Nutrition of ewes and does before and after lambing and kidding
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Copy of PowerPoint slides for presentation on Nutrition of ewes and does before and after lambing and kidding by Dr. Nelson Escobar, Small Ruminant Specialist at the University of Maryland Eastern ...

Copy of PowerPoint slides for presentation on Nutrition of ewes and does before and after lambing and kidding by Dr. Nelson Escobar, Small Ruminant Specialist at the University of Maryland Eastern Shore.

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    Nutrition of ewes and does before and after lambing and kidding Nutrition of ewes and does before and after lambing and kidding Document Transcript

    • NUTRITION OF EWES or DOES IS TODAY A BEFORE AND AFTER GOOD LUCK LAMBING or KIDDING DAY? Enrique Nelson Escobar, Ph.D. Assistant Professor & Let’s make a Small Ruminant Specialist University of Maryland Eastern Shore Princess Anne, Maryland 21853 GREAT DAY!!! 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION Extension Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 We only have 45 minutes to learn about feeding pregnant and lactating ewes and does…can we do it?Let’s take the following approach: 1 Introduction and basic ruminant 1. nutrition concepts 2. The task 3. If not fed adequately…the problems 4. Proposed solutions 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION INTRODUCTION DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS COMPARISONS Feeding sheep and goats involves combining various feedstuffs into an acceptable and palatable ration to The anatomy of the digestive tract determines meet nutrient requirements. the type of feed that is nutritionally useful for a These requirements vary depending on: th stage of production the t g f d ti particular species. Monogastrics (dogs, pigs, gestation humans, etc.) have digestive tracts that are growth confinement conditions, and relatively short and low in volume. In contrast the season of the year. ruminants have digestive systems with a Sheep and goats are ruminants like cattle, deer, relatively large volume llamas, bison, etc. (Tish, 2006) 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 1
    • DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS COMPARISONS DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS COMPARISONSArrangement and relative Arrangement and relativecapacities of organs in the capacities of organs in the Ratio of (small intestine+cecum+chicken’s digestive system pig’s digestive system colon+rectum) length to body length 15:1 Ratio of (crop+proventiculus+ ventriculus+intestine+ceca+rectum) length to body length 5:1 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS COMPARISONS RUMINANT’S STOMACHArrangement and relative Ratio of (small intestine+cecum+capacities of organs in the colon+rectum) length to body length 27:1 sheep’s digestive system 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION Feed Types (According to theFACTS ABOUT THE RUMINANT’S RUMEN National Research Council - NRC) 1. Dry forages It is a balanced ecosystem 2. Pasture, range plants, feeds cut and fed green The breakdown of fiber or cellulose by microbes converts to volatile 3. Silages fatty acids ( y (VFA’s) which are absorbed through the rumen wall and ) g 4. Energy concentrates provide up to 75% of the ruminant animals energy. 5. Protein supplements Protein is produced by the microorganisms from nitrogen in the feed 6. MINERALSSheep-Cu Vitamin K and the B vitamins are also manufactured by the microorganisms. 7. VITAMINS 8. Additives 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2
    • Feed Nutrients ENERGY PROTEIN MINERALSSheep-Cu VITAMINS WATER 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION Feeding ewes and does throughoutCLEAN their production cycle…at least five stagesWATER…PLEASE!!! Dry/non-pregnant/ Late gestation-last open/maintenance four weeks f Breeding/flushing Lactation -6 to 8 wks 6 Early pregnancy up after parturition to 15 weeks after conception 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSIONThe Task. . . WHEN IS THE EWE/DOE DUE TO KID? SHEEP (ewe) GOAT (doe) 1. The nutrition of ewes and does is critical during the last two PREGNANCY PREGNANCY months of pregnancy as up to 75% of fetus(es) growth takes place during this period. 142-152 days 150-155 days 2. At the same time, the ewe/doe’s rumen capacity is decreasing When in doubt use an When in doubt use an rapidly due to the increasing size of the uterus uterus. on-line on line calculator: on-line on line calculator: 3. Protein and energy requirements cannot be met by forage http://www.gestationcalculator.co http://www.gestationcalculator alone and therefore supplementation will be required. m/other/sheep-pregnancy- .com/other/goat-pregnancy- 4. It is critical that a high quality ration is offered to ewes/does to calculator calculator ensure that a) body condition loss is not excessive, b) newborns’ birth weight is not compromised and c) that sufficient colostrum is produced. 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 3
    • Traditional Relationships in Dairy Goats 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION Changes in Crude Protein Requirements in Feed (% protein in feed)66 Changes in Feed Energy Concentration Requirements in Ewes During the  for Ewes During the Production Cycle Production Cycle64 Lactation-Twins- 13.40 62 Energy TDN % Energy TDN % 6-8 wks 60 Pregnancy-Last 4 wks 10.70 58 56 Pregnancy-15 wks 9.30 54 52 Flushing 9.10 50 Maintenance 9.40 Flushing Pregnancy-15 wks Maintenance Pregnancy-Last 4 wks Lactation-Twins- 6-8 wks 0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSIONIf not fed properly…then the problems 1.- MILK FEVER or HYPOCALCEMIA... hypo = lowThere is not a pathogenic MOST COMMON:agent involved (bacteria, Most frequent after 2-3 days after parturition a) Milk fever orvirus, etc.) hypo-calcemia Due to:Balanced feeding plan is b) Pregnancy toxemiathe prevention method of lack of calcium in diet or ketosischoice inability of ewe/doe’s metabolic system c) Enterotoxemia or overeating disease to move calcium or absorb calcium 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 4
    • 2…MILK FEVER or HYPOCALCEMIA… 3…MILK FEVER or HYPOCALCEMIA PREVENTION A lack of blood calcium results in loss of muscle tone and control Two weeks before lambing/kidding feed a low Ca The ewe/doe will go off feed level diet (VERY HARD TO ACHIEVE) which will Become lethargic p prompt Ca mobilization from bones into blood p pool. Milk production will go down When ewes/does are fed a diet that supplies LESS Ca than they Little rumen activity require, the ewes/does are in NEGATIVE Ca balance. Which causes a minor decline in blood levels of Ca which produces a complex Ears become cold endocrinological events resulting in Ca bone “discharge” (efflux) and the intestine is ready to absorb CA efficiently when available If not treated...death 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 3…MILK FEVER or HYPOCALCEMIA 1.- Pregnancy toxemia or ketosis... PREVENTION Transition diet: high nutrients diet Caused by imbalance between energy intake and Calcium gluconate intravenously (IV). Keep in first energy requirements aid closet. Ask your veterinarian how to use an IV kit. closet kit Over-conditioned (f t) O diti d (fat) Keep Ca:P as close as 2:1 as possible in prepared ewes/does are prone to diets + forages (Alfalfa is high in Ca). pregnancy toxemia Characterized by low glucose levels 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION2…Pregnancy toxemia or ketosis… 3…Pregnancy toxemia or ketosis… The ewe/doe’s metabolism uses body fat for energy Ketosis can occur any time the doe goes out off feed instead of carbohydrates from the diet. for any reason. For example: kidding, inadequate The breath, urine and milk may have a sweet smell due to , y feeder space or illness. ketone bodies in blood. Ketone bodies are normal by- Ketone body concentration in the blood sends a products of fats breakdown. message to the brain to decrease appetite...more In cows about two months after calving. problems!!! Sheep and goats: in pregnant animals (last 6 weeks) if Ketosis can be tested easily in urine and milk (CMT) carrying multiple fetuses. 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 5
    • Litter size Dietary energy Nearness to4…Pregnancy toxemia or ketosis level in + lambing/kidding late gestation _ + Treatment is of little value RISK OF Environment 80% of total weight of kid(s) happens in the last 5-6 PREGNANCY + weeks TOXEMIA Individual and PLUS... preparing for milk production genetic factors Dietary energy THEREFORE... level in _ RISK OF PREVENTION IS BEST POLICY early lactation LACTATIONAL KETOSIS Quality of FEED HIGH QUALITY FORAGES Level of lactose ingested energy secretionLambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 1.- ENTEROTOXEMIA… 2…ENTEROTOXEMIA Acute, highly fatal poisoning caused by the absorption of a powerful toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens, type C Overeating a highly and D. energy The bacterium resides in the intestinal tract of ruminants (carbohydrates) diet The condition is characterized by nervous system symptoms: causes a disturbance convulsions, sudden prostration and death. in the digestive Often seen in young, rapidly growing animals system and creates an Sudden change from pasture to grain ideal environment for the proliferation of the Clostridium 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION3…ENTEROTOXEMIA Proposed Ewe/Doe immunization two weeks before kidding will protect the lambs/kids for about six weeks Solutions…it is Then vaccinate lambs/kids +booster after 4 weeks / If outbreaks occurs there is an antitoxin NOT Rocket Start feeding grain gradually Secure feed!!! Science Change diet gradually, especially pre-partum 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 6
    • CHECK THE NRC TABLEShttp://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=614&page=1 Look at Addendum 1, and notice the following: 1. Seven (7) production stages for ewes 2. Energy diet concentration requirements 3. Example of diet proportions 4. 4 Protein diet concentration requirements 5. Ca, P and Vitamins diet concentration requirements 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION Changes in FORAGE-CONCENTRATE Ratios Requirements in Ewes During the Production Cycle CHECK THE NRC TABLES Concentrate % Forage % GOATS: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309031850 65 85 85 100 100 35 15 15 0 0 Maintenance Flushing Pregnancy-15 wks Pregnancy-Last 4 wks Lactation-Twins- 6-8 wks 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION Updating two previous National Research Council publications, Nutrient Requirements of Sheep,CHECK THE NRC TABLES Sixth Revised Edition, 1985, and Nutrient Requirements of Goats, First Edition, 1981GOATS: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309031850 New Nutrient Requirements Book-2007 http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11654 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 7
    • Look at Addendum #2, and notice the following: Using the Langston University Now some practical Interactive Nutrient Calculator Go to: suggestions suggestions… http://www2.luresext.edu/goats/research/nutritionmodule1.htm. Follow the directions and ask questions about some of the information to enter on the boxes. CHALLENGE LEVEL? No Challenge 1 2 3 4 5 Difficult Practice, Practice, Practice!!! 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION From Oregon State University From Oregon State University 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION Example: Late Pregnancy Doe Ration Examples of Phase Doe Feeding (BW= 60 kg-132 lb) (From OK State University Extension) (From Oregon State University) Last 6-8 weeks of Gestation: Feed 1-2 lbs. of grain concentrate 1.75 lbs. of high quality legume hay Lactation: 2 lbs. of corn, or similar grain 2.5 lbs. of high quality legume hay 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 8
    • Check Susan’s FEED by “RULE OF THUMB”….. WHO IS FEEDING TODAY….???http://www.sheepandgoat.com/articles/generalfeedingguidelines.html 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 2011 Lambing and Kidding School/University of Maryland EXTENSION 9