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中国2010年新乘用车节油技术应用情况分析 及国际比较
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中国2010年新乘用车节油技术应用情况分析 及国际比较

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Technology assessment of China’s new passenger car fleet and international comparisons

Technology assessment of China’s new passenger car fleet and international comparisons

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  • 1. Technology assessment of China’s newpassenger car fleet and internationalcomparisons中国2010年新乘用车节油技术应用情况分析及国际比较Hui He, Jun Tu国际清洁交通委员会 何卉、涂军January 2013
  • 2. 国际清洁交通委员会成员来自各国政府官员和专家委员会目标是改善全球车辆、船只、飞机以及燃油的能耗和排放水平,以促进公共健康、减缓气候变化效应。2012年(印度)会议与会者来自:美国、加拿大、德国、日本、中国、印度、墨西哥、韩国、巴西 2
  • 3. 18.5 15.0 13.0 世界上主要的汽车市场就是我们 开展工作的主要领域 4.2 3.6 3.3 2.8 1.6 1.6 1.0 0.9 Slide 3 Source: Ward’s Automotive
  • 4. Background 背景§  To support China to develop §  对中国中长期轻型车油耗标 mid-to-long term fuel 准制订提供技术支持 consumption standards for passenger cars §  中国油耗标准回顾§  Regulatory history –  从2005年起制订并实施了 –  China has been regulating new 三个阶段标准 light-duty vehicle fuel economy since 2005. –  现行标准(第三阶段)去 –  Current standards (phase 3) 年开始实施 phased in last year. –  Auto industry development plan §  节能与新能源汽车产业规划 2012-2020 sets 5L/100km 2012-2020制订了第四阶段§  ICCT’s role: based on experience 初步目标:5升/百公里 from our US and EU technology and cost work, we’d like to §  ICCT过去几年致力于欧盟达 introduce a similar methodology 标成本曲线的研究,相似的 to China to evaluate 方法框架和模型可用于中国 technologies and costs to meet the future targets. 。基准技术水平研究是第 一步。 4
  • 5. Data and methodology 数据与方法 PC Fleet 乘用车 Import Fleet Domestic 国产车 进口车 Domestic Lower Mini Small Medium Large MinivanParameters 参数 Fleet medium SUV 微型 小型 中型 大型 微客 国产全体 中小型Engine size (cc) 发动机排量 (cc) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Curb weight (kg) 整备质量 (kg) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Wheel base (mm) 轴距 (mm) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 99%Front track width (mm) 前轮距 (mm) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 99% 100% 100% 98%Rear track width (mm) 后轮距 (mm) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 99% 100% 100% 98%Power (HP) 功率 (HP) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 98% 100%HP (rpm) 功率转速 (rpm) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 99%Torque (N.m) 扭矩 (N.m) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 99% 100% 100% 100%Torque (rpm) 扭距转速 (rpm) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 99% 100% 100% 99%Max speed (km/h) 最高车速 (km/h) 99% 97% 99% 100% 100% 100% 99% 100% 98% 98%Accel speed 0-100km/h 0-100公里/时加速时间 34% 84% 32% 16% 27% 41% 59% 70% 26% 0%Compression ratio 气缸压缩比 94% 99% 93% 84% 99% 98% 84% 96% 77% 100%Drive train 传动系统 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Fuel type 燃油类型 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Transmission type 变速器类型 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%No. of gears 变速器档位数 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Engine type 发动机类型 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Valve configuration 气门结构 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%No. of cylinders 汽缸数 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Valve per cylinder 每汽缸气门数 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Fuel supply 供油方式 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Air intake 进气方式 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Valve timing 气门正时 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Valve lift 气门升程 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Fuel consumption (urban) 油耗 (市区) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Fuel consumption(extraurban) 油耗 (郊区) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%Fuel consumption(combined) 油耗 (综合) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 5 Emissions standard 排放标准 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
  • 6. Technologies analyzed in this paper 主要节油技术一览及本研究涵盖的技术种类 Potential CO2 Analyzed reduction! in this Technologies技术类别 CO2 减排潜 report! 力 本研究涵盖! Low friction lubrication 低阻润滑油 0.5% Engine friction reduction 降低发动机阻力 2-4% # Variable valve timing (and lift)可变气门正时和升程 4-6% x # Engine# Cylinder deactivation 停缸 5-6% # 发动机技术 Turbocharging 涡轮增压 2-5% x # # Turbo, gasoline direct injection 增压汽油直喷 8-15% x Powertrain# Cooled EGR, turbo, GDI 冷却废气循环+增压汽油直喷 20-25%传动系统 Compression ignition diesel 柴油压燃 15-25%# Digital valve actuation 数字气门驱动 5-10% # Early torque converter lock-up液力变矩器提早锁止 0.5%  Transmission# # Optimized shifting 变档优化 2-6% 变速器技术  6+ speed 6档以变速器 2-8% x # Continuously variable无极变速 8-11% x Dual-clutch, automated manual双离合、手自一体变速器 9-13% x # Aerodynamics 空气动力优化设计 2-5% # Tire rolling resistance 低滚动阻力轮胎 2-4% # Accessories (steering, air cond., alternator) 附件能效优化 1-4%Vehicle # Lower refrigerant emissions (low-leak, low-GWP) 低温室效应值的空调制冷剂 2-10%整车(车体# Mass-reduction# Advanced material components 先进材料 1-5%# 减重 Integrated vehicle design 整合设计 5-10% # x (with limited Stop-start mild hybrid弱混合动力 6-8% # Hybrid systems data)  Full hybrid electric system强混合动力 30-35% 6 *Source of technology potential: EPA NPRM减排潜力数值来源: 联邦环保署2025年轻型车标准草案
  • 7. Ques%ons  answered  in  this  study   本研究探讨了以下问题§  What is the technology status §  中国整体乘用车队、各 of the entire Chinese passenger car fleet, each major market 细分市场和各主要企业 segment, and each major 的车队特征和技术应用情 manufacturers? 况§  How does the Chinese fleet compares to that of US and EU §  中国乘用车与欧、美乘 in vehicle specifications and 用车车队特征和技术水 fuel efficiency technology 平对比 adoption?§  How different are independent §  国产车中,自主品牌和 brands from joint venture 合资品牌乘用车是否存 automakers in terms of 在和存在多大技术差异 technology adoption? 7
  • 8. Comparison of fleet characteristics and technology adoption rates by region 中、美、欧盟轻型车车辆参数和技术采用率比较 EU Gasoline PC US LDV US PC Chinese EU PC Fleet Fleet Fleet Fleet PC Fleet Parameters 参数 欧盟乘用车 欧盟汽油乘用车 美国轻型车 美国乘用车 中国乘用车Specifications 基本参数 Engine size (L) 发动机排量 (L) 1.6 1.4 3.1 2.6 1.7 Curb weight (kg) 整备质量 (kg) 1,322 1,172 1,815 1,611 1,280 Footprint (m2) 脚印面积 (m2) 3.9 3.75 4.51 4.22 3.79 Power (kW) 功率(kW) 84 77 174C 156C 86 Max speed (km/h) 最高时速 (km/h) 185 178 223 218 170 Power-to-weight ratio (W/kg) 功率整备质量比 (W/kg) 62 63 96 97 65 Engine specific power (kW/L) 发动机升功率 (kW/L) 51 52 57 60 51Fuel Consumption and CO2 油耗 Urban FC (L/100km)e 市区油耗 (L/100km) 7.4 8.1 9.8 8.6 10.4 Extraurban FC (L/100km)e 郊区油耗 (L/100km) 4.9 5.1 6.4 5.6 6.3 Combined FC (L/100km)e 综合油耗 (L/100km) 5.8 6.2 8.3 7.3 7.8 Combined NEDC FC (L/ 折算成NEDC工况的综合油 5.8 6.2 9.4 8.1 7.8 100km) 耗 (L/100km) 8
  • 9. US LDV US PC Chinese EU PC Fleet EU Gasoline PC Fleet Parameters 参数 欧盟乘用车 欧盟汽油乘用车 Fleet Fleet PC Fleet 美国轻型车 美国乘用车 中国乘用车Fuel Type 燃油种类 CNG/LPG/flex-fuel CNG/LPG/灵活燃料 3% - - - 0% Diesel 柴油 51% - 1% 1% 1% Gasoline 汽油 44% 100% 96% 94% 99% Hybrid 汽油/电混合动力 1% - 4% 5% <0.1%Transmission type 变速器类型 Automatic 自动 9% 14% 84% 80% 34% CVT 无极变速CVT 2% 1% 11% 14% 5% DCT 双离合变速DCT 3% - 1%d 2%d 1% Manual 手动 86% 83% 4% 5% 60%Number of Gears 变速器档数 <=4 <=4 1% 2% 25% 29% 12% 5 5 59% 51% 24% 21% 66% >=6   >=6 38% 17% 41% 36% 17%Fuel Supply 供油方式 Carburetor 化油器 - - 0% 0% <1% Diesel injection 柴油喷射 - - 1% 1% <1% GDI 汽油缸内直喷 14% 32% 8% 8% 6% MPI 多点喷射 - - 77% 80% 82% SPI 单点喷射 - - 0% 0% 11% Sequential injection 顺序燃油喷射 - - 14% 11% 0%Air Intake 进气方式 Naturally aspirated 自然吸气 41% 80% - - 93% Turbo/supercharger 涡轮增压或机械增压 59% 16% 4% 4% 7%Variable Valve Timing 可变气门正时 - - 84% 91% 44%Variable Valve Lift   气门升程 17% 18% 6% Continuous 连续可变气门升程 - - 2% 2% 1% Discrete 非连续可变气门升程 - - 15% 16% 5% 9
  • 10. Market size of each segment, breakdown by manufacturer type各细分市场份额、及各细分市场内合资品牌和自主品牌销量比例Outer ring legend 外环图例 others! Mini! 6%! 6%! Chinese independent Small! 自主企业 Mini Van! 15%! 16%! 微型 Joint venture 其他 小型 微客 合资企业 SUV! 10%! 大型 中小型 Large! 中型 4%! Lower Medium! 32%! Medium! 10%! 10
  • 11. Market segments and representative models 源数据对各主要细分市场定义及代表车型 Lower ! Mini! Small! Medium! Large! Minivan! Medium! SUV   微型 小型 中型 大型 微客 中小型hatchback ≤3.75 Hatchbacks ≤ 4.1 Hatchbacks 4.1 usually a sedan, usually a sedan, compact SUV, 5 small bus basedm, RMB 40,000 ~ m, sedans ≤4.3 m, ~4.5 m, sedans 4.6 ~5 m, RMB l≥ 5.0 m, ≥RMB seats, 2.0 L, SUV on Japanese Kei- 60,000# RMB 40,000 4.3 ~4.6 m, RMB 100,000 220,000# often with car platform,长度不超过3.75 ~60,000# 80,000 ~ 130,000# ~180,000# 长度超过5米的 separate chassis, engine around 1.0米的两厢车,价 长度不超过4.1米的 长度介于4.1米到 一般是4.6-5米长 三厢车,价位在 ≥2.2L often 7 L#位一般在4万元左 两厢车或长度不超 4.5米之间的两厢 的三厢车,价位 22万以上, 多 seats# 基于日本Kei-右,个别达到6万 过4.3米的三厢车, 车或4.3-4.6米的 一般在10到18万 在30万以上 发动机排量在2升 car(轻自动车) 元 价位一般在4万元 三厢车,价位一 元之间   左右,可乘坐5人 平台,发动机排量   (人民币)左右,般在8到13万元之   的紧凑型SUV和发 在1升左右的小巴 个别达到6万元 间 动机排量在2.2升 士   以上,可乘坐7人、   有独立底盘的SUVChery  QQ3   BYD  F3,  F0   Hyundai  Elantra   Honda  Accord   Audi  A6   Honda  CR-­‐V   Wuling  Zhiguang  FAW  Xialia   Honda  City   Buick  Excelle   Toyota  Camry   Buick  LaCrosse,   Toyota  RAV4,   Wuling  Xingwang  Chang’an   Chevrolet  Sail,   VW  Lavida,   Nissan  Bluebird,  Regal   Highlander   Chang’an  Start  Benben   Lova   JePa,  Bora,   Teana   BMW  5  Series   Kia  Sportage   Chang’an  Start  II  Chevrolet  Spark  VW  Polo   Santana   Mazda  6   Toyota  Crown,   Great  Wall   Chang’an  Changhe   Ford  Fiesta   Cherolet  Cruze   VW  Passat,   Reiz   Haval   Starlight  Beidouxing   Geely  Kingkong   Ford  Focus   Magotan   Hawtai  Santa  Fe  Hafei  Minyi  Geely  Panda   Geely  Free   Toyota  Corolla   Chevrolet  Epica   Zotye  500B   Hafei  Zhongyi  Suzuki  Auto   Cruiser   Nissan  Tiida   BYD  F6   VW  Tiguan   Dongfeng  Yu’an   Suzuki  SwiL   Skoda  Octavia   Ford  Mondeo   Chery  Tiggo3   Xiaokang   FAW  Weizhi   Kida  Forte   Hyundai  Tucson   Honda  Civic   11 Chang’an  Alsvin    
  • 12. Average values of vehicle features by segment 各细分市场车辆基本参数均值 Lower ! Mini! Small! Medium! Large! SUV! Minivan! medium!  Parameters! 参数 微型 小型 中小型 中型 大型 微型 SUV 轿车 轿车 轿车 轿车 轿车 客车Market share (%)! 市场份额(%) 6%! 15%! 32%! 10%! 4%! 10%! 16%!Price (USD)! 价格 (USD) 6789! 11573! 17199! 28977! 51061! 28285! 5401!Engine size (L)! 发动机排量 (L) 1.1! 1.4! 1.6! 2! 2.4! 2.1! 1.1!Curb weight (kg)! 整备质量(kg) 918! 1080! 1258! 1464! 1684! 1567! 998!Footprint (m2)! 脚印面积 (m2) 3.1! 3.6! 3.9! 4.2! 4.6! 4! 3!Horsepower (kW)! 马力 (kW) 50! 71! 84! 112! 141! 110! 45!Max speed (km/h)! 最大设计时速 (km/h) 142! 169! 181! 198! 218! 171! 110!Power/weight (W/kg)! 功率整备质量比 (W/kg) 55! 66! 67! 77! 83! 70! 45!Specific power (kW/L)! 升功率 (kW/L) 45! 51! 53! 56! 59! 52! 41!Fuel consumption !(L/100km)! 油耗 (L/100km) 6.4! 6.7! 7.4! 8.5! 9! 9! 7.6! 12
  • 13. Technology adoption by segment 各细分市场节油技术采用率 Lower Mini   Small   Medium   Large   SUV   Minivan   Medium   Parameters   参数 微型 小型 中小型 中型 大型 SUV 微客Engine   发动机技术     Diesel   柴油车比例 0%   0%   0%   0%   1%   6%   0%   Hybrid*  混合动力比例* 0%   0%   0%   1%   0%   0%   0%   GDI   汽油缸内直喷 0%   0%   4%   16%   33%   8%   0%  Turbo charger   涡轮增压 0%   0%   5%   16%   14%   14%   0%   Supercharger   机械增压 0%   0%   0%   0%   1%   0%   0%   VVT   可变气门正时 7%   13%   53%   89%   99%   63%   0%  Transmission   变速器技术 Automatic   自动 17%   24%   39%   53%   76%   40%   0%   CVT   无极变速 CVT 0%   2%   4%   13%   13%   7%   0%   双离合变速 DCT   DCT 0%   0%   1%   1%   0%   2%   0%   6 + Gears   6档及以上 0%   3%   21%   22%   87%   22%   0%   * Hybrid vehicle data in our raw database is not complete and this may affect values here. 13
  • 14. Comparisons between Chinese and EU segments 欧盟汽油乘用车与中国乘用车细分市场比较EU-­‐27,  2010  Segment   Mini   Small   Lower  medium   Medium   Upper  medium   Off-­‐road   Car-­‐derived  vans  Market  share   11%   29%   32%   11%   3%   9%   2%  Typical  model   Peugeot  107   Toyota  Yaris   Volkswagen  Golf   Toyota  Avensis   BMW  5er  series   BMW  X3   Renault  Kangoo  Diesel  share   7%   35%   59%   78%   81%   76%   77%  Version  by  fuel  type   Gasoline   Diesel   Gasoline   Diesel   Gasoline   Diesel   Gasoline   Diesel   Gasoline   Diesel   Gasoline   Diesel   Gasoline   Diesel  Number  of  cylinder   3.6   3.8   3.9   3.9   4.0   4.0   4.3   4.1   5.2   5.0   4.2   4.4   4.0   4.0  Displacement  [L]   1.1   1.2   1.3   1.4   1.5   1.7   2.0   2.0   2.7   2.5   1.9   2.2   1.5   1.6  Power  [kW]   51   51   63   61   87   83   128   109   177   144   111   123   68   67  AT  share     12%   12%   9%   3%   14%   12%   36%   21%   74%   61%   24%   37%   4%   4%  Curb  weight  [kg]   904   975   1105   1173   1312   1405   1514   1565   1708   1764   1450   1772   1402   1428  CO2  [NEDC  g/km]     118   111   136   113   156   132   178   148   200   163   182   182   178   144  China,  2010  Segment   Mini   Small   Lower  medium   Medium   Large   SUV   Minivan  Market  share   6%   15%   32%   10%   4%   10%   16%  Typical  model   Chery  QQ3   BYD  F3   Hyundai  Elantra  Honda  Accord   Audi  A6   Honda  CR-­‐V   Wuling  Zhiguang  Diesel  share   0%   0%   0%   0%   1%   6%   0%  Number  of  cylinder   3.5   3.9   4.0   4.1   5.0   4.1   4.0  Displacement  [L]   1.1   1.4   1.6   2.0   2.4   2.1   1.1  Power  [kW]   50   71   84   112   141   110   45  AT  share     17%   26%   44%   67%   89%   50%   0%  Curb  weight  [kg]   918   1080   1258   1464   1684   1567   998  CO2  [NEDC  g/km]     150   157   173   199   211   211   178   14
  • 15. Market share of top 18 manufacturers analyzed (over 80% of sales) 本研究涵盖的销量最大的18家国内乘用车企业 Changan, 8.3%! Others, 20.0%! Shanghai-GM, 8.3%! Tianjin-FAW-Xiali, 1.9%! FAW Car, 2.1%! SAIC-GM-Wuling, 8.0%! Great Wall, 2.2%! Shanghai-VW, 7.6%! Dongfeng-Yueda-Kia , 2.5%! Dongfeng-Citroën- Peugeot, 2.8%! Geely, 2.9%! Bejing-Hyndai, 5.3%! Tianjin-FAW-Toyota, 2.9%! FAW- VW, Changan-Ford, 3.0%! Chery, 5.3%! Dongfeng-Nissan, 5.3%! BYD, 3.6%! 4.2%! Guangqi-Honda, 4.0%! 15
  • 16. Most Chinese automakers dominate smaller car market, but fuel efficiency is not necessarily better 大多数自主企业生产的车型比合资企业的小,但能效不一 定都比合资企业的好 8.5 Brown&bubbles:&Chinese&independent&automakers& Dongfeng-Citroën- Blue&bubbles:&joint&venture&automakers& Peugeot Shanghai-VW Guangqi-Honda FAW-Car Combined Fuel Consuption (L/100-km) 8.0 Great Beijing-Hyundai Wall SAIC-GM-Wuling Dongfeng-Nissan Shanghai-GM 7.5 Geely Changan Fleet%average:% Chang`an-Ford FAW-VW %7.7%L/100km%% Tianjin-FAW-Toyota 7.0 Dongfeng-Yueda-Kia Chery BYD Tianjin- 6.5 Phase%3%target:% FAW-Xiali %6.9%L/100km%% Fleet%average:%3.8%m2% 6.0 2.5 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.3 4.5 16 Footprint (m2)
  • 17. 0%% 0%% 10%% 20%% 30%% 40%% 50%% 60%% 70%% 80%% 90%% 10%% 20%% 30%% 40%% 50%% 60%% 70%% 80%% 90%% 100%% 100%% Changan% Changan% Chery% Chery% BYD% BYD% GDI% Geely% Geely% Great%Wall% Great%Wall% TianjinLFAWLXiali% TianjinLFAWLXiali% <LLLLIndependent%brandLLLL>% <LLLLIndependent%brandLLLL>% Inlet%&%outlet,%conWnuous% ShanghaiLGM% ShanghaiLGM% ShanghaiLGMLWuling% ShanghaiLGMLWuling% MulWLpoint%injecWon% ShanghaiLVW% ShanghaiLVW% BeijingLHyundai% BeijingLHyundai% Fuel%Supply Valve%Timing DongfengLNissan% DongfengLNissan% FAWLVW% FAWLVW% Inlet%only,%conWnuous% GuangqiLHonda% GuangqiLHonda% ChanganLFord% ChanganLFord% SingleLpoint%injecWon% TianjinLFAWLToyota% TianjinLFAWLToyota% DongfengLCitroënL DongfengLCitroënL Not%applicable% DongfengLYuedaLKia%% DongfengLYuedaLKia%% FAW%Car% FAW%Car% <LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLJoint%venturesLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL>% <LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLJoint%venturesLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL>% 0%% 10%% 20%% 30%% 40%% 50%% 60%% 70%% 80%% 90%% 100%% 0%% 10%% 20%% 30%% 40%% 50%% 60%% 70%% 80%% 90%% 100%% Changan% Changan% Chery% Chery% BYD% BYD% Geely% Geely% Great%Wall% Great%Wall% TianjinLFAWLXiali% TianjinLFAWLXiali% <LLLLIndependent%brandLLLL>% <LLLLIndependent%brandLLLL>% ConWnuous% ShanghaiLGM% ShanghaiLGM% ShanghaiLGMLWuling% ShanghaiLGMLWuling% Turbo/super%charger% 各主要企业发动机技术使用情况 ShanghaiLVW% ShanghaiLVW% Discrete% Valve%Lift Air%Intake BeijingLHyundai% BeijingLHyundai% Engine efficiency technology adoption DongfengLNissan% DongfengLNissan% FAWLVW% FAWLVW% GuangqiLHonda% GuangqiLHonda% Not%applicable% ChanganLFord% ChanganLFord% Naturally%aspirated% TianjinLFAWLToyota% TianjinLFAWLToyota% DongfengLCitroënL DongfengLCitroënL DongfengLYuedaLKia%% DongfengLYuedaLKia%% FAW%Car% FAW%Car% <LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLJoint%venturesLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL>% <LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLJoint%venturesLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL>%17
  • 18. 0%) 10%) 20%) 30%) 40%) 50%) 60%) 70%) 80%) 90%) 100%) Changan) Chery) BYD) Geely) Great)Wall) CVT) TianjinHFAWHXiali) <HHHHIndependent)brandHHHH>) ShanghaiHGM) Dual)clutch) ShanghaiHGMHWuling) ShanghaiHVW) Transmission)Type BeijingHHyundai) DongfengHNissan) AutomaVc) FAWHVW) GuangqiHHonda) ChanganHFord) Manual) TianjinHFAWHToyota) DongfengHCitroënHPeugeot) DongfengHYuedaHKia)) FAW)Car) <HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHJoint)venturesHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH>) 0%) 10%) 20%) 30%) 40%) 50%) 60%) 70%) 80%) 90%) 100%) Changan) Chery) BYD) Geely) Great)Wall) TianjinHFAWHXiali) <HHHHIndependent)brandHHHH>) Variable) ShanghaiHGM) ShanghaiHGMHWuling) 6+) ShanghaiHVW) Number)of)Gears BeijingHHyundai) 各主要企业变速器技术使用情况 Transmission technology adoption DongfengHNissan) 5) FAWHVW) GuangqiHHonda) 4) ChanganHFord) TianjinHFAWHToyota) DongfengHCitroënHPeugeot) DongfengHYuedaHKia))18 FAW)Car) <HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHJoint)venturesHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH>)
  • 19. Case analysis: Chinese brand vs. EU and US brands with similar product mix 案例分析: 自主品牌和欧、美合资品牌技术应用比较 12771 13001 21 41 551 701 8.01 54.11 3.81 3.81 53.71 Fuel1consump;on1(L/100km)1 7.31 Power1to1weight1ra;o1(w/kg)1 Engine1specific1power1(kW/L)1 12051 7.21 12501 3.81 7.51 1.81 541 691 68.11 Footprint1(m2)1Kerb1Weight1(kg)1 71 3.61 1.61 Engine1size1(L)1 12001 7.01 1.51 3.61 1.51 1.61 531 681 11211 66.81 11501 6.51 1.41 3.41 521 671 66.11 11001 6.01 3.21 50.31 10501 1.21 511 661 5.51 10001 11 31 501 651 5.01 45%1 50%1 50%1 50%1 50%1 50%1 50%1 39%1 Turbo/supercharger1adop;on1(%)1 40%1 40%1 40%1 40%1 40%1 33%1 40%1 33%1 6+1gears1adop;on1(%)1 33%1 DCT1adop;on1(%)1 CVT1adop;on1(%)1 30%1 VVT1adop;on1(%)1 GDI1adop;on1(%)1 30%1 30%1 30%1 30%1 30%1 30%1 20%1 20%1 20%1 12%1 20%1 20%1 20%1 6%1 10%1 10%1 10%1 10%1 10%1 10%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 0%1 Geely Chevrolet VW 19
  • 20. Major findings 主要结论§  The overall Chinese fleet is §  中国在各个主要车辆节油技术上 lagged in many key efficiency ,如可变气门正时、汽油缸内 technologies behind Europe 直喷、涡轮增压与机械增压等, and US. 都显著落后于欧盟或美国,甚至 同时落后于两者。不过中国对某§  Technology adoption status 些技术的应用正在迎头赶上。 vary by segment. Smaller car segments (dominated by §  中国乘用车各细分市场的技术利 用水平有所不同。总体来说,国 domestic makers) are more 产自主品牌占主导地位的小型车 lagged. 市场比以合资企业为主的中、大§  Mini vans are extremely 型车市场在几乎所有的节油技术 inefficient and lagged in all key 上都要落后。 technologies. §  微型客车(面包车)虽然体型小§  Most Chinese automakers are ,能效却很差,油耗与一般的中 not as advanced as joint 小型轿车差不多,先进技术采用 venture companies in 率最低。 technology adoption. §  中国自主品牌企业在应用节油技 术方面与合资企业相比还存在明 20 显的差距。
  • 21. http://www.theicct.org/new-passenger-car-fleet-china-2010 21
  • 22. Thank you! hui@theicct.org 谢谢! 22

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