Livestock Parasitology 101
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Livestock Parasitology 101

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This slide presentation provides an introduction to livestock parasitology, including how to perform fecal egg counts.

This slide presentation provides an introduction to livestock parasitology, including how to perform fecal egg counts.

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Livestock Parasitology 101 Livestock Parasitology 101 Presentation Transcript

  • 101
    Parasitology
    SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn)Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu – www.sheepandgoat.com
  • What is a parasite?
    A (generally undesirable) living organism that exists by stealing the resources produced/collected by another living organismSource: Wiktionary
  • Two kinds of parasites
    Internal (endo) – a parasite that lives inside another organism.
    External (ecto) – parasites that live on the blood of the host or lay eggs on their hide or in their nose.
  • External parasites
    Ticks
    Lice
    Mites
    Flies
    Mosquitos
    Symptoms: hair/wool loss, pelt damage, respiratory distress, reduced performance, deathTreatment: permethrin-based insecticides and some anthelmintics
  • Two kinds of internal parasites
    1) Helminths (multi-cellular)
    • Nematodes (roundworms)
    • Cestodes (tapeworms)
    • Trematodes (flukes)
    2) Protozoa (single cell)
    • Coccidia
    • Giardia
    • Cryptospordium
    Internal parasites are mostly species-specific.
  • NematodesRoundworms
    Over 20,000 species
    Multi-cellular
    Long
    Round
    No segments
    Usually microscopic
    Sexual reproduction
    Male and female worms
    Internal parasites are mostly species-specific.
  • CommonRoundworm species
    Haemonchus contortusbarber pole worm
    Trichostrongylus spp. hair worm
    Nematodirus spp. threadneck worm spp.
    Oesophagostomumnodule worm
    Ostertagia spp. brown stomach worm
    Cooperiaspp. intestinal worm
    Strongyloidesintestinal threadworm
    Tricurisspp. Whipworm
    Lungworms
    Meningeal worm
    Internal parasites are mostly species-specific.
  • CESTODEStapeworms
    Over 1,000 species
    Multi-cellular
    Ribbon-like
    Flat
    Segmented
    Hermaphrodites
    Intermediate host
    Visible in feces
    Tend to be non-pathogenic, so we don’t usually need to worry about them.
  • Trematodesflukes
    Multi-cellular
    Flatted oval shape
    Hermaphrodites
    Require intermediate host
    Not considered to be a problem in Maryland.
  • Protozoacoccidia
    Single cell
    Spore forming
    Microscopic
    Asexual and sexual
    Species-specific
    Control with good sanitation and management and coccidiostats. Treat with Corid or sulfa drugs.
  • Sheep and goats
    The main roundworm affecting sheep and goats is Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm).
    Deadly blood-sucking parasite that causes anemia and bottle jaw.
    Can use FAMACHA© system to monitor level of infection.
  • Cattle
    The main roundworm affecting cattle is Ostertagia (brown stomach worm)
    Causes diarrhea and ill thrift.
  • Llamas and alpacas
    Can be affected by the parasites than infect sheep, goats, as well as cattle.
    Meningeal worm can be a significant problem; otherwise, camelids tend to be more resistant to parasites than sheep and goats.
  • Swine
    AscarissuunLarge roundworm
    TrichurissuisWhipworm
    OesophagostomumNodule worm
  • Internal parasite control
    Good management
    Good sanitation
    Good nutrition
    Good genetics
    Pasture rest and rotation
    Mixed species grazing
    Minimum grazing heights
    Zero grazing
    Selective deworming
  • How Do you know when to deworm?
    Look for clinical symptoms
    • Body condition
    • Coat condition
    • Dagginess (scours)
    • Performance
    • Eye anemia score
    Fecal egg analysis
    • QualitativeFecal flotation
    • QuantitativeFecal egg count
  • Fecal egg counting: what you need
    Microscope (at least 100 x)
    Scale that measures in grams
    McMaster egg counting slide
    Flotation solution(saturated salt or sugar)
    Measuring vials (and cups)
    Pipettes, syringes, or eye dropper
    Tongue depressors or craft sticks
    Tea strainer or cheese cloth
    Fresh or refrigerated fecal sample
  • Modified McMasterProcedure
    Collect fresh fecal sample
    Weigh out 2 to 4 grams of feces
    Measure flotation solution
    Mix feces with flotation solution
    Strain fecal slurry
    Fill chambers of McMaster slide
    Allow eggs to rise to top
    Count eggs in both chambers
    Multiple by “x” to determine number of eggs per gram of feces (epg)
  • Collect fecal sample
    • Freshly deposited
    • Collect from rectum
    • Samples can be refrigerated
  • Examine and weigh sample
    4 grams
    Approximately 1 tablespoon
    If you don’t have a scale, you can use volume displacement
  • Add sample to flotation solution
    • Thoroughly break up and mix with 26 ml of flotation solution.
    • Strain slurry through cheesecloth (double-layered) or tea strainer into another container.
  • Transfer slurry to slide
    Image from Langston University
    • Fill pipette or syringe with slurry
    • Fill chamber with slurry
    • Repeat for other side of chamber
    • Let sample sit for 2 to 5 minutes to allow eggs to float to the top.
  • Count eggs
    • Count each type of egg separately
    • Focus on top layer
    • Go up and down lanes of each side of the slide
    • Ignore eggs outside of the grid
    • Add number of eggs found in each chamber
    • Multiple by 25
  • Now what?What does it tell you?
    Kind(s) of parasites present
    Number of parasite eggs being shed per gram of feces.
    Potential pasture contamination
    Potential parasite burden in animal
    Efficacy of treatment (if before and after egg counts are done)
    There are many limitations to fecal egg analysis.
  • It is “normal” for animals to have some parasites.
    Various studies suggest that parasites can regulate the immune system in ways that prevent it from going "wild" and attacking healthy tissue.
    Susan Schoeniansschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.com
    Small Ruminant Program