101<br />Parasitology <br />SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn)Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Cente...
What is a parasite?<br />A (generally undesirable) living organism that exists by stealing the resources  produced/collect...
Two kinds of parasites<br />Internal (endo) – a parasite that lives inside another organism.<br />External (ecto) – parasi...
External parasites<br /> Ticks<br /> Lice<br /> Mites<br /> Flies<br />Mosquitos<br />Symptoms:  hair/wool loss, pelt dama...
Two kinds of internal parasites<br />1)  Helminths (multi-cellular)<br /><ul><li>Nematodes (roundworms)
Cestodes (tapeworms)
Trematodes (flukes)</li></ul>2)  Protozoa (single cell)<br /><ul><li>Coccidia
Giardia
Cryptospordium</li></ul>Internal parasites are mostly species-specific.<br />
NematodesRoundworms<br />Over 20,000 species<br />Multi-cellular<br />Long<br />Round<br />No segments<br />Usually micros...
CommonRoundworm species<br />Haemonchus contortusbarber pole worm<br />Trichostrongylus spp. hair worm<br />Nematodirus sp...
CESTODEStapeworms<br />Over 1,000 species<br />Multi-cellular <br />Ribbon-like<br />Flat <br />Segmented<br />Hermaphrodi...
Trematodesflukes<br />Multi-cellular<br />Flatted oval shape<br />Hermaphrodites<br />Require intermediate host<br />Not c...
Protozoacoccidia <br />Single cell<br />Spore forming<br />Microscopic<br />Asexual and sexual<br />Species-specific<br />...
Sheep and goats<br />The main roundworm affecting sheep and goats is Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm).<br />Deadly ...
Cattle<br />The main roundworm affecting cattle is Ostertagia (brown stomach worm)<br />Causes diarrhea and ill thrift.<br />
Llamas and alpacas<br />Can be affected by the parasites than infect sheep, goats, as well as cattle.<br />Meningeal worm ...
Swine<br />AscarissuunLarge roundworm<br />TrichurissuisWhipworm<br />OesophagostomumNodule worm<br />
Internal parasite control<br />Good management<br />Good sanitation<br />Good nutrition<br />Good genetics<br />Pasture re...
How Do you know when to deworm?<br />Look for clinical symptoms<br /><ul><li>Body condition
Coat condition
Dagginess (scours)
Performance
Eye anemia score</li></ul>Fecal egg analysis<br /><ul><li>QualitativeFecal flotation
QuantitativeFecal egg count</li></li></ul><li>Fecal egg counting:  what you need<br />Microscope (at least 100 x)<br />Sca...
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Livestock Parasitology 101

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This slide presentation provides an introduction to livestock parasitology, including how to perform fecal egg counts.

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Livestock Parasitology 101

  1. 1. 101<br />Parasitology <br />SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn)Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu – www.sheepandgoat.com<br />
  2. 2. What is a parasite?<br />A (generally undesirable) living organism that exists by stealing the resources produced/collected by another living organismSource: Wiktionary<br />
  3. 3. Two kinds of parasites<br />Internal (endo) – a parasite that lives inside another organism.<br />External (ecto) – parasites that live on the blood of the host or lay eggs on their hide or in their nose.<br />
  4. 4. External parasites<br /> Ticks<br /> Lice<br /> Mites<br /> Flies<br />Mosquitos<br />Symptoms: hair/wool loss, pelt damage, respiratory distress, reduced performance, deathTreatment: permethrin-based insecticides and some anthelmintics<br />
  5. 5. Two kinds of internal parasites<br />1) Helminths (multi-cellular)<br /><ul><li>Nematodes (roundworms)
  6. 6. Cestodes (tapeworms)
  7. 7. Trematodes (flukes)</li></ul>2) Protozoa (single cell)<br /><ul><li>Coccidia
  8. 8. Giardia
  9. 9. Cryptospordium</li></ul>Internal parasites are mostly species-specific.<br />
  10. 10. NematodesRoundworms<br />Over 20,000 species<br />Multi-cellular<br />Long<br />Round<br />No segments<br />Usually microscopic<br />Sexual reproduction<br />Male and female worms<br />Internal parasites are mostly species-specific.<br />
  11. 11. CommonRoundworm species<br />Haemonchus contortusbarber pole worm<br />Trichostrongylus spp. hair worm<br />Nematodirus spp. threadneck worm spp.<br />Oesophagostomumnodule worm<br />Ostertagia spp. brown stomach worm<br />Cooperiaspp. intestinal worm<br />Strongyloidesintestinal threadworm<br />Tricurisspp. Whipworm<br />Lungworms<br />Meningeal worm<br />Internal parasites are mostly species-specific.<br />
  12. 12. CESTODEStapeworms<br />Over 1,000 species<br />Multi-cellular <br />Ribbon-like<br />Flat <br />Segmented<br />Hermaphrodites<br />Intermediate host<br />Visible in feces<br />Tend to be non-pathogenic, so we don’t usually need to worry about them.<br />
  13. 13. Trematodesflukes<br />Multi-cellular<br />Flatted oval shape<br />Hermaphrodites<br />Require intermediate host<br />Not considered to be a problem in Maryland.<br />
  14. 14. Protozoacoccidia <br />Single cell<br />Spore forming<br />Microscopic<br />Asexual and sexual<br />Species-specific<br />Control with good sanitation and management and coccidiostats. Treat with Corid or sulfa drugs.<br />
  15. 15. Sheep and goats<br />The main roundworm affecting sheep and goats is Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm).<br />Deadly blood-sucking parasite that causes anemia and bottle jaw.<br />Can use FAMACHA© system to monitor level of infection.<br />
  16. 16. Cattle<br />The main roundworm affecting cattle is Ostertagia (brown stomach worm)<br />Causes diarrhea and ill thrift.<br />
  17. 17. Llamas and alpacas<br />Can be affected by the parasites than infect sheep, goats, as well as cattle.<br />Meningeal worm can be a significant problem; otherwise, camelids tend to be more resistant to parasites than sheep and goats.<br />
  18. 18. Swine<br />AscarissuunLarge roundworm<br />TrichurissuisWhipworm<br />OesophagostomumNodule worm<br />
  19. 19. Internal parasite control<br />Good management<br />Good sanitation<br />Good nutrition<br />Good genetics<br />Pasture rest and rotation<br />Mixed species grazing<br />Minimum grazing heights<br />Zero grazing<br />Selective deworming<br />
  20. 20. How Do you know when to deworm?<br />Look for clinical symptoms<br /><ul><li>Body condition
  21. 21. Coat condition
  22. 22. Dagginess (scours)
  23. 23. Performance
  24. 24. Eye anemia score</li></ul>Fecal egg analysis<br /><ul><li>QualitativeFecal flotation
  25. 25. QuantitativeFecal egg count</li></li></ul><li>Fecal egg counting: what you need<br />Microscope (at least 100 x)<br />Scale that measures in grams<br />McMaster egg counting slide<br />Flotation solution(saturated salt or sugar)<br />Measuring vials (and cups)<br />Pipettes, syringes, or eye dropper<br />Tongue depressors or craft sticks<br />Tea strainer or cheese cloth<br />Fresh or refrigerated fecal sample <br />
  26. 26. Modified McMasterProcedure<br />Collect fresh fecal sample<br />Weigh out 2 to 4 grams of feces<br />Measure flotation solution<br />Mix feces with flotation solution<br />Strain fecal slurry<br />Fill chambers of McMaster slide<br />Allow eggs to rise to top<br />Count eggs in both chambers<br />Multiple by “x” to determine number of eggs per gram of feces (epg)<br />
  27. 27. Collect fecal sample<br /><ul><li> Freshly deposited
  28. 28. Collect from rectum
  29. 29. Samples can be refrigerated</li></li></ul><li>Examine and weigh sample<br />4 grams<br />Approximately 1 tablespoon<br />If you don’t have a scale, you can use volume displacement<br />
  30. 30. Add sample to flotation solution<br /><ul><li> Thoroughly break up and mix with 26 ml of flotation solution.
  31. 31. Strain slurry through cheesecloth (double-layered) or tea strainer into another container.</li></li></ul><li>Transfer slurry to slide<br />Image from Langston University<br /><ul><li> Fill pipette or syringe with slurry
  32. 32. Fill chamber with slurry
  33. 33. Repeat for other side of chamber
  34. 34. Let sample sit for 2 to 5 minutes to allow eggs to float to the top.</li></li></ul><li>Count eggs<br /><ul><li> Count each type of egg separately
  35. 35. Focus on top layer
  36. 36. Go up and down lanes of each side of the slide
  37. 37. Ignore eggs outside of the grid
  38. 38. Add number of eggs found in each chamber
  39. 39. Multiple by 25</li></li></ul><li>Now what?What does it tell you?<br />Kind(s) of parasites present<br />Number of parasite eggs being shed per gram of feces.<br />Potential pasture contamination<br />Potential parasite burden in animal<br />Efficacy of treatment (if before and after egg counts are done)<br />There are many limitations to fecal egg analysis.<br />
  40. 40. It is “normal” for animals to have some parasites. <br />Various studies suggest that parasites can regulate the immune system in ways that prevent it from going "wild" and attacking healthy tissue.<br />Susan Schoeniansschoen@umd.eduwww.sheepandgoat.com<br />Small Ruminant Program<br />
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