2012 Webinar Series                                                                                       2/3/2012        ...
2012 Webinar Series                                     2/3/2012                        Many (most) feedstuffs            ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                           2/3/2012    ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                         2/3/2012                                 Nutri...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                      2/3/2012         ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                          2/3/2012                                    M...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                          2/3/2012                     ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                   2/3/2012            ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                             2/3/2012                  ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                                       ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                         2/3/2012      ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                                  2/3/2...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                                2/3/201...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                                       ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                                 2/3/20...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                                   2/3/...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                              2/3/2012 ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                              2/3/2012 ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                           2/3/2012    ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                       2/3/2012        ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                                       ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                        2/3/2012       ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                              2/3/2012 ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                                       ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                                       ...
2012 Webinar Series                                                                                       2/3/2012        ...
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Nutrients

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Transcript of "Nutrients"

  1. 1. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 SUSAN SCHOENIAN    (Shāy‐nē‐ŭn) Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center sschoen@umd.edu  ‐ www.sheepandgoat.com sschoen@umd edu   www sheepandgoat com Nutrient -“a substance that provides nourishment” 1) Water Livestock do not require specific feedstuffs; they  require nutrients in certain quantities and ratios require nutrients in certain quantities and ratios. 2) Protein 3) Energy 4) Fat 5) Vitamins  6) MineralsFeeding and Nutrition 1
  2. 2. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Many (most) feedstuffs  contain more than one of  the essential six nutrients. Feedstuffs vary  considerably in  their  content of the six essential  nutrients. No single feedstuff can  supply all six essential  nutrients that an animal  needs to survive and thrive. There are “linkages” or  relationships between  essential nutrients. You have to “balance” the  ratio of different feed  ingredients to meet the  individual animal’s needs. The nutrient needs of an   Th   t i t  d   f  animal varies depending  upon species, age, stage  and level of production,  and other factors.Feeding and Nutrition 2
  3. 3. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 The most critical  nutrient. Has many important  functions in the body. Needs vary by species,   N d    b   i stage and level of  production, and  climate. Quantity + Quality Feedstuff % DM Lettuce 5 percent Pumpkins 10 percent Orchardgrass  pasture 24 percent Corn silage 34 percent Wet distiller’s grains 25 percent Molasses, cane 76 percent Grass hay 88 percent Whole corn 88 percent Ground limestone 98 percent Urea 99 percent Pineapple Feedstuffs contain water.  The amount of moisture in the feed must be considered  when balancing rations. Rations are balanced on a dry matter (DM) basis.Feeding and Nutrition 3
  4. 4. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Nutrient needed in the  greatest quantity. Building blocks for other  nutrients. Dietary excess is stored  as fat. Expressed as 1. TDN ‐ total digestible nutrients 2. ME ‐ metabolizable energy 3. NE ‐ net energy  [maintenance, gain, and lactation] Feedstuff % TDN Urea 0 percent Oat straw 48 percent Orchardgrass hay 59 percent Grass silage 61 percent Fescue pasture 64 percent Dry beet pulp 75 percent Barley l 84 percent Corn 88 percent Bread by‐product 91 percent Distiller’s grains 92 percent Fat 195 percentFeeding and Nutrition 4
  5. 5. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Cheapest energy source. h 2.25x as much energy as  carbohydrates. Used to raise energy level  of feed, improve flavor,  texture, and palatability. Source of heat, insulation  and body protection. Essential fatty acids. Can manipulate to change  nutritional profile of meat. Feedstuff % EE Urea 0 percent Dry beet pulp 0.7 percent Barley 2.1 percent Alfalfa hay, mid‐bloom 2.3 percent Orchardgrass hay 3.3 percent Corn 4.3 percent Fescue pasture 5.5 percent 5 5 percent Corn distiller’s grains 10.5 percent Whole cottonseed 17.8 percent Whole soybeans 18.8 percent Fat 99 percent Ruminant diets are typically < 4% fatFeeding and Nutrition 5
  6. 6. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Most expensive ingredient in  f d  ti feed ration. Need decreases as animal  matures. Source of essential amino  acids. Excess dietary protein is  converted to energy, fat. Expressed as d CP ‐ crude protein ▪ DIP – degradable intake protein ▪ UIP – undegradable intake protein MP ‐ metabolizable protein [microbial protein + UIP] Feedstuff % CP Wheat straw 3 percent Corn grain 9 percent Bromegrass hay  10 percent Barley 12 percent Fescue pasture 15 percent Alfalfa hay, mid bloom 17 percent Crystalyx ® protein tub 18 percent Distiller’s grains  29 percent Soybean meal 49 percent Fish meal 66 percent Urea 288 percentFeeding and Nutrition 6
  7. 7. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 1) Macro Needed in gram amounts Ca, P, Na, Cl, Mg, K, S 2) Micro Needed in milligram amounts Co, Cu, F, I, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn C  C  F  I  M  M  S  Z Multiple functions in body Dry matter basis Ca P Ca: P Corn 0.02 percent 0.30 percent 0.07 Barley 0.06 percent 0.38 percent 0.16 Soybean meal 0.28 percent 0.71 percent 0.39 Orchardgrass hay 0.32 percent 0.30 percent 1.07 Fescue pasture 0.48 percent 0.37 percent 1.30 Soybean hulls 0.55 percent 0.17 percent 3.24 Alfalfa hay, mid‐bloom lf lf h d bl 1.4 percent 0.24 percent 5.83 Dried kelp 2.72 percent 0.31 percent 8.77 Dicalcium phosphate 22 percent 18.65 percent 1.18 Bone meal 27 percent 12.74 percent 2.12 Ground limestone 34 percent 0.02 percent 1700Feeding and Nutrition 7
  8. 8. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 1) Water soluble B & C 2) Fat soluble A, D, E , & K Multiple functions in body. Requirements increase   R i t  i with age. No dietary requirement for  vitamin K or B complex. Vitamin Feedstuff β‐caroteen β caroteen Green, pasture forage; dehydrated hay; (vitamin A) cured hay, vitamin supplements D Ultraviolet irradiation, sun‐cured hays, vitamin supplements E High quality legume hay, dehydrated alfalfa,  wheat germ, vitamin supplements K Green, leafy feedstuffs (K1). K2 synthesized in rumen B Not required in diets of ruminantsFeeding and Nutrition 8
  9. 9. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 1) ) Ca  ‐ Vitamin D 2) P     ‐ Vitamin D 3) Co   ‐ Vitamin B12 4) Se   ‐ vitamin E 5) Cu   ‐ Mo   ‐ S 1) Acid detergent fiber  (ADF) Cellulose + Lignin ADF   Forage quality 2) Neutral detergent fiber  (NDF) Hemicellulose + Cellulose + Lignin NDF  Intake TDN is calculated from ADF.Feeding and Nutrition 9
  10. 10. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Species  Size (weight) Sex Age Genetics  Stage and level of  production Climate, environment, and  activity. Body condition 5.0 4.5 Lbs. per day 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 Maintenance Early Gestation Late gestation Early lactation Dairy doe Non-dairy doe Ewe Parlor-milked ewe Parlor-milked doe NRC 2007Feeding and Nutrition 10
  11. 11. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Sheep have lower  p maintenance  requirements than goats. Dairy goats have higher  maintenance  requirements than meat  and fiber goats. Females with a higher  genetic potential for milk  production have higher  nutritional requirements. 7.0 6.5 110-lb. ewe 6.0 5.5 154-lb. ewe 5.0 4.5 198-lb. ewe Lbs. per day 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 52% 2.0 1.5 15 66% 1.0 0.5 66% 0.0 10% 10% 8.5% Dry matter intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007Feeding and Nutrition 11
  12. 12. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 4.5 66-lb. doe 4.0 110-lb. 110 doe 3.5 154-lb. doe 3.0 Lbs. per day 2.5 2.0 66% 1.5 1.0 66% 0.5 80% 15% 13% 13% 0.0 Dry matter intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007, Errata Bigger animals have lower  maintenance requirements  than smaller animals. % body weight Bigger animals need to eat  more and consume larger  quantities of nutrients. lbs. TDN and   lbs. CP However, smaller animals  need to consume a more  nutrient‐dense diet. %TDN and   %CPFeeding and Nutrition 12
  13. 13. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 176-lb. mature ewe (twins) 5.0 132-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 4.5 110-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 4.0 110-lb. ewe lamb (single) Lbs. per day 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 -- 79% -- 1.5 1.0 ~10% 0.5 66% 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007 176-lb. mature ewe (twins) 12.0 132-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 110-lb. ewe lamb (twins) 10.0 110-lb. ewe lamb (single) 8.0 Grams per day 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium (Ca) Phosphorus (P) NRC, 2007Feeding and Nutrition 13
  14. 14. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Mature females are usually  bi   d  d      bigger and need to eat more. More lbs. of dry matter More lbs. of energy More lbs. of protein More grams of Ca and P However, young females  need a more nutrient‐dense  diet. di t Higher % of energy Higher % of Ca and P But NOT protein! 5.5 5.0 50 4.5 4.0 3.5 Lbs. per day 3.0 66% 2.5 2.0 66% 1.5 53% 1.0 0.5 53% 7% 8% 10% 15% 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC 2007Feeding and Nutrition 14
  15. 15. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 10.0 8.0 Grams per day 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium Phosphorus Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC, 2007 Energy requirements during late  gestation are more than 50 percent  higher than for maintenance. Ewes require a more nutrient‐dense  diet during late gestation and  lactation. Protein requirements don’t  increase significantly until the  g female begins to lactate. Calcium requirements are highest  during late gestation. Phosphorus requirements are  highest during lactation.Feeding and Nutrition 15
  16. 16. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 Lbs. per day 2.5 2.0 1.5 ? 1.0 0.5 ? 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC 2007, Errata 10.0 8.0 Grams per day 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Calcium Phosphorus Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC, 2007Feeding and Nutrition 16
  17. 17. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 Lbs. per day 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) Maintenance Early gestation Late gestation Early lactation NRC 2007 Errata Energy requirements during late  gy q g gestation are more than 50  percent higher than for  maintenance. Calcium and Phosphorus  requirements are highest during  lactation. Females with a higher genetic  potential for milk production  have much higher nutritional  requirements during lactation.Feeding and Nutrition 17
  18. 18. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 6.0 Single l b Si l lamb 5.0 Twin lambs Three or more 4.0 Lbs. per day 3.0 66% 2.0 66% 53% 1.0 0.0 8.3% 10 % 10% DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007 12.0 Single lamb 10.0 Twin lambs Three or more 8.0 Grams per day 6.0 4.0 2.0 20 0.0 Calcium Phosphorus NRC, 2007Feeding and Nutrition 18
  19. 19. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Ewes carrying twins and  triplets need to eat more. Dry matter Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) Calcium and phosphorus Ewes carrying twins and  triplets  need a more  nutrient‐dense diet.  A ewe carrying triplets needs  43% more energy than a ewe  carrying a single fetus. Single lamb 6.0 Twin lambs Three or more 5.0 Parlor milked 4.0 Lbs. per day 80% 3.0 2.0 66% 1.0 53% 19% 15% 0.0 11% DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) Protein (CP) NRC, 2007Feeding and Nutrition 19
  20. 20. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Single kid 8.0 80 Twin kids Three or more 7.0 Parlor milked 6.0 Lbs. per day 79% 5.0 66% 4.0 53% 3.0 53% 2.0 20 1.0 0.0 DM intake As fed Energy (TDN) NRC, 2007 The more milk a female  produces the more nutrients she  p needs to consume. Energy Protein Minerals In some cases, animals can  simply be fed more, but in the  case of higher‐producing  animals, a more nutrient dense  i l       i  d   diet must be fed. Nutrient requirements are  significantly higher for dairy  does and ewes.Feeding and Nutrition 20
  21. 21. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Their nutritional  i t     requirements are  affected by many  of the same factors. Age Species Size Genetic type and potential Level of performance Environment, activity EARLY MATURING LATE MATURING 4 months old 8 months old 4 months old 8 months old 4.0 3.5 5.5% 3.0 Lbs. per day 79% 2.5 4.2% 3.4% 2.0 79% 79% 1.5 2.9% 1.0 66% 0.5 18% 15% 12% 9% 0.0 DM TDN CP NRC, 2007Feeding and Nutrition 21
  22. 22. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Assuming the same size  and rate of gain: and rate‐of‐gain: Young lambs convert feed  more efficiently, but need a  higher percentage of  protein in their diet. Older lambs need to eat  more and require a more  digestible diet to achieve  the same rate‐of‐gain. Later maturing lambs need  to eat more, but have lower  protein requirements. 4.0 Weight % TDN % CP 3.5 22 87.5% 16.5% 44 67.1% 11.2% 3.0 66 67.0% 10.7% Lbs. per day 2.5 88 48.9% 7.6% 2.0 1.5 1.0 10 0.5 0.0 AS FED DM TDN CP 22 lbs. 44 lbs. 66 lbs. 88 lbs. NRC, 2007Feeding and Nutrition 22
  23. 23. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Assuming the same rate  of gain (0 22 lbs/day): of gain (0.22 lbs/day): Smaller kids (weight) need  to consume a more  nutrient‐dense diet, both  energy and protein. Bigger kids need to  consume more quantity of  nutrients, but the diet does  not need to be as high  Weight 22 % TDN 87.5% % CP 16.5% quality (% TDN, CP). 44 67.1% 11.2% 66 67.0% 10.7% 88 48.9% 7.6% 3.0 Type % TDN % CP Dairy a y 87.7% 87 7% 14.4% 4 4% Boer 66.3% 15.1% 2.5 Indigenous 67.0% 13.0% 2.0 Lbs. per day 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 AS FED DM TDN CP Dairy Boer IndigenousFeeding and Nutrition 23
  24. 24. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Assuming the same rate of gain  (  lb /d ) (0.44 lbs/day). Dairy goat bucks don’t need to eat  as much as Boer bucks, but their diet  needs to be more energy‐dense. Boer bucks need to eat the most,  but their diet doesn’t need to be as  energy‐dense. Boer bucks have the highest  requirements for protein: lbs. and %. Indigenous (local) breed goats have  Type % TDN % CP lower requirements for protein than  Dairy 87.7% 14.4% improved breeds. Boer 66.3% 15.1% Indigenous 67.0% 13.0% 2.5 2.0 Lbs. per day 1.5 1.0 0.5 05 0.0 As Fed DM TDN CP Doelings and wethers Intact malesFeeding and Nutrition 24
  25. 25. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Assuming the same rate of  gain (0.44 lbs/day). g 44 y Bucks need to eat more dry  matter and energy. Bucks and does require the  same amount of protein. But since does eat less, they  require a higher percentage of  protein in their diet. Realistically, the differences  will be larger as bucks will gain  Sex % TDN % CP faster and you don’t want to  Doelings, wethers 65.8% 15.9% feed does to gain as fast. Intact males 66.3% 14.5% 2.0 1.5 Lbs. per day 1.0 0.5 05 0.0 AS FED DM TDN CP 0 lbs/day 0.22 lbs/day 0.33/lbs/day 0.44 lbs/day 0.55 lbs/day NRC, 2007Feeding and Nutrition 25
  26. 26. 2012 Webinar Series 2/3/2012 Assuming the same genetic  potential for growth: The more you feed a kid or lamb  the more it will gain. Better performance requires  both more feed and better  quality feed. ▪ Hi h  % TDN Higher % TDN ▪ Higher % CP ADG % TDN % CP The bigger question is: is better  0 lbs/day 49.7% 7.8% performance economical? 0.22 lbs/day 67.1% 13.8% 0.33/lbs/day 87.9% 19.9% 0.44 lbs/day 89.2% 21.7% 0.55 lbs/day 88.6% 23.1% Next webinar – Thursday, 1/26, 7:30 p.m. EST Topic:  Feedstuffs w/Jeff Semler Thank you for your  attention. Any questions? Susan Schoenian sschoen@umd.edu www.sheepandgoat.comFeeding and Nutrition 26

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