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Options for fattening goats

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  • 1. OPTIONS FOR FATTENING (FINISHING) MEAT GOATS SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maryland Extension Western Maryland Research & Education Center sschoen@umd.edu - www.sheepandgoat.com - www.acsrpc.org
  • 2. Introduction • The goat industry is growing worldwide. • The U.S. goat industry has increased substantially in the past 20 years. • The demand for goat products is increasing due to changing demographics and immigration patterns. • There are many challenges to raising goats profitably, including fattening (finishing) goats for market.
  • 3. Quality (finish) affects prices. 27-36 kg kids, $ per head (weighted average) New Holland, Pennsylvania USA April 1 -November, 4, 2013 $200 $180 $160 $140 $120 $100 $80 $60 4/1 4/8 4/22 4/29 5/6 5/13 5/20 5/27 6/3 6/10 6/17 6/24 7/1 7/8 7/15 7/29 8/5 8/12 8/19 8/26 9/2 9/9 9/16 9/23 9/30 10/21 10/28 11/4 Selection 1 $13 $15 $15 $16 $15 $15 $16 $14 $17 $16 $14 $14 $16 $18 $15 $12 $13 $13 $15 $14 $13 $14 $13 $13 $15 161 139 141 Selection 2 $10 $13 $13 $14 $12 $11 $12 $14 $15 $12 $11 $10 $14 $13 $13 $10 $11 $10 $10 $11 $11 $12 $11 $12 $11 120 102 118 Selection 3 $63 $10 $89 $70 $98 $88 $99 $71 $85 $10 $10 $83 $88 $10 $90 $79 $99 $97 $89 $68 $89 $94 $85 $10 $90 93 76 86
  • 4. USDA grades for live goats and goat carcasses Selection 1 Selection 2 Selection 3 • Superior muscling • Average muscling • Inferior muscling • Superior meat yield • Medium meat yield • Poor meat yield Grades are supposed to be independent of age, breed, sex, weight, and fat(?).
  • 5. Higher rates-of-gain are not possible without some concentrate feeding. Nutrient requirements for 20 kg. Boer bucklings (NRC, 2007) ADG, g/d DM, kg/d DMI, % TDN, kg/d % TDN CP, g/d % CP 0 0.67 3.3 0.33 49.2 43 6.4 25 0.75 3.7 0.37 49.3 58 7.7 100 0.72 3.6 0.48 66.7 103 14.5 150 0.64 3.2 0.56 87.5 133 20.1 200 0.72 3.6 0.64 88.9 163 22.6 250 0.80 4.0 0.71 88.8 194 24.2
  • 6. Nutrient content of feedstuffs Feedstuff % DM % CP % TDN Energy concentrates 88-91 8-14 76-92 Protein concentrates 88-91 23-66 74-87 Grass hay 88-91 6-12 50-60 Legume hay 88-91 15-19 55-65 Fresh forage 24-29 14-18 61-67
  • 7. Literature review • Concentrate feeding increases average daily gain (ADG). • Concentrate feeding increases dressing percentage, carcass weight, and carcass fatness. • Concentrate feeding may reduce the percentage of trimmed retail cuts. • Concentrate feeding may alter fatty acid composition. • Higher quality forage will also improve goat performance and carcass quality.
  • 8. Literature review • The most important aspect of concentrate feeding is the cost: benefit ratio. • There is a narrow opportunity for profit when feedlotting goats. • Texas A&M researchers determined the most economical ration to be whole corn and a premix pellet, which must be ground to prevent sorting.
  • 9. Literature review • The cost of gain can be reduced by feeding on-farm diets, e.g. whole barley and a premix pellet. • The cost of gain can be reduced by feeding by-productbased rations: e.g. distiller’s grains and soybean hulls. • Fiber-based (soy hulls) diets may produce more economical gains than starch-based (corn) diets. • The cost of gain can be reduced by finishing goats to a lighter weight. • The cost of gain can be reduced feeding the same amount of feed over a longer period of time.
  • 10. University of Maryland Extension Pen vs. Pasture Studies 2011-2013
  • 11. Bucks were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: PEN or PASTURE. 2011 • N = 18 2012 • N = 30 2013 • N = 30 • Intact males • Intact males • Intact males • Mixed breeds, but • Mixed breeds, but • All Kiko mostly Kiko • From 7 farms • Avg. 20.1 3.5 kg mostly Kiko • From 10 farms • Avg. 20.5 3.7 kg • From 1 farm • Avg. 23.5 3.1 kg
  • 12. PEN goats were housed in a 4.9 m2 zero-grazing pen. PASTURE goats grazed alongside bucks in the annual Western Maryland Pasture-based Meat Goat Performance Test.
  • 13. PEN goats were fed hay ad libitum. 2011 • First cutting 2012 • First cutting Orchardgrass hay Orchardgrass hay (Dactylis glomerata L.) (Dactylis glomerata L.) • ~0.9 kg per day • ~0.9 kg per day 2013 • Mostly 2nd cutting Orchardgrassalfalfa mixed hay • ~1.1 kg per day
  • 14. PEN goats were limit-fed grain, once daily based on appetite. 2011 2012 • Commercial meat goat • 4 parts whole barley to pellet (17% CP) 1 part 38% pellet 2013 • Whole barley • $0.29 per kg • $0.48 per kg • $0.35 per kg • Max. 0.59 kg per day • Max 0.73. kg per day • Max 0.68 kg per day • Avg. 0.5 kg per day Avg. 0.45. kg per day • Avg. 0.55 kg per day
  • 15. PASTURE goats were rotationally grazed among six 0.8-ha paddocks. 2011 • ~ 17 bucks per ha 2012 2013 • ~ 13 bucks per ha Tall fescue (MaxQ™) Festuca arundinacea • ~ 19 bucks per ha Orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata L. Cool season grasses comprised two-thirds of the grazing area (~3.4 ha).
  • 16. Warm season annuals comprised one-third of the grazing area (~1.6 ha). 2011 • Dwarf pearl millet Pennisetum glaucum 2012 • Millet + brassica Pennisetum glaucum + Brassica napus x B. campestris 2013 • Dwarf forage sorghum Sorghum bicolor (BMR variety)
  • 17. Internal parasite protocol Stomach worms • Upon arrival, bucks were dewormed with drugs from 2-3 anthelmintic classes. Albendazole Valbazen @ 3 ml/23 kg 2) Moxidectin Cydectin® 0.1% oral drench @ 2 ml/5 kg 3) Levamisole Prohibit® soluble drench (concentrated drench solution) @ 3 ml per 23 kg. 1) Coccidia • Upon arrival, goats were treated for coccidiosis for five days in their water. • 2011, 2012 Amprolium (Corid) • 2013 Sulfadimethoxine (Di-Methox)
  • 18. Bi-weekly data • • • • • • Body weights FAMACHA© scores (1-5) Body condition scores (1-5) Coat condition scores (1-3) Dag scores (0-5) Fecal consistency scores (1-4)* • Fecal egg counts (EPG) • Treatments End of test data • Ultrasound rib eye • Ultrasound rib fatness • USDA grade* • • • • • • • • • • • • Hot carcass weight (HCW) Cold carcass weight (CCW) Dressing percentage (DP) Rib eye area (REA) Body wall thickness (BWT) Leg circumference* Kidney and heart fat (KH) weight and percentage. Fat weight and percentage Bone weight and percentage Lean weight and percentage Boneless, fat-free yield Fatty acid composition Carcass data * Started in 2013
  • 19. Results have varied by year. 2011 • Pen-fed goats gained more and produced superior carcasses, yielding 5% more boneless, fat-free meat. 2012 • Pasture-raised goats gained faster, but had higher fecal egg counts and FAMACHA© scores. There were no differences in carcass traits, including yield. 2013 • Pen-fed goats grew much faster and had lower fecal egg counts and lower FAMACHA© scores. They produced superior carcasses, yielding almost 5% more boneless, fat-free meat.
  • 20. Body weights (kg) 31.0 29.0 27.0 25.0 23.0 21.0 19.0 17.0 ADG: 105 vs. 52 g/d 15.0 4-Jun 10-Jun 23-Jun 7-Jul 20-Jul 4-Aug 18-Aug 1-Sep 15-Sep Pen 16.7 19.5 19.5 20.5 21.1 25.8 25.8 28.7 30.3 pasture 19.4 20.2 20.6 21.4 22.7 23.1 24.3 25.2 25.9
  • 21. Fecal egg counts (EPG) 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 10-Jun 23-Jun 7-Jul 20-Jul 4-Aug 18-Aug 1-Sep 15-Sep Pasture 474 110 612 669 609 1439 1979 3920 Pen 612 138 606 159 140 313 343 316
  • 22. FAMACHA© scores (1-5) 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 4-Jun 10-Jun 23-Jun 7-Jul 20-Jul 4-Aug 18-Aug 1-Sep 15-Sep Pasture 2.6 2.6 2.1 1.9 1.8 2.6 1.7 1.9 2.4 Pen 2.4 2.9 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.3
  • 23. Live and carcass weights (kg) 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 Pasture Pen End weight 26.0 Hot carcass weight 10.3 Cold carcass weight 9.4 28.8 12.9 12.3
  • 24. Carcass percentages 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Pasture Pen KH fat 1.4% Total fat 2.1% Bone 42.3% Lean 54.8% Yield 19.8% Dressing 39.4% 2.6% 4.3% 37.2% 57.9% 24.5% 44.4%
  • 25. Body weights (kg) 29.0 27.0 25.0 23.0 21.0 19.0 ADG: 83 vs. 68 g/d 17.0 15.0 2-Jun Past ure 14-Jun 28-Jun 12-Jul 26-Jul 9-Aug 22-Aug 6-Sep 17.5 20.5 23.2 23.5 25.4 26.5 26.8 27.5
  • 26. Fecal egg counts, epg 3000 Tx = 11 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 2-Jun 14-Jun 28-Jun 12-Jul 26-Jul 9-Aug 22-Aug 6-Sep Pasture 2149 67 289 727 1424 2311 1777 1708 Pen 2434 37 278 407 272 880 956 823
  • 27. FAMACHA© scores (1-5) 2.8 2.6 2.4 Tx = 11 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 2-Jun 14-Jun 28-Jun 12-Jul 26-Jul 9-Aug 22-Aug 6-Sep Pen 2.0 2.1 1.5 1.8 1.4 1.5 1.7 1.5 Pasture 2.1 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.4 2.0 2.7 1.9
  • 28. Live and carcass weights (kg) 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 Pasture Pen Live weight 27.3 Hot carcass weight 11.5 Cold carcass weight 10.5 26.5 11.4 10.3
  • 29. Carcass percentages 50.0% 45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Pasture Pen KH fat 1.5% Fat 2.0% Yield 18.8% Bone 44.1% Lean 48.6% Dressing 42.2% 1.7% 2.4% 18.7% 44.2% 48.3% 42.9%
  • 30. Body weights (kg) 35.0 33.0 31.0 29.0 ADG: 141 vs. 29 g/d 27.0 25.0 23.0 21.0 31-May 13-Jun 27-Jun 11-Jul 25-Jul 8-Aug 22-Aug 5-Sep Pen 22.0 24.0 26.0 28.8 29.9 33.1 32.7 33.9 Pasture 22.6 23.0 23.4 23.1 24.4 26.0 25.6 25.1
  • 31. Fecal egg counts (EPG) (pastures were pre-infected by sheep) 1800 Tx = 8 1600 Tx = 12 1400 Tx = 3 1200 1000 800 600 400 Tx = 3 200 Tx = 1 0 31-May 13-Jun 27-Jun 11-Jul 25-Jul 8-Aug 22-Aug 5-Sep Pen 48 0 14 65 44 31 36 291 Pasture 57 0 1542 1441 687 605 586 1230
  • 32. FAMACHA© scores (1-5) 4.0 Tx = 8 3.5 Tx = 12 3.0 Tx = 3 2.5 Tx = 1 Tx = all Tx = 3 2.0 1.5 31-May 13-Jun 27-Jun 11-Jul 25-Jul 8-Aug 22-Aug 5-Sep Pen 2.5 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.9 Pasture 2.1 1.9 3.7 3.3 2.6 2.3 2.2 2.3
  • 33. Live and carcass weights 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 Pen Pasture Start weight 48.3 End weight 74.5 Hot carcass weight 32.4 Cold carcass weight 29.9 49.8 55.2 22.4 20.0
  • 34. Carcass percentages 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Pen Pasture KH fat 1.1% Total fat 2.3% Bone 35.1% Lean 55.5% Dressing 43.5% Yield 22.3% 0.3% 0.4% 44.2% 48.5% 40.3% 17.5%
  • 35. Economics of pen-feeding • Will vary by year and farm. • Will depend upon feed costs. • Will depend upon genetic potential of goats. • Will depend upon market prices. 2011 • Pen-feeding was more profitable. 2012 • Pasture-rearing was more profitable. 2013 • Pen-feeding was more profitable. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
  • 36. When pen feeding is most likely to be more profitable than pasture-rearing. • Feedstuffs are competitively priced. • Pasture costs are high, due to high land values or rental rates. • Predator risk is high for pastured animals. • Internal parasite challenge is high for pastured animals. • Market prices are high and market pays a premium for higher quality goats. • Goats have the genetic potential to perform on a moderate to high plane of nutrition.
  • 37. Tips for pen feeding goats • Limit feed • If self-feeding, grind or pellet feed to prevent sorting • Feed plenty of forage (hay or pasture) • Feed proper ratio of calcium to phosphorus/ • Vaccinate for overeating disease type D • Feed goats that have good potential for growth.
  • 38. Thank you for your attention. Questions?