Sheep hoof health
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These are copies of the slides from a PowerPoint presentation prepared for the 2011 Missouri Livestock Symposium.

These are copies of the slides from a PowerPoint presentation prepared for the 2011 Missouri Livestock Symposium.

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    Sheep hoof health Sheep hoof health Document Transcript

    • Sheep hoof health and management 12/3/11 Factors affecting the  need for hoof trimming: Genetics  Individual Breed SUSAN SCHOENIAN    (Shāy‐nē‐ŭn) Color of hoof Sheep & Goat Specialist Structure/shape of hoof Western Maryland Research & Education Center sschoen@umd.edu  ‐ www.sheepandgoat.com Environment Soil moisture and   characteristics (terrain) Season and rainfall Housing Diet Hoof care is an important  aspect of animal  1. Hoof shears (trimmers) YOU CAN’T DO A THOROUGH JOB OF management. HOOF TRIMMING WITHOUT A KNIFE. Manual ▪ Smooth vs. serrated Hoof health can affect an  animal’s performance,  p , ▪ Rotating handle disease resistance, and  Air‐compression driven welfare. [large flocks] Hooves should be regularly  checked  for disease and  2. Hoof knife excess growth. Straight vs. curved Animals with excessive or  abnormal hoof growth and  3. Brush  chronic hoof disease should  CULLING IS YOUR MOST POWERFUL TOOL! [for cleaning hoof] be culled. To prevent lameness. Tip animal onto  To allow air to reach the  its  rump hoof, to eliminate the  bacteria that cause  Deck chair infection. infection To create a flat sole  Tilt table or  surface, removing trapped  “squeeze” mud and feces and  Manual reducing the possibility of  infection. ▪ Half‐tilt ▪ Full‐tilt To promote proper hoof  Automatic growth in young animals. 1
    • Sheep hoof health and management 12/3/11 Not during late  Gram‐negative,  gestation. CAUSES FOOT SCALD anaerobic bacteria that  (INTERDIGITAL DERMATITIS) live in the digestive tract  In conjunction with other  and feces of animals.  management tasks. [e.g. shearing] Interact with other  bacteria to cause foot  scald and foot  2 to 3 weeks before a  abscesses. show. ON EVERY FARM Works in conjunction  When hooves are soft. with D. Nodosus to cause  footrot.  Clean hoof An inflammation and  SKIN BETWEEN TOES IS redness between the  Trim excess growth RAW AND INFLAMED. toes (claws). Trim to pad (sole) No (or minimal  Trim axial surface involvement) of  Don’t cut tip PRACTICE MAKES “PERFECT.” the hoof. [entry for infection] Try not to draw blood. Precursor to footrot and  [entry for infection] foot abscesses. NOT CONTAGIOUS Disinfect tools  Outbreaks occur during  between animals periods of wet weather. COMMON Occurs when Actinomyces HEEL OR TOE bacteria invade tissue  Foot scald (esp. goats) BACTERIAL already weakened by an  Foot abscess interdigital infection. Footrot (esp. sheep)  Causes lameness, pain,  swelling, and heat. LESS COMMON Affects mostly mature  Laminitis (founder) and heavy animals. Bluetongue Usually only one hoof or  VIRAL Soremouth digit is affected. ACTINOMYCES IS UBIQUITIOUS. Foot‐and‐mouth disease 2
    • Sheep hoof health and management 12/3/11 Gram‐negative, anaerobic  Moisture / trauma CAUSES FOOTROT bacteria  that live in the feet of  infected animals. Softening, damage to skin between toes Release protease enzymes which  digest connect tissue between the  Invasion by Fusobacterium necrophorum horn and flesh of the hoof. INTERDIGITAL DERMATITIS OR FOOT SCALD Survival of D. Nodosus Does not infect healthy hooves Up to three years in  Invasion by Invasion by chronically‐infected hooves. Actinomyces pyogenes Dichelorbacter nodosus 20 DIFFERENT STRAINS OF BACTERIA Up to 14 days on soil, feces,  and pasture THAT VARY IN VIRULENCE. FOOT ABSCESS SHEEP FOOTROT Up to 6 weeks  in hoof horn clippings Other surfaces: not known Source: Guide to Footrot in Sheep, Alberta Sheep & Wool Commission Involves a separation of  Primary the horny portions of the  In the hooves of newly  UNDERMINING OF HOOF hoof from the underlying  acquired animals. sensitive areas. Secondary On contaminated  O   t i t d  Putrid odor equipment. In contaminated bedding at  Both claws are usually  sales, fairs, and during  transport. affected. In the hooves of goats  and cattle. HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS On pasture and in barn lots. More than one hoof may  be involved. On footwear. From service personnel FOOTROT USUALLY “WALKS ON” TO A FARM IN THE HOOVES OF AN INFECTED ANIMAL OR CHRONIC CARRIER. Irritation of interdigital tissue  caused by moisture or trauma  Have a written  allows entry of F. necrophorum. biosecurity plan and  follow it. Other disease‐causing  bacteria invade tissue already  y y Do not buy animals from  weakened by interdigital flocks with a history of foot  dermatitis. diseases or noticeable  lameness. Predisposing factors: Warmth (>45°F) + moisture All newly acquired animals  Overgrown hooves should be suspected of  Abnormal hoof growth having footrot and be  Infection or exposure does not  quarantined  for a minimum  provide natural immunity. of 3 weeks. FOOTROT PUTS PEOPLE OUT OF BUSINESS! 3
    • Sheep hoof health and management 12/3/11 Observe all new  Trim, inspect, and  animals for lameness. score feet of every sheep (and goat) on  Carefully inspect  the farm. each foot. h f t Separate into groups Closely trim hooves. 1. Healthy,  infection‐free  2. Infected (recovering)  Spray each foot with  a solution of 20% zinc  Consider culling sulfate. infected animals. Re‐trim (if necessary)  Health (scale of 1‐5) 1. No sign of infection and thoroughly  2. Inflammation of digital skin,  examine hooves for  possible odor 3. Odor, undermining/  signs of infection. p , separation,  lameness 4. Excessive undermining two  or more feet infected, odor If there is any evidence  5. Chronic carrier of footrot infection, all  Structure animals in the group  Pockets should be foot bathed  Other abnormal growth with a 10% solution of  Hoof color “Pocket” zinc sulfate. white, mottled, black, brown, gray  Goal:  eliminate  the effects  of footrot in sheep  flocks in the Northeast. 1. Education ducat o ▪ Cooperating flocks ▪ 4 week protocol for  eliminating foot rot ▪ Web site:  extension.umaine/sheep/ 2. Research ▪ Scoring ▪ DNA testing Dr. Richard Brzozowksi University of Maine Extension 4
    • Sheep hoof health and management 12/3/11 Foot bath all animals Inspect all sheep (and goats) Check and trim hooves  Protocol for foot bathing (if necessary). Mix 8.5 pounds of zinc sulfate in  Score hooves 10 gallons of  water + 1 cup of  laundry detergent (wetting  Move infected animals that  agent). have recovered to healthy  group and vice versa. Create a “soak” pad in bottom of  footbath (wool or sawdust) to  prevent splashing and loss of  Repeat foot bathing and  solution. drying protocol. Sheep (and goats) should  Move groups to separate  stand in foot bath for at least   pastures where sheep (and  3 to 5 minutes (preferably  goats) have not been for at  longer). least 2 weeks. After soaking, put  Repeat foot bathing  animals in drying area: Well‐bedded barn area  and drying protocol. Dry, hard surface  ▪ Clean concrete pad  Observe sheep and  Ob  h   d  ▪ Wooden floor check for any limpers. After drying, put groups  Check and trim feet  into separate pastures or  of limpers in healthy  barn areas where sheep  group and move to  (or goats) have not been  for at least two weeks. infected group. Repeat foot bathing  Inspect all sheep  and drying protocol. (and goats) Observe animals and  Score each hoof check for any limpers. Check and trim feet of  limpers in healthy group  Repeat foot  and move to infected  bathing and  group. drying protocol. 5
    • Sheep hoof health and management 12/3/11 After 4 weeks,  Cull carriers! all animals except  “carriers” should  have been able  h  b   bl   to heal. Cull any animal  that is still  http://www.sheepandgoat.com/footrot.html infected. http://extension.maine.edu/sheep Thank you for your attention Visit the Maryland Small Ruminant Page on Facebook @  http://www.facebook.com/MDSmallRuminant Any questions? Antibiotic injections Penicillin Tetracyclines Antibiotic sprays Topical treatment with  l h Koppertox® or 7% iodine Dry chemicals Absorptive pads  Vaccination [prevent + treat] Zinc supplementation  CONTROL AND/OR ERADICATION OF SUSAN SCHOENIAN Genetic selection FOOTROT USUALLY REQUIRES A sschoen@umd.edu COMBINATION OF PRACTICES. www.sheepandgoat.com CONVENTIONAL SELECTION MARKER‐BASED SELECTION USING FOOTROT LESION SCORING USING DNA TESTING Resistance to footrot is  Genetic markers have been  found which can identify if a  heritable in ewes, but  sheep is resistant to footrot. not lambs. not lambs A blood test for resistance  Low to moderate heritability is currently available (NZ) 0.02 to 0.40 (UK) To be effective the same  strains of D. nodosus must  0.30 to 0.40 (NZ) be causing footrot. Low repeatability A rapid test to identify D.  At least two footrot scores  nodosus strains is being  are recommended (UK) commercialized. Creation of EPDs/EBVs Does not require exposure  to disease. 6