This tense is composed of two elements: the perfect condtional of the verb 'to be' (would have been) + the present participle (base+ing).
Subject would have been base+ing
I would have been sitting
We would have been sitting
She would have been sitting
I would have been studying.
You wouldn't have been
Would we have been travelling?
Wouldn't it have been working?
1. Perfect conditional, continuous - Form
This tense can be used in Type 3 conditional sentences. It refers to the unfulfilled result of the action in the if-clause, and expresses this result as an unfinished or continuous action. Again, there is always an unspoken "but.." phrase:
If the weather had been better (but it wasn't), I'd have been sitting in the garden when he arrived (but I wasn't and so I didn't see him).
If she hadn't got a job in London (but she did), she would have been working in Paris (but she wasn't).
If I'd had a ball I would have been playing football.
If I'd had any money I'd have been drinking with my friends in the pub that night.
If I had known it was dangerous I wouldn't have been climbing that cliff.
She wouldn't have been wearing a seat-belt if her father hadn't told her to.
Past Perfect - FORM [had + past participle]
You had studied English before you moved to New York.
Had you studied English before you moved to New York?
You had not studied English before you moved to New York.
Complete List of Past Perfect Forms USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Past
The Past Perfect expresses the idea that something occurred before another action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in the past.
I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went
I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
She only understood the movie because she had read the book.
Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.
We were not able to get a hotel room because we had not booked in advance.
A: Had you ever visited the U.S. before your trip in 2006?
B: Yes, I had been to the U.S. once before.
USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Past (Non-Continuous Verbs)
With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Past Perfect to show that something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.
We had had that car for ten years before it broke down.
By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.
They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.
Although the above use of Past Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.
IMPORTANT Specific Times with the Past Perfect
Unlike with the Present Perfect, it is possible to use specific time words or phrases with the Past Perfect. Although this is possible, it is usually not necessary.
She had visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
MOREOVER If the Past Perfect action did occur at a specific time, the Simple Past can be used instead of the Past Perfect when "before" or "after" is used in the sentence. The words "before" and "after" actually tell you what happens first, so the Past Perfect is optional. For this reason, both sentences below are correct.
She had visited her Japanese relatives once in
1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
She visited her Japanese relatives once in 1993 before she moved in with them in 1996.
HOWEVER If the Past Perfect is not referring to an action at a specific time, Past Perfect is not optional. Compare the examples below. Here Past Perfect is referring to a lack of experience rather than an action at a specific time. For this reason, Simple Past cannot be used.
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
You had previously studied English before you moved to New York.
Had you previously studied English before you moved to New York?
YOU WILL HAVE TWENTY-FIVE MINUTES TO
COMPLETE PARTS 5, 6 AND 7 OF THE TEST.
In this section of the test, you will have a chance to show how well you understand written English. There are three parts to this section, with special directions for each part.
Directions: Questions 41 - 52 are incomplete sentences. Four words or phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), (D), are given beneath each sentence. You are to choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and mark your answer.
You will read:
Always check for traffic before ------- the road.
A. cross B. to cross C. crossing D. will cross
The sentence should read, " Always check for traffic before crossing the road." Therefore, you should choose answer (C).
Now, begin work on the questions.
The company has been operating successfully -------
the last 16 years.
A. during B. for C. since D. from
Rapid software development is forcing companies to ------- their computers.
A. modern B. modernization C. modernize D. modernizing
His new boss allowed him ------- a day off to visit his mother in hospital
A. have B. to have C. having D. had
Most customers learn about new products --- advertisements.
A. from B. because C. by D. to
45. Please send the new documents to ------- by
A. they B. their C. theirs D. them
46. The manager of the shop said that he would ------- the customer's problem.
A. look up B. look into C. look around D. look for
47. ------- we are running at full capacity, we cannot fill our existing orders.
Because B. However C. Despite D. Although
48. The sales director is the person ------- should speak to you about this matter.
A. that B. when C. which D. whose
49. A temporary employee will ------- me while I am
away on holiday.
A. fill in for B. take over C. make do with D. take on
50. Please come back to see me ------- 20 minutes.
A. by B. before C. at D. in
51. Would you please ------- the next applicant to come in.
A. ask B. demand C. say D. talk to
52. Mr Johnson was relieved that the difficult part of the job was coming to ------- .
A. a final B. a finishing C. an ending D. an end
Directions: In Questions 53 - 64, each sentence has four words or phrases underlined. The four underlined parts of the sentence are marked (A), (B), (C), (D). You are to identify the one underlined word or phrase that should be corrected or rewritten. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and mark your answer.
Example(5) The underlined word "go" is not correct in this sentence. This sentence should read, " He always goes yachting with his friends at the weekend." Therefore, you should choose answer (A). Now begin work on the questions. He always go yachting with his friends at the weekend A B C D
International English Institute
71 Bealey Avenue
Re:Festival of Japan
Preparation is currently under way for the 2004 Festival of Japan to be held from the 16 - 25 August.
The festival is an unprecedented opportunity to put the
culture and arts of Japan on show and it has a wide
program that relies on support from the Japanese
community here in Christchurch as well as international
visitors and groups.
We are currently approaching groups and individuals in the community who may wish to be involved in some way with the festival, either running their own event, being part of an event, or contributing volunteers.
All the events and activities are coordinated by The Events Company and we can make all the necessary arrangements needed to run the event. I have attached a draft program for the festival this year. Should either your school as a whole or any of your students wish to be involved in any way, please don't hesitate to contact me. To register, I have attached an event registration form.
Every year, New Zealand welcomes thousands of new
residents, workers, students, businesses and visitors. The
New Zealand Immigration Service is here to assist those
who qualify for entry to New Zealand.
New Zealand is an exciting place to live, work and play, but moving to a new country can be challenging. So, before exploring the range of policies under which you may qualify to enter New Zealand, we recommend that you thoroughly research different aspects of living in New Zealand, including health, education, housing, employment and community networks. Living in New Zealand - a guide for Migrants and The Ethnic Community Directory are designed to help you do just this.
If you are considering doing business in New Zealand, our website www.movetonz.govt.nz will provide you with a range of information about the New Zealand business environment and regulations.
Modern day bungy jumpers got the idea from a ritual that happens on the islands of Vanuatu, in the South West Pacific. Men bungy jump from bamboo towers about 35 meters high with springy vines tied to their feet. The ritual is called the Naghoi Ceremony and it is supposed to guarantee a good crop harvest. It also acts as an initiation ceremony for young men.
New Zealand's premier ski area company nzski.com
has launched its hugely popular nzskipass, offering
unlimited skiing and riding at Coronet Peak and The Remarkables in Queenstown, Canterbury's Mt Hutt, and Ohau Snow Fields in North Otago for the 2004 season.
When purchased online, the early season price of an adult (18 to 64) nzskipass will remain the same as last year at $499, the cost for students is $100 less than last year at $399, and youths (aged seven to 17) and seniors (65 to 74 years) will pay just $249 for the season.
Children aged six and under at Coronet Peak and Mt Hutt will continue to receive a free day lift pass, and children aged 10 and under will receive a free day lift pass at The Remarkables. For total convenience, children six and under can be issued with an nzskipass season pass for just a $25 administration fee.
STEP 1 Scratch the silver panel to reveal your
10-digit card pin number.
STEP 2 Dial the local access number from a landline phone (or 0800 777 125 if local access not available) or 0800 777 872 from a cellphone.
STEP 3 You will be greeted with a recorded voice, follow the voice prompts, when asked enter your 10 digit number. If your 10 digit number is not recognised you will be asked again to re-enter it.
Once it has been accepted dial the number you need including the local area code for calls within New Zealand for instance Auckland (09) then the local number, the same applies to an international call, you must dial the code from New Zealand which is 00 then the code for the country you are calling eg Switzerland 41, so the number would be 0041 followed by the code for the town you are calling eg Geneva 22, followed by the local number so your dialled numbers would look like this:
0041 22 888 8888 (sample number only)
NZ voted safest, not most boring, travel destination
New Zealand has been rated by travellers as the safest nation on Earth, but the British travel magazine behind the award has adamantly denied it means New Zealand is boring.
Wanderlust magazine polled its readers about the best countries on Earth and awarded the top spot to Namibia, knocking New Zealand off the overall No. 1 rating from last year.
But the one category where New Zealand maintains its No. 1 rating is safety, outpolling even Switzerland and Singapore.
Wanderlust editor Lyn Hughes said the safety award "emphatically doesn't mean boring" and says it reflects visitors' freedom from worrying about risks.
The Guardian newspaper in Britain questioned the value of being rated the safest nation on Earth and said it could be seen as being rated boring.
"Wanderlust tends to the adventurous, independent traveller, but has now given an award for safest country to New Zealand," said Guardian travel editor Gwyn Topham.
Examples(6) George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license. Active Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license. (Passive) Future Perfect Future Perfect has two different forms: "will have done" and "be going to have done." Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Perfect forms are usually interchangeable. FORM Future Perfect with "Will » [will have + past participle] ACTIVE / PASSIVE
You will have perfected your English by the time you
come back from the U.S.
Will you have perfected your English by the time you
come back from the U.S.?
You will not have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
FORM Future Perfect with "Be Going To"
[am/is/are + going to have + past participle]
You are going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
Are you going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.?
You are not going to have perfected your English by the time you come back from the U.S.
USE 1 Completed Action Before Something in the Future
The Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time in the future.
By next November, I will have received my promotion.
By the time he gets home, she is going to have cleaned the entire house.
I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock.
Will she have learned enough Chinese to
communicate before she moves to Beijing?
Sam is probably going to have completed the
proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon.
By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests.
How many countries are you going to have visited by the time you turn 50?
Notice in the examples above that the reference points are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.
USE 2 Duration Before Something in the Future (Non-Continuous Verbs)
With Non-Continuous Verbs and some non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, we use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future.
I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.
Although the above use of Future Perfect is normally limited to Non-Continuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs.
REMEMBER No Future in Time Clauses
Like all future forms, the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect, Present Perfect is used.
The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
You will only have learned a few words.
Will you only have learned a few words?
You are only going to have learned a few words.
Are you only going to have learned a few words?
ACTIVE / PASSIVE
They will have completed the project before the deadline. Active
The project will have been completed before the deadline. Passive
They are going to have completed the project before the deadline. Active
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline. Passive