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Nutrients p2
 

 

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    Nutrients p2 Nutrients p2 Presentation Transcript

    • SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center sschoen@umd.edu - www.sheepandgoat.comNutrient -“a substance that provides nourishment”
    •  Species Size (weight) Sex Age Genetics Stage and level of production Climate, environment, and activity. Body condition
    • 5.0 4.5Lbs. per day 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 Maintenance Early Gestation Late gestation Early lactation Dairy doe Non-dairy doe Ewe Parlor-milked ewe Parlor-milked doe NRC 2007
    •  Sheep have lower maintenance requirements than goats. Dairy goats have higher maintenance requirements than meat and fiber goats. Females with a higher genetic potential for milk production have higher nutritional requirements.
    • 7.0 6.5 110-lb. ewe 6.0 5.5 154-lb. ewe 5.0 4.5 198-lb. eweLbs. per day 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 52% 2.0 1.5 66% 1.0 0.5 66% 0.0 10% 10% 8.5% Dry matter intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007
    • 4.5 66-lb. doe 4.0 110-lb. doe 3.5 154-lb. doe 3.0Lbs. per day 2.5 2.0 66% 1.5 1.0 66% 0.5 80% 15% 13% 13% 0.0 Dry matter intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007, Errata
    •  Bigger animals have lower maintenance requirements than smaller animals.   % body weight Bigger animals need to eat more and consume larger quantities of nutrients.   lbs. TDN and  lbs. CP However, smaller animals need to consume a more nutrient-dense diet.   %TDN and  %CP
    • 176-lb. mature ewe (twins) 5.0 132-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 4.5 110-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 4.0 110-lb. ewe lamb (single)Lbs. per day 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 -- 79% -- 1.5 1.0 ~10% 0.5 66% 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007
    • 176-lb. mature ewe (twins) 12.0 132-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 110-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 10.0 110-lb. ewe lamb (single) 8.0Grams per day 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium (Ca) Phosphorus (P) NRC, 2007
    •  Mature females are usually bigger and need to eat more.  More lbs. of dry matter  More lbs. of energy  More lbs. of protein  More grams of Ca and P However, young females need a more nutrient-dense diet.  Higher % of energy  Higher % of Ca and P  But NOT protein!
    • 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5Lbs. per day 3.0 66% 2.5 2.0 66% 1.5 53% 1.0 0.5 53% 7% 8% 10% 15% 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC 2007
    • 10.0 8.0Grams per day 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium Phosphorus Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactationNRC, 2007
    •  Energy requirements during late gestation are more than 50 percent higher than for maintenance. Ewes require a more nutrient-dense diet during late gestation and lactation. Protein requirements don’t increase significantly until the female begins to lactate. Calcium requirements are highest during late gestation. Phosphorus requirements are highest during lactation.
    • 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0Lbs. per day 2.5 2.0 1.5 ? 1.0 0.5 ? 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC 2007, Errata
    • 10.0 8.0Grams per day 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium Phosphorus Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactationNRC, 2007
    • 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0Lbs. per day 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC 2007 Errata
    •  Energy requirements during late gestation are more than 50 percent higher than for maintenance. Calcium and Phosphorus requirements are highest during lactation. Females with a higher genetic potential for milk production have much higher nutritional requirements during lactation.
    • 6.0 Single lamb 5.0 Twin lambs Three or more 4.0Lbs. per day 3.0 66% 2.0 66% 53% 1.0 8.3% 10 10% 0.0 % DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007
    • 12.0 Single lamb 10.0 Twin lambs Three or moreGrams per day 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium Phosphorus NRC, 2007
    •  Ewes carrying twins and triplets need to eat more.  Dry matter  Energy (TDN)  Protein (CP)  Calcium and phosphorus Ewes carrying twins and triplets need a more nutrient-dense diet. A ewe carrying triplets needs 43% more energy than a ewe carrying a single fetus.
    • Single lamb 6.0 Twin lambs Three or more 5.0 Parlor milked 4.0Lbs. per day 80% 3.0 66% 2.0 1.0 53% 19% 15% 11% 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007
    • Single kid 8.0 Twin kids Three or more 7.0 Parlor milked 6.0Lbs. per day 79% 5.0 66% 4.0 53% 3.0 53% 2.0 1.0 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) NRC, 2007
    •  The more milk a female produces the more nutrients she needs to consume.  Energy  Protein  Minerals In some cases, animals can simply be fed more, but in the case of higher-producing animals, a more nutrient dense diet must be fed. Nutrient requirements are significantly higher for dairy does and ewes.
    •  Their nutritional requirements are affected by many of the same factors.  Age  Species  Size  Genetic type and potential  Level of performance  Environment, activity
    • EARLY MATURING LATE MATURING 4 months old 8 months old 4 months old 8 months old 4.0 3.5 5.5% 3.0Lbs. per day 79% 2.5 4.2% 2.0 3.4% 79% 79% 1.5 2.9% 1.0 66% 0.5 18% 15% 12% 9% 0.0 DM TDN CP NRC, 2007
    •  Assuming the same size and rate-of-gain:  Young lambs convert feed more efficiently, but need a higher percentage of protein in their diet.  Older lambs need to eat more and require a more digestible diet to achieve the same rate-of-gain.  Later maturing lambs need to eat more, but have lower protein requirements.
    • 4.0 Weight % TDN % CP 3.5 22 87.5% 16.5% 44 67.1% 11.2% 3.0 66 67.0% 10.7%Lbs. per day 2.5 88 48.9% 7.6% 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 AS FED DM TDN CP 22 lbs. 44 lbs. 66 lbs. 88 lbs. NRC, 2007
    •  Assuming the same rate of gain (0.22 lbs/day):  Smaller kids (weight) need to consume a more nutrient-dense diet, both energy and protein.  Bigger kids need to consume more quantity of nutrients, but the diet does not need to be as high Weight 22 % TDN 87.5% % CP 16.5% quality (% TDN, CP). 44 67.1% 11.2% 66 67.0% 10.7% 88 48.9% 7.6%
    • 3.0 Type % TDN % CP Dairy 87.7% 14.4% Boer 66.3% 15.1% 2.5 Indigenous 67.0% 13.0% 2.0Lbs. per day 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 AS FED DM TDN CP Dairy Boer Indigenous
    •  Assuming the same rate of gain (0.44 lbs/day).  Dairy goat bucks don’t need to eat as much as Boer bucks, but their diet needs to be more energy-dense.  Boer bucks need to eat the most, but their diet doesn’t need to be as energy-dense.  Boer bucks have the highest requirements for protein: lbs. and %.  Indigenous (local) breed goats have Type % TDN % CP lower requirements for protein than Dairy 87.7% 14.4% improved breeds. Boer 66.3% 15.1%Indigenous 67.0% 13.0%
    • 2.5 2.0Lbs. per day 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 As Fed DM TDN CP Doelings and wethers Intact males
    •  Assuming the same rate of gain (0.44 lbs/day).  Bucks need to eat more dry matter and energy.  Bucks and does require the same amount of protein.  But since does eat less, they require a higher percentage of protein in their diet.  Realistically, the differences will be larger as bucks will gain Sex % TDN % CP faster and you don’t want to Doelings, wethers 65.8% 15.9% feed does to gain as fast. Intact males 66.3% 14.5%
    • 2.0 1.5Lbs. per day 1.0 0.5 0.0 AS FED DM TDN CP 0 lbs/day 0.22 lbs/day 0.33/lbs/day 0.44 lbs/day 0.55 lbs/day NRC, 2007
    •  Assuming the same genetic potential for growth:  The more you feed a kid or lamb the more it will gain.  Better performance requires both more feed and better quality feed. ▪ Higher % TDN ▪ Higher % CP  The bigger question is: is better ADG 0 lbs/day % TDN 49.7% % CP 7.8% performance economical? 0.22 lbs/day 67.1% 13.8% 0.33/lbs/day 87.9% 19.9% 0.44 lbs/day 89.2% 21.7% 0.55 lbs/day 88.6% 23.1%
    • Next webinar – Thursday, 1/26, 7:30 p.m. EST Topic: Feedstuffs w/Jeff Semler Thank you for your attention. Any questions? Susan Schoenian sschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.com