Slide 26
  27. 27. Solutions Extended Run Backup Power   Telecom Base Transceiver Stations   UPS   Highway/Railway Signaling and Communications   Surveillance, Sensing, Pumping, SCADA Source: IdaTech 2009
  28. 28. ElectraGen™ H2-I Images Source: IdaTech 2009
  29. 29. Hydrogen Energy California (HECA) Project: Hydrogen-fuelled power plant with carbon capture and sequestration combined enhanced oil recovery Location: Kern County, California, USA Partners: Type: Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and sequestration combined with enhanced oil recovery Output: 390 gross MW Feedstock: Petroleum coke and coal as needed CO2 capture: Over 2 million tons per year Projected construction start: 2011 Projected target completion: 2015 Status: Applied for California Energy Commission permit in 2009 Source: http://www.hydrogenenergy.com/content_329_kern_county_california Slide 29
  30. 30. Source: (Revised) Application for Certification for Hydrogen Energy California Kern County, California by URS Hydrogen Energy International, Submitted to California Energy Commission Slide 30
  31. 31. Top Emitters of GHGs in California, 2008 (In Metric Tons) 1.  Chevron Refinery, Richmond: 4,792,052 2.  Shell Oil Refinery, Martinez: 4,570,475 3.  BP Refinery, Carson: 4,504,286 4.  Chevron Refinery, El Segundo: 3,603, 446 5.  Dynegy Power Plant, Moss Landing: 2,962,149 6.  Exxon Refinery, Torrance: 2,852,374 7.  Valero Refinery, Benicia: 2,796,057 8.  Tesoro Refinery, Martinez: 2,703,145 9.  Southern California Edison – Mountain View Power Plant, Redlands: 2,697,142 10.  La Paloma Power Plant, McKittrick: 2,544,398 Source: California Air Resources Board Slide 31
  32. 32. Conclusions   Environmental, climate and energy challenges present an excellent opportunity for H2 and fuel cells   Market potential has to recognize advancement in conventional technologies   Need clean advanced technologies and fuels including light weight platforms for transportation   Cost will continue to be a major issue as with most “game- changing” technologies, e.g. batteries and fuel cells, cost and infrastructure will pose significant challenges   Close cooperation between government and industry, and among nations will be required over a sustained period Slide 32
  33. 33. Global Risk, Global Action “When I began looking at the subject of climate change, what I find first thing to hit me was the magnitude of the risks and the potentially devastating effects on the lives of people across the world. We were gambling the planet.” -Sir Nicholas Stern Blueprint for a Safer Planet, 2009 Slide 33
  34. 34. Global Actions   Global cooperation necessary to confront environmental, climate and economic threats   IPHE is an example of such cooperation Slide 34
  35. 35. Additional Materials Slide 35
  36. 36. Source: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities by Sunita Satyapal, Acting Program Manager, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program Slide 36
  37. 37. Source: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities by Sunita Satyapal, Acting Program Manager, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program Slide 37
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×