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Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
Wool judging
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Wool judging

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This presentation was developed to teach youth about wool in preparation for 4-H skillathon competitions. It was developed by University of Maryland Extension Sheep & Goat Specialist Susan Schoenian.

This presentation was developed to teach youth about wool in preparation for 4-H skillathon competitions. It was developed by University of Maryland Extension Sheep & Goat Specialist Susan Schoenian.

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Transcript

  • 1. An introduction to wool judging
    Susan SchoenianSheep & Goat SpecialistUniv. of Maryland Extensionsschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.com
  • 2. Hair Wool
    Artificial selection
    Mouflon – ancestor to all domestic sheep breeds
  • 3. Wool history
    First commodity to be traded worldwide
    Columbus brought sheep to Cuba and the Dominican Republic on his second voyage to America in 1493.
    In Colonial times
    Massachusetts passed a law requiring young people to spin
    Spinning duties fell to the eldest unmarried daughter
    Wool trading in the colonies was a punishable offense (punishment was cutting off the right hand)
    Despite the King’s attempts to disrupt wool commerce, the wool industry flourished in America
  • 4. Sheep vary considerably in the type of wool they produce.
    Fine wool from Merino
    Carpet wool from a Karakul
    One type of wool is not better than the other. They just have different uses.
  • 5. Breeds of sheep are grouped according to the type of wool they grow.
    FineRambouillet, Merino
    Crossbred (fine x medium)Targhee, Corriedale, Columbia
    Medium (fine x long)Suffolk, Hampshire, Dorset, Cheviot, Montadale, Southdown, Shropshire, Tunis, Polypay
    Long (coarse)Romney, Border Leicester, Lincoln, Cotswold
    Carpet or double-coatedScottish Blackface, Karakul, Icelandic
    Hair (shedding) - not shearedKatahdin, Dorper, Barbado, St. Croix
    Rambouillet (fine wool) sheep
  • 6. Talk like a woolgrower
  • 7. FleeceThe wool from one sheep.
    Sheared off in one piece.
    Grease or raw wool is wool as it is shorn from the sheep.
  • 8. ClipThe amount of wool shorn from the sheep in one flock.
  • 9. Fineness – fiber diameter
    Thickness of the wool fiberMeasured in microns (one millionth of a meter - µ)
  • 10. Fineness - fiber diameter
    LongCoarse
    Medium
    Crossbred
    Fine$$$$
    Thicker Thinner
    > 40 µ
    < 17µ
    Grade refers to the relative diameter of the wool fibers (fineness).
  • 11. Fiber diameter
    Short, dirty
     Coarser
     Coarser
    BritchBreech(hairy) 
    Short, dirty, kinky
    Polypay
  • 12. CrimpThe natural curl or waviness in the wool fiber.
    Fine wool usually has more crimp per inch than coarse (long) wool.
  • 13. StapleRefers to the length of a (unstretched) lock of shorn wool.
    Long, coarse
    Coarse wools are usually longer than finer wools.
    Medium
    Fine
  • 14. Vegetable matter (VM)Any material of plant origin found in the fleece (hay, grass, seeds, etc.)
    High VM lowers yield.
  • 15. TagWool that has manure attached to it.
  • 16. LanolinA natural oil extracted from sheep’s wool.
    Used to make ointments and cosmetics.
    Also called wool wax, wool fat, or wool grease.
  • 17. SkirtingRemoving the stained, unusable, or undesirable portions of a fleece (bellies, top knots, tags).
    Show fleeces and other high value fleeces should be skirted at the time of shearing.
  • 18. Wool judging
  • 19. Wool judging score card
    You will judge “like” (same type or grade) kinds of wool.
  • 20. Yield The amount of clean wool that remains after scouring. Expressed as a percentage.
    Wool yield is quite variable: 40 to 70%.Long wools have higher yields than fine wools, due to less grease. Bulky fleeces have higher yields.
    Clean wool yield = Raw wool – shrinkage (VM, grease, impurities)
  • 21. Vegetable matter affects yield
    Other contaminants: soil, dust, polypropylene from tarps, feed sacks, and hay baling twine, paint, skin, external parasites, and foreign objects.
  • 22. Length
    Staple length adds weight to the fleece more than any other characteristic.
    Look for uniformity of length
  • 23. Quality or fineness
    Appropriate grade for breed or type.
    Look for uniformity of grade (fineness).
    Finer wools are permitted less variability.
  • 24. Soundness (strength)Tender wool is wool that is weak and/or breaks due to poor nutrition or sickness.
    This wool does not have a break or tender spot.
  • 25. PurityFreedom from pigmented fibers, hair and kemp.
    Black fiber/hairs
    HairKemp
    The commercial wool market favors white wool that can be dyed any color.
    From a hair sheep
  • 26. CharacterGeneral appearance of a fleece: crimp, handle, and color.
  • 27. Weathered tipsAffects dyeing
    “Tippy” wool
  • 28. Wool classingat the Maryland Wool Pool
    Wool sold to the niche (specialty) markets typically brings a lot more money.
  • 29. Do you have any questions?
    I really love wool!

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