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Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
Nutrients p1
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  • 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center sschoen@umd.edu - www.sheepandgoat.comNutrient -“a substance that provides nourishment”
  • 2. 1) Water Livestock do not require specific feedstuffs; they require nutrients in certain quantities and ratios.2) Protein3) Energy4) Fat5) Vitamins6) Minerals
  • 3.  Many (most) feedstuffs contain more than one of the essential six nutrients. Feedstuffs vary considerably in their content of the six essential nutrients. No single feedstuff can supply all six essential nutrients that an animal needs to survive and thrive.
  • 4.  There are “linkages” or relationships between essential nutrients. You have to “balance” the ratio of different feed ingredients to meet the individual animal’s needs. The nutrient needs of an animal varies depending upon species, age, stage and level of production, and other factors.
  • 5.  The most critical nutrient. Has many important functions in the body. Needs vary by species, stage and level of production, and climate. Quantity + Quality
  • 6. Feedstuff % DMLettuce 5 percentPumpkins 10 percentOrchardgrass pasture 24 percentCorn silage 34 percentWet distiller’s grains 25 percentMolasses, cane 76 percentGrass hay 88 percentWhole corn 88 percentGround limestone 98 percentUrea 99 percent Pineapple Feedstuffs contain water. The amount of moisture in the feed must be considered when balancing rations. Rations are balanced on a dry matter (DM) basis.
  • 7.  Nutrient needed in the greatest quantity. Building blocks for other nutrients. Dietary excess is stored as fat. Expressed as 1. TDN - total digestible nutrients 2. ME - metabolizable energy 3. NE - net energy [maintenance, gain, and lactation]
  • 8. Feedstuff % TDNUrea 0 percentOat straw 48 percentOrchardgrass hay 59 percentGrass silage 61 percentFescue pasture 64 percentDry beet pulp 75 percentBarley 84 percentCorn 88 percentBread by-product 91 percentDistiller’s grains 92 percentFat 195 percent
  • 9.  Cheapest energy source. 2.25x as much energy as carbohydrates. Used to raise energy level of feed, improve flavor, texture, and palatability. Source of heat, insulation and body protection. Essential fatty acids. Can manipulate to change nutritional profile of meat.
  • 10. Feedstuff % EEUrea 0 percentDry beet pulp 0.7 percentBarley 2.1 percentAlfalfa hay, mid-bloom 2.3 percentOrchardgrass hay 3.3 percentCorn 4.3 percentFescue pasture 5.5 percentCorn distiller’s grains 10.5 percentWhole cottonseed 17.8 percentWhole soybeans 18.8 percentFat 99 percent Ruminant diets are typically < 4% fat
  • 11.  Most expensive ingredient in feed ration. Need decreases as animal matures. Source of essential amino acids. Excess dietary protein is converted to energy, fat. Expressed as  CP - crude protein ▪ DIP – degradable intake protein ▪ UIP – undegradable intake protein  MP - metabolizable protein [microbial protein + UIP]
  • 12. Feedstuff % CPWheat straw 3 percentCorn grain 9 percentBromegrass hay 10 percentBarley 12 percentFescue pasture 15 percentAlfalfa hay, mid bloom 17 percentCrystalyx ® protein tub 18 percentDistiller’s grains 29 percentSoybean meal 49 percentFish meal 66 percentUrea 288 percent
  • 13. 1) Macro Needed in gram amounts Ca, P, Na, Cl, Mg, K, S2) Micro Needed in milligram amounts Co, Cu, F, I, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn Multiple functions in body
  • 14. Dry matter basis Ca P Ca: PCorn 0.02 percent 0.30 percent 0.07Barley 0.06 percent 0.38 percent 0.16Soybean meal 0.28 percent 0.71 percent 0.39Orchardgrass hay 0.32 percent 0.30 percent 1.07Fescue pasture 0.48 percent 0.37 percent 1.30Soybean hulls 0.55 percent 0.17 percent 3.24Alfalfa hay, mid-bloom 1.4 percent 0.24 percent 5.83Dried kelp 2.72 percent 0.31 percent 8.77Dicalcium phosphate 22 percent 18.65 percent 1.18Bone meal 27 percent 12.74 percent 2.12Ground limestone 34 percent 0.02 percent 1700
  • 15. 1) Water soluble B&C2) Fat soluble A, D, E , & K Multiple functions in body. Requirements increase with age. No dietary requirement for vitamin K or B complex.
  • 16. Vitamin Feedstuffβ-caroteen Green, pasture forage; dehydrated hay; (vitamin A) cured hay, vitamin supplements D Ultraviolet irradiation, sun-cured hays, vitamin supplements E High quality legume hay, dehydrated alfalfa, wheat germ, vitamin supplements K Green, leafy feedstuffs (K1). K2 synthesized in rumen B Not required in diets of ruminants
  • 17. 1) Ca - Vitamin D2) P - Vitamin D3) Co - Vitamin B124) Se - vitamin E5) Cu - Mo - S
  • 18. 1) Acid detergent fiber (ADF) Cellulose + Lignin ADF Forage quality 2) Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) Hemicellulose + Cellulose + Lignin  NDF  IntakeTDN is calculated from ADF.
  • 19. Next webinar – Thursday, 1/26, 7:30 p.m. EST Topic: Feedstuffs w/Jeff Semler Thank you for your attention. Any questions? Susan Schoenian sschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.com

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