Nutrional management

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This PowerPoint presentation on the Nutritional Management of Sheep and Goats is from a six-part webinar series that was held in Jan-Feb. 2012.

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Nutrional management

  1. 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn)Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu - www.sheepandgoat.com
  2. 2.  Species Genetic type Size (weight) Age Sex Stage of production Level of production Body condition Environment
  3. 3. 1. Water2. Energy3. Protein4. Fats5. Vitamins6. Minerals Fiber
  4. 4.  Pounds, kilograms, grams, or calories.  Energy (TDN, ME, NE)  Protein (CP) Grams (g)  Macro minerals Parts per million (ppm)  Micro minerals International units (IU)  Vitamins
  5. 5.  It is assumed that livestock 132 lb. ewe lamb (early gestation, single lamb) will eat (or be fed) a certain Requires 0.34 lbs. of CP per day percentage of their body 5 lbs. of hay 4 lbs. of hay 3 lbs. of hay weight in dry matter. 7.7% 9.7% 12.9% Recommended dietary percentages are based on dry matter intake. The new NRC (2007) requirements no longer give percentage requirements of nutrients. The most useful use of percentages is to compare nutritive value of feedstuffs.
  6. 6.  Ewes and does  Dry period  Breeding  Gestation  Lactation  Weaning Lambs and kids  Newborn  Pre-weaning  Post-weaning ▪ Slaughter stock ▪ Replacements Bucks and rams  Maintenance  Breeding
  7. 7. DRY PERIOD MaintenanceWEANINGDrying off BREEDING Flushing LACTATION GESTATION Early vs. late Early/mid vs. late
  8. 8.  Female is recovering from lactation and preparing to  Forage (pasture, browse, or get rebred. harvested forage) is all that’s  Rebuild body condition and reserves. usually needed to maintain NOT TOO FAT dry, non-pregnant ruminants. Type Weight DMI TDN CP 2.97 1.65 0.19 Dairy doe 132 lbs. 2.25% 55.6% 6.4% 2.50 1.32 0.17 Doe 132 lbs. 1.90% 52.8% 6.8% 2.86 1.51 0.21 Ewe 176 lbs. 1.63% 53.1% 7.2% Length of dry period depends Divide DMI by % DM to get As Fed. upon birthing interval and 2.86 0.88 = 3.25 lbs. of hay length of lactation. 2.86 0.24 = 11.9 lbs. of pasture
  9. 9.  Feed a diet so that females NRC energy requirements (TDN) will be gaining weight as they are 10% above maintenance. enter the breeding season. Supplement females with 0.5 lb. of grain per head per day or move females to a lush pasture that has been saved for flushing.  Start 2 weeks before breeding  Continue 3 to 4 weeks into breeding season Females in average or better body condition usually do not respond to flushing.
  10. 10.  What’s occurring?  Embryos implant in uterus (d 20-24)  Mammary gland development (d 30-90)  Placenta development (d 30-90)  Wool follicles forming (d 35-100)  NRC Energy requirements (TDN) above maintenance vary byType(twin-bearing) Weight DMI TDN CP species, genetic type, and weight. 3.60 1.91 0.31 ▪ 16-43% for females in table.Dairy doe 132 lbs. 2.73% 53.1 % 8.6% 3.15 1.67 0.29  Quantity of nutrients is moreDoe 132 lbs. 2.38% 53.0% 9.2% important than quality of 4.05 2.16 0.33 nutrients.Ewe 176 lbs. 2.30% 53.3% 8.1%  Don’t allow females to get fat!  Females should be gaining minimal Divide DMI by % DM to get As Fed. amount of weight. 3.15 0.88 = 3.6 lbs. of hay ▪ Ewe: ~0.10 lb. per day. 3.15 0.24 =
  11. 11. What’s occurring?  Rapid fetal growth.  Limited rumen capacity.  Mammary development.  Usually necessary to supplement high moisture feeds and dry forages with concentrate feeds toType Weight DMI TDN CP meet nutrient requirements,(twin-bearing) especially for females carryingDairy doe 132 lbs. 3.72 2.46 0.45 multiple births. 2.82% 66.1 % 12.1%  Energy (TDN) is most likely 3.34 2.22 0.43 to be deficient in diet.Doe 132 lbs. 2.54% 66.5% 13.0%  Calcium requirements increase 4.38 2.90 0.44Ewe 176 lbs. 2.48% 53.3% 10.0%  Do not feed low quality or nutrient-dilute feeds during late Divide DMI by % DM to get As Fed. gestation.4.38 0.88 = 5.0 lbs. Ewe would have to eat 5 lbs. of hay to meet her TDN requirements.  Do not overfeed!
  12. 12. OVERFEEDING UNDERFEEDING Dystocia   Energy  ketosis $$$$ (pregnancy toxemia)   Calcium  milk fever  Weaker lambs and kids  Higher neonatal mortality  Quantity and quality of colostrum (first milk)  Less milk production  Poorer performance of lambs and kids.  Fewer secondary follicles in offspring  fiber production
  13. 13.  Highest nutrient requirements ($$$)  Energy + protein  Save highest quality forage for lactation diet. Nutrient requirements ▪ Young > mature ▪ Twins > singles ▪ Triplets > twins ▪ Accelerated > annual ▪ Dairy > non-dairy ▪ Parlor milked >
  14. 14. Type (twin-bearing) Weight DMI TDN CPDairy doe (avg. producer) 132 lbs. 6.6 ( 5.0%) 5.25 (80.0 %) 1.39 (21.0%)Doe 132 lbs. 3.85 (2.91%) 1.98 (51.4%) 0.54 (14.2%)Ewe 176 lbs. 4.73 (2.69%) 3.3 (69.8%) 0.89 (18.8%)Dairy ewe 176 lbs. 7.15 (3.80%) 4.42 (61.8%) 1.10 (15.3%)  General rule of thumb is  Feed meat goat does 1 to feed 1 lb. of grain for lb. of a 16% CP ration per each lamb a ewe is day. nursing.  Feed 1 lb. of concentrate  1 lb. of grain per day to for each 3 lbs. of milk ewes nursing lambs on produced. pasture.
  15. 15. SLAUGHTER ANIMALSNEWBORN PRE-WEANING POST-WEANINGNEONATAL REPLACEMENTS
  16. 16.  Colostrum – first milk first 12-24 hours ▪ Energy, fat, and protein ▪ Vitamin A ▪ Antibodies [Large protein molecules] ▪ Immunoglobulins (IgG) ▪ Laxative  Lambs and kids should consume colostrum within 30 minutes of the birth (ideally) and 10% of the body weight in their first 24 hours of life.
  17. 17. SUPPLY BEHAVIOR Females vary in the quality  Lambs and kids vary in their and quantity of colostrum suckling ability and intake of colostrum. they produce.  Ewe bonding behavior affects  Older ewes > younger ewes colostrum intake.  Grain-fed > no grain fed Cull females with poor bonding behavior and those that produce insufficient or thick colostrum. Do not keep lambs or kids that require tube or bottle feeding.
  18. 18.  For the first several weeks, all a lamb or kid needs is its mother’s milk. Lamb and kids will start to nibble on solid food soon after birth. By the time they are 4 to 6 weeks of age, they could be getting as much as 50% of their nutrients from sources other than milk. Pre-weaning diet will affect rumen development.  Starter grain > Hay > Pasture
  19. 19. WHO? WHY? Early-born lambs and kids  Ease stress at weaning.  Improve growth rate. Lambs and kids born in  Enhance rumen development accelerated lambing and kidding programs Artificially reared lambs and kids Early-weaned lambs and kids. In flocks and herds, where there are lots of multiple births and milk could be a limiting factor. On farms where pasture is a limited resource.
  20. 20.  Set up a creep area in barn or on pasture by the time most of the lambs or kids are 10 days old. Create barrier that allows entry of lambs or kids, but prevents ewes and lambs from entering. Area should provide easy access, be well-lit, and be clean and dry.
  21. 21.  Fresh Palatable  17 to 20 percent CP Lower for older lambs, kids  2:1 Ca:P ratio  All-natural protein  Highly digestible  Small particle size  Example rations: 1. cracked corn + soybean meal 2. Starter pellet Always available Good feeder design
  22. 22.  Set up a barrier that allows entry of lambs or kids, but not ewes or does. Forage in creep area must be superior to forage in non-creep area. Forage in creep area must be high quality.
  23. 23. Market Replacements PastureWeaning Market animals Dry lot
  24. 24. PASTURE COMBINATION HIGH CONCENTRATE Late born  Moderate growth  Early born Late weaning potential  Early wean Low to moderate  Zero grazing  High growth growth potential  Free choice hay potential  Dairy High quality  Limit feed grain  Zero grazing pasture  Mixed rations  High energy Creep grazing (?) e.g. whole grain  Self-feed grain Supplemental  Pelleted ration feeding (?)  Limit feed hay  Maximum gain
  25. 25.  Separate from market animals Grow no more than 50 to 75% of the maximal rate of gain.  Good forage  Good forage + 1 lb. of grain (lambs)  Good forage + 0.5-1% of BW of grain (kids) Target weights 60 -70 % of mature weight for breeding Frame development more 75% of mature weight at 12 months important than finish. Fast growth and unnecessary fat disposition may be detrimental to mammary development.  Exception: full-feed dairy ewes (WI)
  26. 26.  During most of the year, forage (hay, pasture, or browse) will meet the nutritional requirements of most mature rams and bucks. Supplement rams and bucks with concentrates if necessary to maintain body condition. Free choice minerals
  27. 27.  Rams and bucks should be in good body condition (3-4) at the time of breeding.  Feed grain as needed to condition rams and bucks.  Continue feeding grain during Most males will lose body condition breeding season.during the breeding season (some, a lot).  Feed ram lambs and bucklings through breeding season to allow for growth and breeding activity.  Feed rams and bucks after breeding season to gradually recover body condition lost during breeding season.
  28. 28.  Evaluate the adequacy of previous feed supply. Determining future feed requirements. Accessing the health status of individual animals.
  29. 29.  Index of 1-5 usually for sheep and goats 1. Emaciated 2. Thin 3. Average 4. Fat 5. Obese Score by feeling for fat and/or muscle over the backbone, ribs, spine, and loin.
  30. 30.  Ewes and does  Always, 2-4  Never, 1 or 5  Breeding, 3  Late gestation, 3  Lambing, 3+  Weaning, 2 Rams and bucks  Pre-breeding, 3-4
  31. 31. Protein (CP) Meat balls Vitamins Cheese toppingEnergy (TDN) Minerals Pasta Sauce
  32. 32. Next webinar – Thursday, 2/2, 7:30 p.m. EST Topic: Ration balancing w/Willie Lantz Thank you for your attention. Any questions? Susan Schoenian sschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.com

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