Pounds, kilograms, grams, or calories. Energy (TDN, ME, NE) Protein (CP) Grams (g) Macro minerals Parts per million (ppm) Micro minerals International units (IU) Vitamins
It is assumed that livestock 132 lb. ewe lamb (early gestation, single lamb) will eat (or be fed) a certain Requires 0.34 lbs. of CP per day percentage of their body 5 lbs. of hay 4 lbs. of hay 3 lbs. of hay weight in dry matter. 7.7% 9.7% 12.9% Recommended dietary percentages are based on dry matter intake. The new NRC (2007) requirements no longer give percentage requirements of nutrients. The most useful use of percentages is to compare nutritive value of feedstuffs.
Ewes and does Dry period Breeding Gestation Lactation Weaning Lambs and kids Newborn Pre-weaning Post-weaning ▪ Slaughter stock ▪ Replacements Bucks and rams Maintenance Breeding
DRY PERIOD MaintenanceWEANINGDrying off BREEDING Flushing LACTATION GESTATION Early vs. late Early/mid vs. late
Female is recovering from lactation and preparing to Forage (pasture, browse, or get rebred. harvested forage) is all that’s Rebuild body condition and reserves. usually needed to maintain NOT TOO FAT dry, non-pregnant ruminants. Type Weight DMI TDN CP 2.97 1.65 0.19 Dairy doe 132 lbs. 2.25% 55.6% 6.4% 2.50 1.32 0.17 Doe 132 lbs. 1.90% 52.8% 6.8% 2.86 1.51 0.21 Ewe 176 lbs. 1.63% 53.1% 7.2% Length of dry period depends Divide DMI by % DM to get As Fed. upon birthing interval and 2.86 0.88 = 3.25 lbs. of hay length of lactation. 2.86 0.24 = 11.9 lbs. of pasture
Feed a diet so that females NRC energy requirements (TDN) will be gaining weight as they are 10% above maintenance. enter the breeding season. Supplement females with 0.5 lb. of grain per head per day or move females to a lush pasture that has been saved for flushing. Start 2 weeks before breeding Continue 3 to 4 weeks into breeding season Females in average or better body condition usually do not respond to flushing.
What’s occurring? Embryos implant in uterus (d 20-24) Mammary gland development (d 30-90) Placenta development (d 30-90) Wool follicles forming (d 35-100) NRC Energy requirements (TDN) above maintenance vary byType(twin-bearing) Weight DMI TDN CP species, genetic type, and weight. 3.60 1.91 0.31 ▪ 16-43% for females in table.Dairy doe 132 lbs. 2.73% 53.1 % 8.6% 3.15 1.67 0.29 Quantity of nutrients is moreDoe 132 lbs. 2.38% 53.0% 9.2% important than quality of 4.05 2.16 0.33 nutrients.Ewe 176 lbs. 2.30% 53.3% 8.1% Don’t allow females to get fat! Females should be gaining minimal Divide DMI by % DM to get As Fed. amount of weight. 3.15 0.88 = 3.6 lbs. of hay ▪ Ewe: ~0.10 lb. per day. 3.15 0.24 =
What’s occurring? Rapid fetal growth. Limited rumen capacity. Mammary development. Usually necessary to supplement high moisture feeds and dry forages with concentrate feeds toType Weight DMI TDN CP meet nutrient requirements,(twin-bearing) especially for females carryingDairy doe 132 lbs. 3.72 2.46 0.45 multiple births. 2.82% 66.1 % 12.1% Energy (TDN) is most likely 3.34 2.22 0.43 to be deficient in diet.Doe 132 lbs. 2.54% 66.5% 13.0% Calcium requirements increase 4.38 2.90 0.44Ewe 176 lbs. 2.48% 53.3% 10.0% Do not feed low quality or nutrient-dilute feeds during late Divide DMI by % DM to get As Fed. gestation.4.38 0.88 = 5.0 lbs. Ewe would have to eat 5 lbs. of hay to meet her TDN requirements. Do not overfeed!
OVERFEEDING UNDERFEEDING Dystocia Energy ketosis $$$$ (pregnancy toxemia) Calcium milk fever Weaker lambs and kids Higher neonatal mortality Quantity and quality of colostrum (first milk) Less milk production Poorer performance of lambs and kids. Fewer secondary follicles in offspring fiber production
Highest nutrient requirements ($$$) Energy + protein Save highest quality forage for lactation diet. Nutrient requirements ▪ Young > mature ▪ Twins > singles ▪ Triplets > twins ▪ Accelerated > annual ▪ Dairy > non-dairy ▪ Parlor milked >
Type (twin-bearing) Weight DMI TDN CPDairy doe (avg. producer) 132 lbs. 6.6 ( 5.0%) 5.25 (80.0 %) 1.39 (21.0%)Doe 132 lbs. 3.85 (2.91%) 1.98 (51.4%) 0.54 (14.2%)Ewe 176 lbs. 4.73 (2.69%) 3.3 (69.8%) 0.89 (18.8%)Dairy ewe 176 lbs. 7.15 (3.80%) 4.42 (61.8%) 1.10 (15.3%) General rule of thumb is Feed meat goat does 1 to feed 1 lb. of grain for lb. of a 16% CP ration per each lamb a ewe is day. nursing. Feed 1 lb. of concentrate 1 lb. of grain per day to for each 3 lbs. of milk ewes nursing lambs on produced. pasture.
Colostrum – first milk first 12-24 hours ▪ Energy, fat, and protein ▪ Vitamin A ▪ Antibodies [Large protein molecules] ▪ Immunoglobulins (IgG) ▪ Laxative Lambs and kids should consume colostrum within 30 minutes of the birth (ideally) and 10% of the body weight in their first 24 hours of life.
SUPPLY BEHAVIOR Females vary in the quality Lambs and kids vary in their and quantity of colostrum suckling ability and intake of colostrum. they produce. Ewe bonding behavior affects Older ewes > younger ewes colostrum intake. Grain-fed > no grain fed Cull females with poor bonding behavior and those that produce insufficient or thick colostrum. Do not keep lambs or kids that require tube or bottle feeding.
For the first several weeks, all a lamb or kid needs is its mother’s milk. Lamb and kids will start to nibble on solid food soon after birth. By the time they are 4 to 6 weeks of age, they could be getting as much as 50% of their nutrients from sources other than milk. Pre-weaning diet will affect rumen development. Starter grain > Hay > Pasture
WHO? WHY? Early-born lambs and kids Ease stress at weaning. Improve growth rate. Lambs and kids born in Enhance rumen development accelerated lambing and kidding programs Artificially reared lambs and kids Early-weaned lambs and kids. In flocks and herds, where there are lots of multiple births and milk could be a limiting factor. On farms where pasture is a limited resource.
Set up a creep area in barn or on pasture by the time most of the lambs or kids are 10 days old. Create barrier that allows entry of lambs or kids, but prevents ewes and lambs from entering. Area should provide easy access, be well-lit, and be clean and dry.
Fresh Palatable 17 to 20 percent CP Lower for older lambs, kids 2:1 Ca:P ratio All-natural protein Highly digestible Small particle size Example rations: 1. cracked corn + soybean meal 2. Starter pellet Always available Good feeder design
Set up a barrier that allows entry of lambs or kids, but not ewes or does. Forage in creep area must be superior to forage in non-creep area. Forage in creep area must be high quality.
Market Replacements PastureWeaning Market animals Dry lot
PASTURE COMBINATION HIGH CONCENTRATE Late born Moderate growth Early born Late weaning potential Early wean Low to moderate Zero grazing High growth growth potential Free choice hay potential Dairy High quality Limit feed grain Zero grazing pasture Mixed rations High energy Creep grazing (?) e.g. whole grain Self-feed grain Supplemental Pelleted ration feeding (?) Limit feed hay Maximum gain
Separate from market animals Grow no more than 50 to 75% of the maximal rate of gain. Good forage Good forage + 1 lb. of grain (lambs) Good forage + 0.5-1% of BW of grain (kids) Target weights 60 -70 % of mature weight for breeding Frame development more 75% of mature weight at 12 months important than finish. Fast growth and unnecessary fat disposition may be detrimental to mammary development. Exception: full-feed dairy ewes (WI)
During most of the year, forage (hay, pasture, or browse) will meet the nutritional requirements of most mature rams and bucks. Supplement rams and bucks with concentrates if necessary to maintain body condition. Free choice minerals
Rams and bucks should be in good body condition (3-4) at the time of breeding. Feed grain as needed to condition rams and bucks. Continue feeding grain during Most males will lose body condition breeding season.during the breeding season (some, a lot). Feed ram lambs and bucklings through breeding season to allow for growth and breeding activity. Feed rams and bucks after breeding season to gradually recover body condition lost during breeding season.
Evaluate the adequacy of previous feed supply. Determining future feed requirements. Accessing the health status of individual animals.
Index of 1-5 usually for sheep and goats 1. Emaciated 2. Thin 3. Average 4. Fat 5. Obese Score by feeling for fat and/or muscle over the backbone, ribs, spine, and loin.
Ewes and does Always, 2-4 Never, 1 or 5 Breeding, 3 Late gestation, 3 Lambing, 3+ Weaning, 2 Rams and bucks Pre-breeding, 3-4
Protein (CP) Meat balls Vitamins Cheese toppingEnergy (TDN) Minerals Pasta Sauce
Next webinar – Thursday, 2/2, 7:30 p.m. EST Topic: Ration balancing w/Willie Lantz Thank you for your attention. Any questions? Susan Schoenian firstname.lastname@example.org