SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn)      Sheep & Goat Specialist      Western Maryland Research & Education Center      sschoen@u...
   Hoof care is an important    aspect of animal    management.   Hoof health can affect an    animal’s performance,    ...
   To prevent lameness.   To allow air to reach the    hoof to eliminate the    bacteria that can cause    infection.  ...
Factors affecting theneed for hoof trimming:   Genetics       Individual       Breed       Color of hoof       Struct...
1.    Hoof shears (trimmers)           YOU CAN’T DO A THOROUGH JOB OF      Manual                          HOOF TRIMMING ...
   Tip animal onto    its rump   Deck chair   Tilt table or    “squeeze”     Manual      ▪ Half-tilt      ▪ Full-tilt ...
   Not during late    gestation.   In conjunction with other    management tasks.    [e.g. shearing]   2 to 3 weeks bef...
   Clean hoof   Trim excess growth     Trim to pad (sole)     Trim axial surface     Don’t cut tip            PRACTIC...
COMMON                 Foot scald (esp. goats) BACTERIAL                             Foot abscess                Footro...
   Gram-negative,CAUSES FOOT SCALD                anaerobic bacteria that (INTERDIGITAL DERMATITIS)                      ...
   An inflammation andSKIN BETWEEN TOES IS       redness between the RAW AND INFLAMED.         toes (claws) of the hoof. ...
   Occur when ActinomycesHEEL OR TOE           spp. bacteria invade tissue                      already weakened by an   ...
   Gram-negative, anaerobic     CAUSES FOOTROT                    bacteria that live in the feet of                      ...
   Involves a separation of                          the horny portions of theUNDERMINING OF HOOF       hoof from the und...
   Irritation of interdigital tissue    caused by moisture or trauma    allows entry of F. necrophorum.   Other disease-...
Moisture / trauma     Softening, damage to skin between toes     Invasion by Fusobacterium necrophorum    INTERDIGITAL DER...
Primary In the hooves of newly  acquired animals.Secondary On contaminated  equipment. In contaminated bedding at  sale...
   Have a written    biosecurity plan and    follow it.   Do not buy animals from    flocks with a history of foot    di...
   Observe all new    animals for lameness.   Carefully inspect    each foot.   Closely trim hooves.   Spray each foot...
   Re-trim (if necessary)    and thoroughly    examine hooves for    signs of infection.   If there is any evidence    o...
   Goal: eliminate the effects    of footrot in sheep    flocks in the Northeast.    1.    Education         ▪ Cooperatin...
   Trim, inspect, and    score feet of every    sheep (and goat) on    the farm.   Separate into groups    1. Healthy,  ...
   Health (scale of 1-5)    1.    No sign of infection    2.   Inflammation of digital skin,         possible odor    3. ...
Foot bath all animalsProtocol for foot bathing   Mix 8.5 pounds of zinc sulfate in    10 gallons of water + 1 cup of    l...
   After soaking, put    animals in drying area:     Well-bedded barn area     Dry, hard surface      ▪ Clean concrete ...
   Repeat foot bathing    and drying protocol.   Observe animals and    check for any limpers.     Check and trim feet ...
   Inspect all sheep (and goats)     Check and trim hooves      (if necessary).     Score hooves   Move infected anima...
   Repeat foot bathing    and drying protocol.   Observe animals and    check for any limpers.     Check and trim feet ...
   Inspect all sheep    (and goats)   Score each hoof   Repeat foot    bathing and    drying protocol.
   After 4 weeks,       Cull carriers!    all animals except    “carriers” should    have been able    to heal.   Cull a...
TRIM      TREAT   ISOLATE    CULL         Day 0                               4-plus         Day 7                   ...
   Antibiotic injections     Penicillin     Tetracyclines   Antibiotic sprays   Topical treatment with    Koppertox® ...
CONVENTIONAL SELECTION               MARKER-BASED SELECTIONUSING FOOTROT LESION SCORING         USING DNA TESTING   Resis...
http://www.sheepandgoat.com/footrot.html     http://extension.maine.edu/sheep
Thank you for your attention   http://www.slideshare.net/schoenian/      Any questions?           sheep-hoof-health-and-ma...
Sheep Hoof Health and Management
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Sheep Hoof Health and Management

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This PowerPoint presentation was prepared for the 2011 Missouri Livestock Symposium by Susan Schoenian, University of Maryland Extension Sheep & Goat Specialist.

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Sheep Hoof Health and Management

  1. 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center sschoen@umd.edu - www.sheepandgoat.comhttp://www.slideshare.net/schoenian/sheep-hoof-health-and-management
  2. 2.  Hoof care is an important aspect of animal management. Hoof health can affect an animal’s performance, disease resistance, and welfare. Hooves should be regularly checked for disease and excess growth. Animals with excessive or abnormal hoof growth and chronic hoof disease should be culled. CULLING IS YOUR MOST POWERFUL TOOL!
  3. 3.  To prevent lameness. To allow air to reach the hoof to eliminate the bacteria that can cause infection. To create a flat sole surface, removing trapped mud and feces and reducing the possibility of infection. To promote proper hoof growth in young animals.
  4. 4. Factors affecting theneed for hoof trimming: Genetics  Individual  Breed  Color of hoof  Structure/shape of hoof Environment  Soil moisture and characteristics (terrain)  Season and rainfall  Housing  Diet
  5. 5. 1. Hoof shears (trimmers) YOU CAN’T DO A THOROUGH JOB OF  Manual HOOF TRIMMING WITHOUT A KNIFE. ▪ Smooth vs. serrated ▪ Rotating handle  Air-compression driven [large flocks]2. Hoof knife  Straight vs. curved3. Brush [for cleaning hoof]4. Tight fitting (nitrile) gloves (for safety and comfort)
  6. 6.  Tip animal onto its rump Deck chair Tilt table or “squeeze”  Manual ▪ Half-tilt ▪ Full-tilt  Automatic
  7. 7.  Not during late gestation. In conjunction with other management tasks. [e.g. shearing] 2 to 3 weeks before a show. When hooves are soft.
  8. 8.  Clean hoof Trim excess growth  Trim to pad (sole)  Trim axial surface  Don’t cut tip PRACTICE MAKES “PERFECT.” [entry for infection] Try not to draw blood. [entry for infection] Disinfect tools between animals.
  9. 9. COMMON Foot scald (esp. goats) BACTERIAL   Foot abscess  Footrot (esp. sheep) LESS COMMON  Laminitis (founder)  BluetongueVIRAL  Soremouth  Foot-and-mouth disease
  10. 10.  Gram-negative,CAUSES FOOT SCALD anaerobic bacteria that (INTERDIGITAL DERMATITIS) live in the digestive tract and feces of animals.  Interact with other bacteria to cause foot scald and foot abscesses.BACTERIA ON EVERY FARM  Work in conjunction with D. nodosus to cause footrot.
  11. 11.  An inflammation andSKIN BETWEEN TOES IS redness between the RAW AND INFLAMED. toes (claws) of the hoof.  No (or minimal) involvement of the hoof.  Precursor to footrot and foot abscess.NOT CONTAGIOUS  Outbreaks occur during periods of wet weather.
  12. 12.  Occur when ActinomycesHEEL OR TOE spp. bacteria invade tissue already weakened by an interdigital infection.  Causes lameness, pain, swelling, a nd heat.  Affects mostly mature and heavy animals.COMMON BACTERIA  Usually only one hoof or digit is affected.
  13. 13.  Gram-negative, anaerobic CAUSES FOOTROT bacteria that live in the feet of infected animals.  Release protease enzymes which digest connective tissue between the horn and flesh of the hoof.  Survival of D. nodosus  Does not infect healthy hooves.  Up to three years in chronically-infected hooves.20 DIFFERENT STRAINS OF BACTERIA  Up to 14 days on soil, feces, and pasture. THAT VARY IN VIRULENCE.  Up to 6 weeks in hoof horn clippings  Other surfaces: not known
  14. 14.  Involves a separation of the horny portions of theUNDERMINING OF HOOF hoof from the underlying sensitive areas.  Foul odor.  Both claws are usually affected. HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS  More than one hoof may be involved.
  15. 15.  Irritation of interdigital tissue caused by moisture or trauma allows entry of F. necrophorum. Other disease-causing bacteria invade tissue already weakened by interdigital dermatitis. Predisposing factors to hoof disease:  Warmth (>45°F) + moisture  Overgrown hooves  Abnormal hoof growth Infection or exposure does not provide natural immunity.
  16. 16. Moisture / trauma Softening, damage to skin between toes Invasion by Fusobacterium necrophorum INTERDIGITAL DERMATITIS OR FOOT SCALD Invasion by Invasion byActinomyces pyogenes Dichelorbacter nodosus FOOT ABSCESS SHEEP FOOTROT Source: Guide to Footrot in Sheep, Alberta Sheep & Wool Commission
  17. 17. Primary In the hooves of newly acquired animals.Secondary On contaminated equipment. In contaminated bedding at sales, fairs, and during transport. In the hooves of goats and cattle. On pasture and in barn lots. On footwear. From service personnel FOOTROT USUALLY “WALKS ON” TO A FARM IN THE HOOVES OF AN INFECTED ANIMAL OR CHRONIC CARRIER.
  18. 18.  Have a written biosecurity plan and follow it. Do not buy animals from flocks with a history of foot diseases or noticeable lameness. All newly acquired animals should be suspected of having footrot and be quarantined for a minimum of 3 weeks. FOOTROT PUTS PEOPLE OUT OF BUSINESS!
  19. 19.  Observe all new animals for lameness. Carefully inspect each foot. Closely trim hooves. Spray each foot with a solution of 20% zinc sulfate.
  20. 20.  Re-trim (if necessary) and thoroughly examine hooves for signs of infection. If there is any evidence of footrot infection, all animals in the group should be foot bathed with a 10% solution of zinc sulfate.
  21. 21.  Goal: eliminate the effects of footrot in sheep flocks in the Northeast. 1. Education ▪ Cooperating flocks ▪ 4 week protocol for eliminating footrot ▪ Web site: extension.umaine/sheep/ 2. Research ▪ Scoring Dr. Richard Brzozowksi ▪ DNA testing University of Maine Extension
  22. 22.  Trim, inspect, and score feet of every sheep (and goat) on the farm. Separate into groups 1. Healthy, infection-free 2. Infected (recovering)  Consider culling infected animals.
  23. 23.  Health (scale of 1-5) 1. No sign of infection 2. Inflammation of digital skin, possible odor 3. Odor, undermining/ separation, lameness 4. Excessive undermining two or more feet infected, odor 5. Chronic carrier Structure  Pockets  Other abnormal growth Hoof color “Pocket” white, mottled, black, brown, gray
  24. 24. Foot bath all animalsProtocol for foot bathing Mix 8.5 pounds of zinc sulfate in 10 gallons of water + 1 cup of laundry detergent (wetting agent). Create a “soak” pad in bottom of footbath (wool or sawdust) to prevent splashing and loss of solution. Sheep (and goats) should stand in foot bath for at least 3 to 5 minutes.
  25. 25.  After soaking, put animals in drying area:  Well-bedded barn area  Dry, hard surface ▪ Clean concrete pad ▪ Wooden floor After drying, put groups into separate pastures or barn areas where sheep (or goats) have not been for at least two weeks.
  26. 26.  Repeat foot bathing and drying protocol. Observe animals and check for any limpers.  Check and trim feet of limpers in healthy group and move to infected group.
  27. 27.  Inspect all sheep (and goats)  Check and trim hooves (if necessary).  Score hooves Move infected animals that have recovered to healthy group and vice versa. Repeat foot bathing and drying protocol. Move groups to separate pastures where sheep (and goats) have not been for at least 2 weeks.
  28. 28.  Repeat foot bathing and drying protocol. Observe animals and check for any limpers.  Check and trim feet of limpers in healthy group and move to infected group.
  29. 29.  Inspect all sheep (and goats) Score each hoof Repeat foot bathing and drying protocol.
  30. 30.  After 4 weeks, Cull carriers! all animals except “carriers” should have been able to heal. Cull any animal that is still infected.
  31. 31. TRIM TREAT ISOLATE CULL Day 0    4-plus Day 7   Day 14    Day 21      Day 28 Footrot eradicated!
  32. 32.  Antibiotic injections  Penicillin  Tetracyclines Antibiotic sprays Topical treatment with Koppertox® or 7% iodine Dry chemicals (zinc sulfate + lime) Absorptive pads (zinc sulfate) Vaccination [prevent + treat] Zinc supplementation CONTROL AND/OR ERADICATION OF FOOTROT USUALLY REQUIRES A Genetic selection COMBINATION OF PRACTICES.
  33. 33. CONVENTIONAL SELECTION MARKER-BASED SELECTIONUSING FOOTROT LESION SCORING USING DNA TESTING Resistance to footrot  Genetic markers have been found which can identify if a is heritable. sheep is resistant to footrot.  Low to moderate heritability  A blood test for resistance 0.02 to 0.40 (UK) is currently available (NZ) 0.30 to 0.40 (NZ)  To be effective the same strains of D. nodosus must  Low repeatability be causing footrot. At least two footrot scores are recommended (UK)  A rapid test to identify D. nodosus strains is being commercialized.  Goal: EPDs/EBVs for footrot resistance.  Does not require exposure to disease.
  34. 34. http://www.sheepandgoat.com/footrot.html http://extension.maine.edu/sheep
  35. 35. Thank you for your attention http://www.slideshare.net/schoenian/ Any questions? sheep-hoof-health-and-management SUSAN SCHOENIAN sschoen@umd.edu www.sheepandgoat.com
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