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This presentation was given at the 5th International Symposium on Goat and Sheep Production in Joao Pessoa, Brazil, by Susan Schoenian, Sheep & Goat Specialist for University of Maryland Extension.

This presentation was given at the 5th International Symposium on Goat and Sheep Production in Joao Pessoa, Brazil, by Susan Schoenian, Sheep & Goat Specialist for University of Maryland Extension.



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    Mobile slaughter Mobile slaughter Presentation Transcript

    • Mobile slaughterhousesfor sheep and goats,advantages and challenges,United StatesSUSAN SCHOENIANSheep & Goat SpecialistUniversity of Maryland ExtensionKeedysville, Maryland USAsschoen@umd.edu – www.sheepandgoat.com Powerpoint Templates Page 1
    • Slaughter options in US Custom State Federal On-farm exempt inspection inspection Can sell No Facilities Federal-state inspection inspected cooperation meat if labeled “At least Own For owner’s equal to” No consumption consumption federal restrictions inspection New policy Open to Not for allows interpretation resale interstate sales Inspection ensures wholesomeness of products Includes inspection of facility and animals (ante and post-mortem) Powerpoint Templates Page 2
    • • In order to sell meat (by the cut) to the end consumer (without restrictions) livestock must be slaughtered and processed in a facility inspected by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).Powerpoint Templates Page 3
    • The U.S. Meat Industry• The four largest firms account for a significant portion of the slaughter of beef, pork, and lamb.• Since 1980, there has been a significant decline in the number of USDA- inspected slaughter facilities. 1,627 → 1,051 facilities Powerpoint Templates Page 4
    • USDA-inspected slaughter• Producers in some states have few options for USDA- inspected slaughter, so livestock have to be sold live (for less income) or hauled significant distances before they can be slaughtered. Powerpoint Templates Page 5
    • USDA-inspected slaughter• Many existing USDA- inspected slaughter plants will not slaughter for small and independent producers … or they have significant limitations on slaughter. Powerpoint Templates Page 6
    • USDA-inspected slaughter• Some existing USDA- inspected facilities will not process sheep and/or goats.• Many existing facilities will not do Halal or Kosher slaughter or other specialized slaughter. Powerpoint Templates Page 7
    • U.S. food trends• There is a palpable mistrust of traditional agriculture and a growing demand for meat that is locally-produced in a specific manner, such as: • Organic • Naturally-raised • Grass-fed • Humane-certified Powerpoint Templates Page 8
    • Market access• The only way to tap these specialty and high-end markets is to have access to USDA-inspected slaughter and processing.• Direct marketing eliminates middlemen and allows many small and medium-size producers to increase their incomes and remain economically viable. Powerpoint Templates Page 9
    • USDA’s role• Shifting attention to small and medium size farms.• Encouraging organic and sustainable production.• Investing in local food projects. Powerpoint Templates Page 10
    • What is a mobile slaughterhouse?• A self-contained slaughter unit that can travel from site to site. Image source: www.mobileslaughter.com Powerpoint Templates Page 11
    • Advantages to mobile slaughter• More humane Livestock do not have to be hauled long distances.• Better quality meat There is less stress at the time of harvest.• More acceptable to the public - “NIMBY”• Adds a value chain to the local economy. Powerpoint Templates Page 12
    • Challenges to mobile slaughter • Subject to the same regulatory standards as fixed slaughterhouses. • Each slaughter site requires: 1. Potable water 2. Waste disposal 3. Trailer accommodation 4. Corrals and handling system Powerpoint Templates Page 13
    • Space limitations• Operations are usually limited to slaughter and initial processing and chilling.• Unit must association itself with a cut-and-wrap facility that can age the meat and further process the carcass into retail cuts and products. Image source: www.mobileslaughter.com Powerpoint Templates Page 14
    • Other limitations• Geographic How far should unit travel?• Weather• Road conditions• Farm conditions Powerpoint Templates Page 15
    • Mobile slaughter of sheep and goats• It is usually not necessary to age lamb and goat carcasses.• There are markets for whole lamb and goat carcasses.• Lamb and goat slaughter does require as much space.• Ethnic customers usually require minimal processing. Powerpoint Templates Page 16
    • Cost• Less expensive than a fixed slaughterhouse, but still costly to build. Est. $190,000 - $250,000 US• Can be costly to comply with the myriad of local, state, and federal regulations. – Some states have more stringent regulations which can substantially increase start-up Image source: www.mobileslaughter.com and operating costs. Powerpoint Templates Page 17
    • Funding• Most mobile slaughter units in the U.S. have been paid for with a combination of public and private funds. – Grants – Economic development – Donations – Investors Powerpoint Templates Page 18
    • Funding sourcesPUBLIC• Expect a social benefit from their investment. PRIVATE – Strengthen local food infrastructure. • Expect a return on their – Economic development investment. (jobs) • Example business plan • Value-added opportunity Full capacity • Revitalize region’s 5 years to pay off investment livestock industry. Breakeven point 20 years to pay off investment Powerpoint Templates Page 19
    • Mobile slaughter in the U.S. Red meat (large animals) Owner/operator Location Capacity Year 9-10 beef San Juan Islands Island-Grown Farmers Cooperative 24 hogs 2002 Washington 40 sheep 5-6 beef 2009 Central Coast Agricultural Cooperative Central California 10 hogs 2011 10 lambs/goats Puget Sound Meat Producers Western 8-10 animal 2009 Cooperative Washington units 20 cattle Module Harvest System™ New York More sheep new Local Infrastructure for Local Agriculture Hudson Valley and goats Taos County Economic New Mexico 5 to 24 animals 2007 Development Corporation Nebraska Prairie Harvest Project 10 cattle or Nebraska new Callicrate Cattle Company equivalent Source: eXtension.org Powerpoint Templates Page 20
    • Case studies: Washington state ISLAND GROWN PUGET SOUND • Funded with grants and • Funded by Pierce County private donations. Conservation District and • Owned and operated by a leased to cooperative. cooperative • Began operating in 2009 • Began operating in 2002. • Operates at fixed venues • Operates at individual farms • Meat is transported to two cut- • Meat is transported to cut-and- and-wrap facilities. wrap facility on mainland. Powerpoint Templates Page 21
    • California – Central Coast• Timeline – Built in 2002 with federal funds – Sat idle for 7 years – Began operating in 2009 Struggled to stay busy enough – Closed and re-opened in 2011 – Now leased to small butcher who also does further processing.• State of California has more stringent regulations. – No on-farm composting of waste – More restrictive on slaughter sites Powerpoint Templates Page 22
    • Other units in operation NEW MEXICO NEBRASKA • Built by Taos County Economic Development Corporation. • Built by Nebraska • Part of a larger vision of Environmental developing a community- Coalition. based food model. • Operated by Callicrate Cattle Co. Powerpoint Templates Page 23
    • Module Harvest System™• Owned and operated by Local Infrastructure for Local Agriculture.• Combines four modules 1. Refrigerated truck for harvest and initial chilling 2. Refrigerated truck for temporary storage and hauling to cut-and-wrap plant 3. Truck to handle waste 4. USDA office trailer• Fixed docking stations. Powerpoint Templates Page 24
    • Conclusions• Mobile slaughter units are not a panacea (“quick fix”) for small scale meat processing in the U.S.• They may work in some situations, but not others. Powerpoint Templates Page 25
    • Conclusions• They may require a public-private partnership in order to be economically viable.• There are no long term success stories in the U.S. (yet). Powerpoint Templates Page 26
    • Resources• Niche Meat Processors Assistance Network www.nichemeatprocessing.org• Mobile slaughter/processing units @eXtension http://www.extension.org/pages/19234/mobile- slaughterprocessing-units• The Module Harvest System™: a case study http://www.lila-northeast.org/index.html• Mobile slaughter unit www.mobileslaughter.com• Spirit of Humane www.spiritofhumane.com Powerpoint Templates Page 27
    • Questions? Thank you for your attention. Powerpoint Templates Page 28