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Why did my goat die?  Why didn't the dewormer work?
 

Why did my goat die? Why didn't the dewormer work?

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The presentation was prepared for the 2013 Lambing & Kidding School held December 7 in Keedysville, Maryland.

The presentation was prepared for the 2013 Lambing & Kidding School held December 7 in Keedysville, Maryland.

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    Why did my goat die?  Why didn't the dewormer work? Why did my goat die? Why didn't the dewormer work? Presentation Transcript

    • MY GOAT (OR SHEEP) DIED… why didn’t my dewormer work? Susan Schoenian & Amy Garza University of Maryland Extension Western Maryland Research & Education Center American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (ACSRPC) - www.acsrpc.com
    • Periparturient egg rise “around the time of giving birth” • Ewes and does suffer a temporary loss of immunity to worms around the time of parturition [late gestation  lactation] • The periparturient egg rise serves as the primary source of infection for the new crop of lambs and kids. • The periparturient egg risk poses the most risk when lambing and kidding occur in the spring (then winter) and/or on pasture and to highly-stressed females.
    • Anthelmintic (dewormer) resistance • Resistance is inevitable; no treatment will kill 100 percent of worms. • Worms have developed resistance to all dewormers and all dewormer classes. • Resistance varies by geographic region and individual farm and is the result of past deworming practices. Anthelmintic = Dewormer
    • Anthelmintic (dewormer) resistance • Resistant worms pass their resistant genes onto their offspring; resistance is permanent! • You cannot prevent resistance, but you can affect the rate by which it develops. • On most farms, resistance is probably still at a level where there is still time to slow it down and enable the continued use of some anthelmintics.
    • Understanding anthelmintic resistance 80-95% effective. Treatment is effective, but resistance is increasing. 95-100% effective. Small number of resistant worms may be present.   Anthelmintic failure. Animals die. Less than 80%. Production losses become apparent as effectiveness of dewormer moves closer to zero. Adapted from Wormer Resistance “The need for change” Meat Promotion Wales
    • Anthelmintic resistance quantified
    • Determining anthelmintic resistance • FAMACHA© and the Five Point Check© don’t work if you don’t have an effective treatment(s) for clinicallyparasitized animals. • Clinically-parasitized animals will almost always die without an effective anthelmintic treatment (deworming). • There are two ways to test for anthelmintic resistance. 1) Fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) 2) DrenchRite® test • It is recommended that you test for anthelmintic resistance every 2-3 years.
    • 1) Fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) • Determines the effectiveness of an individual treatment. • Best time to do is early to mid-summer when Haemonchus (barber pole worm) is most active. • Collect fecal samples (> 250 epg) from treated animals (ideally n > 15) for each anthelmintic (or combination) you want to test. • Favor animals with higher FAMACHA© and dag scores. • If possible, include a group (n > 15) of untreated animals as a control group.
    • http://www.uaex.edu/Other_Areas/publications/PDF/FSA-9608.pdf Fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) • Compare pre- and post-treatment fecal egg counts 8-10 days for benzimidazoles (SafeGuard®, Valbazen®) b) 14-17 days for macrocylic lactones (Ivomec®, Cydectin®) c) 5-7 days for levamisole (Prohibit®) d) 10-14 days for all dewormers a)
    • Fecal egg count reduction test 2012 Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test [Pre-test Tx: albendazole + moxidectin + levamisole] TEST ID 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 21 73 24 25 2-Jun 14-Jun 14-Jun FEC-0 FEC-1 FECRT 4100 6033 1200 3900 2500 3000 533 4775 700 850 ns 1033 4300 6833 11000 13267 3160 4360 80 2200 15150 1325 1067 150 0 0 0 ns 175 0 467 0 0 0 0 25 0 33 0 0 0 25 0 0 0 25 96.3% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% na 94.2% 100.0% 90.2% 100.0% 100.0% na 100.0% 99.4% 100.0% 99.7% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 68.8% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 97.7% TEST ID 26 27 28 29 30 32 52 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 42 43 44 45 51 46 47 48 49 2-Jun 14-Jun 14-Jun FEC-0 FEC-1 FECRT 1600 1257 40 ns 800 1600 1625 80 0 0 857 467 2300 3350 1275 25 40 500 375 280 1875 450 1257 ns 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 75 86 0 0 67 0 0 120 50 ns 0 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% na 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% na na 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 97.8% 93.3% 100.0% 100.0% 86.6% 100.0% 100.0% 93.6% 88.9% na na TEST ID AVERAGE MEDIAN STDEV 2-Jun FEC-0 2532 1266 3373 14-Jun FEC-1 29 0 76 14-Jun FECRT 97.7% 100.0% 5.77%
    • Fecal egg count reduction test Sheep and goat farm in West Virginia (2013) Mature goats Kid goats Lambs Control 3 3 9 15 COWP 3 6 0 9 Valbazen Ivermectin 0 2 4 2 9 8 13 12 Cydectin 2 4 4 10 Prohibit 0 1 8 9 Total 10 20 38 68 • Animals were weighed and given accurate dose of anthelmintic on July 17. • Lambs were dosed according to label. • Goats were given 1.5 to 2x the sheep dose of dewormer. • COWP: does were given a 1 g bolus; kids were given a 0.5 g bolus • Fecal samples were collected on the day of treatment and 14 days later. • Animals with higher FAMACHA© and dag scores were favored. • Fecal egg counts were determined using the modified McMaster technique • If first fecal egg count was below 250 epg, animal was removed from study.
    • FECRT Results: Does Control July 17 July 31 FECR 1 400 350 13% 2 450 600 -33% 3 700 200 71% AVG COWP 517 July 17 383 July 31 17 FECR COWP July 17 July 31 FECR 1 250 0 100% 2 250 75 70% 3 542 150 72% AVG 347 75 81% July 17 July 31 FECR 1 1425 475 67% 2 1850 25 99% AVG 1638 250 83% July 17 July 31 FECR 1 275 600 -118% 2 1525 575 62% AVG 900 587.5 -28% Cydectin Ivermectin
    • FECRT Results: kids Control 1 2 3 AVG July 17 1450 350 400 733 July 31 3025 1325 1875 2075 FECR -109% -279% -369% -252% COWP 1 2 3 4 5 6 AVG July 17 699 1875 4775 833 1999 3575 2293 July 31 1600 650 866 350 475 800 790 FECR -129% 65% 82% 58% 76% 78% 38% Cydectin® 1 2 3 4 AVG July 17 4425 1675 3525 5350 3744 July 31 266 1375 600 8075 2579 FECR 94% 18% 83% -51% 36% Ivomec® 1 2 AVG July 17 6800 1275 4038 July 31 10075 1300 5688 FECR -48% -2% -25% Levamisole 1 AVG July 17 4600 4600 July 31 125 125 FECR 97% 97%
    • FECRT Results: lambs Control 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 AVG July 17 800 475 2300 1850 1475 2375 7025 2329 July 31 425 2000 2625 3750 2200 3125 7475 3086 FECR 47% -321% -14% -103% -49% -32% -6% -68% Cydectin® July 17 July 31 FECR 6075 3000 2425 2625 3531 1075 1025 1275 750 1031 82% 66% 47% 71% 67% July 17 2175 275 1500 1400 775 3000 7350 10500 3372 July 31 100 325 4675 375 25 1275 3850 1075 1463 FECR 95% -18% -212% 73% 97% 58% 48% 90% 29% 1 2 3 4 AVG Ivomec® 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 AVG Levamisole July 17 1 850 2 1175 3 2375 4 10925 5 2775 6 5325 7 3600 8 12300 AVG 4916 July 31 225 1750 100 450 125 50 475 100 409 FECR 74% -49% 96% 96% 95% 99% 87% 99% 75% Valbazen® July 17 1 575 2 425 3 3725 4 575 5 3400 July 31 7425 200 725 250 900 FECR -1191% 53% 81% 57% 74% 875 525 1250 3799 1772 62% 94% 80% 47% -72% 6 7 8 9 AVG 2275 8925 6285 7150 3704
    • Percent fecal egg count reduction 99 100 81 50 97 83 75 67 38 29 17 75 36 0 -28 -25 -50 -68 -100 -150 Does -200 -250 Kids Lambs -252 -300 CONTROL COWP VALBAZEN IVOMEC CYDECTIN PROHIBIT
    • http://www.acsrpc.org/Resources/Topics/DrenchRiteAssay.html 2) DrenchRite® Assay • Determines drug resistance for all anthelmintic classes simultaneously from a pooled fecal sample. → Resistance to Cydectin® is predicted based on the results for ivermectin. • Also determines which parasites your animals have. • Collect a pooled fecal sample from at least 10 animals with >350-500 epg. Favor animals with higher FAMACHA© and dag scores. • Follow instructions for collecting, handling, and shipping sample to Dr. Ray Kaplan’s lab at the University of Georgia.
    • DrenchRite® Assay Sheep farm in Washington County • On September 4, a pool fecal sample was collected from a group of mature ewes that had not been recently dewormed. • Ewes with higher FAMACHA© and positive dag scores were sampled. • Sample was prepared and shipped via FedEx to the University of Georgia.
    • A comparison of tests FECRT • Takes 7-14 days to get results, longer if someone else does FECs. • Cost for 75 samples (15 samples x 4 drugs + control group) 75 x Labor = ? 75 x $5 = $375 75 x $10 = $750 DrenchRite® Assay • Labor-intensive lab test • Only one lab in US does DrenchRite® Test (UGA) • Takes 3-4 weeks to get results • Cost $450 per sample • Three possible results: 1. Resistant (R) 2. Suspected resistant (SR) • Need more animals • More precise results: % efficacy • Can be a lot of animal variation. 3. Susceptible (S)
    • Thank you for your attention. Questions?