Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Neonatal Care
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply
Published

This presentation is from a webinar series on management of the ewe and doe from late gestation through weaning. This presentation is on Neonatal care (care of the lamb and kid from day 0 to day 14).

This presentation is from a webinar series on management of the ewe and doe from late gestation through weaning. This presentation is on Neonatal care (care of the lamb and kid from day 0 to day 14).

Published in Education , Technology , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
3,156
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
185
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu – www.sheepandgoat.com
    2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series
    Small Ruminant Program
  • 2. 2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series
    Jan 13 I. Late Gestation
    Jan 20 II. Vaccinations
    Feb 3 III. Parturition
    Feb 10 IV. Neonatal Care
    Feb 17 V. Lactation
    Feb 24 VI. Weaning
  • 3. Neonatal care
    Care of newborns (day 0-14)
    http://www.slideshare.net/schoenian/neonatal
  • 4. What factors affect neonatal survival?
    Offspring
    Birth weight #1 factor!
    Sex
    Birth type
    Behavior (vigor)
    Dam factors
    Body condition score #2
    Parity
    Maternal behavior
    Colostrum accumulation #3
  • 5. Factors affecting with neonatal survival
    Environmental factors
    Lambing/kidding system
    Weather
    Management
    Nutrition during pregnancy
    Ease of birth
    Sanitation
    Crowding
    Genetics
    Breed
    Sire
  • 6. Sour
    When death losses occurSpooner Agricultural Research Center (Wisconsin) - dairy sheep
    Source: Lamb mortality and causes: A nine year summary at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station
  • 7. When death losses occurNational Sheep Health Survey - all sheep operations
    Source: USDA APHIS NAHSM
  • 8. What causes neonates to die?
    U.S. Sheep Experiment Station, Dubois, Idaho: range sheep, shed-lambed
  • 9. Causes of deathSpooner Agricultural Research Station (Wisconsin): dairy sheep
    Source: Lamb mortality and causes: A nine year summary at the Spooner Agricultural Research Station
  • 10. Causes of death in neonatesSmall ruminants in Jordan
    Source: Bulgarian Journal of Veterinary Medicine (2007)
  • 11. Clip, dip, strip, and sip
    Clip navel cord (if necessary)
    Dip navel cord in gentle iodine, chlorhexidine, or betadine.
    Strip teats to remove wax plugs and open up teats for baby to nurse easier.
    Make sure lambs and kids nurse.
  • 12. ColostrumAll newborn mammals require colostrum for optimal health
    Thick, yellowish first milk that dam produces after parturition (for the first 24 hours).
    Rich in energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals.
    Has laxative qualities.
    Contains maternal antibodies
    Large protein molecules that can only be absorbed by neonate during the first 24 to 36 hours after birth.
    Absorption by neonate is most efficient the first few hours after birth.
    Baby should consume 10% of its body weight in colostrum.
  • 13. Colostrum sources
  • 14. Common problems of the neonate
    Hypothermia
    Starvation
    Diarrhea (scours)
    Pneumonia
    Floppy kid syndrome
  • 15. Hypothermia
    • Caused by excessive body heat loss and reduced heat production.
    • 16. Neonates are unable to regulate their body temperature during their first 36 hours.
    • 17. Energy is required to generate heat.
  • Causes
    Inadequate colostrum
    Dam rejection
    Mastitis
    Teats too large or close to ground
    Inadequate milk production
    Joint injury or illness
    Soremouth
    Difficult birth
    Small, weak baby
    Can’t compete with siblings
    Symptoms
    Lethargic
    Head down
    Weak
    Empty stomach
    Hypothermia
    Glucose injection
    Tube feed colostrum
    Feed milk replacer
    Artificially rear
    Starvation
    Treatment
  • 18. Tips for tube feeding lambs and kids
    Use clean equipment
    Measure how far the tube needs to go in
    Hold baby between your knees in upright position.
    Dip tube in clean water.
    Gentle advance tube towards back of animal’s mouth
    The animal should swallow as the tube is advanced. It will still be able to bleat and cry.
    http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/eb1998/eb1998.pdf
  • 19. Tips for tube feeding lambs and kids
    Feel the tube on the left side of the animal’s neck.
    Fill syringe with warm milk.
    Do not force milk with plunger.
    Let fluid trickle in via gravity.
    Squeeze end of tube when pulling tube out.
    Frequent meals are better than big meals
    2-3 ounces at a time
    http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/eb1998/eb1998.pdf
  • 20. Intraperitoneal injection
    Suspend baby by front legs
    Introduce 1-in, 20-g needle through body wall 1 inch to the side of the navel and 1 inch caudal.
    Point needle towards tail
    Slowly inject solution into body cavity.
  • 21. Causes
    Environmental
    Unsanitary conditions
    Unclean water
    Infected feces
    Bacterial
    E. coli - “watery” mouth
    Salmonella
    Cryptospordia
    Giardia
    Clostridium perfringins type C
    Viral
    Rotavirus
    Neonatal scours
    Symptoms
    Gaunt
    Depressed
    Wet, rear legs
    Dehydration
  • 22. Treatment
    Oral electrolytes
    Oral antibiotics
    [Rx] Spectinomycin
    Adequate colostrum intake
    Good sanitation
    CD-T vaccinations
    Neonatal scours
    Prevention
    Watery mouth (NADIS UK)
  • 23. Causative organisms
    Pasteurellahemolytica
    Parainfluenza virus-3
    Symptoms
    Elevated body temperature
    Labored breathing
    Depressed
    Droopy ears
    Treat early with injectable antibiotics
    [Rx] LA-200
    [Rx] Naxcel/Excenel
    [Rx] Nuflor
    [Rx] Micotil (NOT GOATS)
    Prevention
    Proper ventilation
    Adequate colostrum intake
    Vaccination of dams
    Bacterial pneumonia
    Treatment
  • 24. Cause
    Unknown
    Metabolic acidosis
    Elevated D-lactate levels
    Symptoms
    Normal at birth
    Symptoms develop 3 to 10 days of age
    Weakness
    Lateral recumbency
    No muscle tone
    Loss of nursing reflex
    Early detection
    Correct acid/base status of kid
    Oral bicarbonate (baking soda) ½ to 1 tsp. in 1 cup of water
    Electrolytes
    Floppy kid syndrome
    Treatment
  • 25. Slime
    Scent/odor
    Skin
    Stanchion
    Cross-fostering or grafting
  • 26. Artificial rearing lambs and kids
    Why?
    Dam dies
    Dam doesn’t have milk
    Dam doesn’t have enough milk
    Poor milk producer
    Genetics
    Poor nutrition
    Disease
    Large litter
    Dam rejects baby
    Baby is weak.
    Dairy enterprise
    Prevent CAE and OPP
  • 27. Which baby should you choose for artificial rearing?
    Old recommendation
    Remove the largest, most aggressive baby for artificial rearing.
    New recommendation
    Remove the smallest weakest baby for artificial rearing.
    Select lambs/kids 2 to 6 hours after birth for artificial rearing.
  • 28. How to rear lambs and kids artificially
    Make sure baby gets adequate colostrum.
    Let baby nurse dam for first four to six hours.
    Tube feed colostrum
    Feed the right milk replacer for optimal performance
    Sheep milk contains more fat.
    Follow instructions on bag.
    Mixing
    Feeding amount
    Feeding frequency
    After first few days, feed milk replacer cold.
  • 29. How to rear lambs and kids artificially
    Hand-feed or use self-feeder.
    Keep feeding equipment clean.
    Start offering solid food when the lamb or kid is a few days old.
    High quality lamb or kid starter
    Soybean meal
    Vaccinate for CD-T at 4 and 8 weeks of age.
  • 30. Weaning orphansUsually 4 to 8 weeks
    Better to wean on weight than age.
    Common rules of thumb
    Minimum of 20 lbs.
    2.5 x birth weight
    Lamb or kids should be eating solid food and doing well.
    Lamb: 0.5 lb. creep feed daily
    Wean abruptly.
    After weaning, keep lamb or kid on starter diet; do not wean onto lush pasture.
  • 31. When to feed heat-treated/pasteurized colostrum or milk
    To prevent CAE
    To prevent OPP
    To kids that have recovered from floppy kid syndrome
    Heat at 130-135ºF (56ºC) for 1 hour
    Antibodies will be destroyed at 140ºF (60ºC)
  • 32. Common management practicesThese practices are not done on all farms
    Ear tagging
    Before baby leaves jug
    Weighing
    At day 0 or 1
    Docking
    1 to 7 days of age
    No later than 6 weeks
    Castration
    1 to 7 days of age
    No later than 6 weeks
    Disbudding
    3 days to 2 weeks
  • 33. WHY?
    Health
    Reduce risk of fly strike
    Hygiene
    Easier to shear/crutch
    Easier to observe udder
    Easier to assist lambing
    Market preference
    Tails reduce dressing percentage
    Cleanliness at harvest
    Some breeds don’t require docking
    Hair sheep
    Short or rat-tailed sheep
    Low incidence of dagginess.
    Short-wool breeds
    Animal welfare concerns
    DockingShortening the length of the tail
    WHY NOT?
  • 34. Length of docked tail
    Recommendation
    U.S.
    Distal end of caudal tail fold.
    Europe
    Cover female’s vulva
    Cover male’s anus
    Show lambs are usually docked shorter (for appearance)
  • 35. WHY?
    Management
    Prevent unwanted pregnancies
    Control behavior
    Sell as pets or grazers
    Market preference
    Traditional markets
    Customer preference
    Market older animals
    Tradition
    Better growth
    Better carcass
    Bigger carcass
    Market at a young age
    Market preference
    Ethnic markets
    Animal welfare
    CastratingTesticles are removed or their function is inhibited
    WHY NOT?
  • 36. Tools for docking and castrating
    Electric docker
    Emasculator
    All-in-one
    Elastrator
    Burdizzo® Emasculatome
    Scalpel
    Knife
  • 37. Pros
    Docking and castrating with an elastrator
    Quick
    Easy
    Bloodless
    Inexpensive tool
    Less painful than surgical castration with knife
    Increased risk of tetanus
    Painful
    Can reduce pain by giving an local anesthetic or combining use with Burdizzo
    It is less painful to make a “short-scrotum” male.
    Cons
    • Cuts off blood supply to tail and/or testicles
    • 38. Bands should be applied at 1 to 7 days of age (definitely before 6 weeks of age)
  • Pros
    Can dock and castrate older lambs (and kids)
    Less painful than other methods.
    Less reliable
    Requires more skill
    More expensive tool
    Docking and castrating with a Burdizzo
    Cons
    • Crushes spermatic cords inside testicles, thus stopping blood supply, eventually causing atrophy of the testicles.
    • 39. Use in conjunction with elastrator to minimize pain during docking and castrating
    • 40. Use small-size Burdizzo
  • Pros
    Can dock and castrate older lambs (and kids)
    Less painful than other methods.
    Less reliable
    Requires more skill
    More expensive tool
    Docking and castrating with an emasculator
    Cons
    • Crushes arteries before severing them.
  • Pros
    Inexpensive
    Most reliable method of castration (1 + 1 = 2)
    Bloody
    Greatest potential for infection and fly infestation.
    Most painful method of castration
    Surgical castrationTools: knife, scalpel, all-in-one
    Cons
    Cut off bottom one-third of sac, with a parallel cut to the ground.
    Pull testicle down away from the body until the cord breaks.
    Do not cut cords (may sever by scraping with a scalpel).
    Repeat for other testicle.
    Minimize pain and stress by performing on young animals only.
    Use antiseptic to prevent infection.
  • 41. Pros
    Less chance of infection
    Can dock older lambs
    Probably most humane method of tail docking
    Requires electricity
    Requires more physical effort
    More expensive tool
    Using an electric docker
    Cons
    • Cuts and cauterizes tail.
  • WHY?
    WHY NOT?
    Personal preference
    Safety
    Animals
    Humans
    Management
    Close confinement
    Feeders
    Fences
    Handling
    Show or registration requirements
    Personal preference
    Handling
    Loss of “handles”
    Goats not handled frequently.
    Natural part of goat
    Breed character
    Weapons
    Welfare (pain)
    Disbudding
    Polled trait is linked to infertility in goats: polled x polled horned
  • 42. Disbudding goats
    When?
    1 to 3 weeks of age
    Horns grow differently
    Ideal time is just as horn is coming through skin
    Tools
    Disbudding box
    Disbudding iron
    Clippers (optional)
    How?
    [Vx] Numb region around the horn buds with an anesthetic.
    Carefully press dehorner onto the buds for 8 to 15 seconds.
    Twist tool to cut through skin to the skull.
    If the procedure is done correctly, you should see a copper-colored ring around the horn bud.
  • 43. Thank you for your attention. Any questions?
    Susan Schoeniansschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.com
    Small Ruminant Program
  • 44. Thank you for your attention. Questions?
    Susan Schoenian
    sschoen@umd.edu
    www.sheepandgoat.com
    Small Ruminant Program