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This presentation is the first is a six part series on management of the ewe and doe from late gestation through weaning. This presentation covers late gestation: management and feeding.

This presentation is the first is a six part series on management of the ewe and doe from late gestation through weaning. This presentation covers late gestation: management and feeding.

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  • 1. SUSAN SCHOENIAN (Shāy-nē-ŭn) Sheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu – www.sheepandgoat.com
    2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series
    Small Ruminant Program
  • 2. 2011 Ewe and Doe Management Webinar Series
    Jan 13I. Late Gestation
    Jan 20 II. Vaccinations
    Feb 3 III. Parturition
    Feb 10 IV. Neonatal Care
    Feb 17 V. Lactation
    Feb 24 VI. Weaning
  • 3. Late gestation
    Last 4 to 6 weeks of pregnancy (142-158 days)
    The most critical period in the female’s production cycle.
  • 4. What’s happening?!
    70 percent of fetal growth is occurring.
    Pregnant ewe lambs and doe kids are still growing.
    The udder tissue is developing.
    Rumen capacity is decreasing.
    Boer x Nubian doe (carrying triplets)
  • 5. Extra nutrition is needed
    Why?
    To support fetal growth
    To support udder development
    To prevent pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) and milk fever.
    To ensure the birth of strong, healthy babies of moderate birth weight.
    BIRTH WEIGHT SURVIVAL
  • 6. Nutrient requirements of a 176-lb. mature ewe (twins) at different stages of production
    66%
    Lbs. per day
    66%
    53%
    53%
    10%
    15%
    7%
    8%
    NRC 2007
  • 7. Nutrition During Late Gestation
    Energy (TDN) is the nutrient most likely to be deficient in the late gestation diet of ewes and does.
    Nutrient requirements vary by species, age, size (weight), and number of fetuses.
    To meet energy needs, you usually need to feed some grain.
    Introduce grain slowly and increase incrementally.
    If forage quality is low, you may also need to supplement protein and calcium.
  • 8. Do not underfeed (including the fat ones)
    Inadequate nutrition can result in . . .
    Pregnancy toxemia (ketosis)
    Small and weak babies
    Higher mortality
    Reduced colostrum quality and quantity
    Poor milk yield
    Reduced wool production (in offspring) via fewer secondary follicles
  • 9. Do not overfeed(including the skinny ones)
    Because . . .
    Fat females are more prone to pregnancy toxemia.
    Overfed females have moredystociaproblems.
    They are more likely to prolapse their vaginas.
    Females may have a more difficult time birthing large fetuses.
    Prolonged births can affect viability of offspring.
  • 10. Energy (TDN) requirements as affected by species and genetic potential for a 132-lb. mature female
    Lbs. per day
    NRC 2007
  • 11. Nutrient requirements of different size ewes in late gestation (twin fetuses)
    Lbs. per day
    52%
    66%
    66%
    10%
    10%
    8.5%
    NRC, 2007
  • 12. Nutrient requirements of different size (non-dairy) does in late gestation (twin fetuses)
    Lbs. per day
    66%
    66%
    80%
    13%
    13%
    15%
    NRC, 2007, Errata
  • 13. Nutrient requirements of ewes in late gestationas affected by age
    Lbs. per day
    -- 79% --
    ~10%
    66%
    NRC, 2007
  • 14. Nutrient requirements of a 154-lb. ewe during late gestation, as affected by number of fetuses
    Lbs. per day
    66%
    66%
    53%
    8.3%
    10%
    10%
    NRC, 2007
  • 15. Effect of a lower critical temperature on the energy requirements of a goat needing 2.8 lbs. of TDN.
  • 16. Nutrition during late gestation
    What you should do
    Balance a ration to determine what and how much to feed
    Evaluate your ration to see if what you are feeding is meeting the nutrient requirements of your pregnant females.
    Adjust, if necessary
    What we usually do
    Free choice hay + some grain (1/2 to 1 lb. per head per day)
    http://www.sheepandgoat.com/feed.html#ration
  • 17. Proper feed bunk management
    Make sure all ewes or does can eat at the same time.
    Feed pregnant ewe lambs and doelings separately from mature females.
    Separate males after breeding.
    Do not feed on the ground.(exception: frozen ground)
  • 18. Selenium (Se) and vitamin E
    Many soils are deficient in selenium (Se).
    Low levels of Se and/or vitamin E have been associated with …
    Poor reproductive performance
    Retained placentas
    White muscle disease in lambs and kids.
    Se is passed from the placenta to the fetus during late gestation
  • 19. Selenium (Se) and vitamin E
    Free choice mineral mixes usually provide adequate selenium.
    Adding a selenium-fortified mineral mix to the grain ration will ensure adequate intake of Se.
    On farms with a history of white muscle disease, Se injections are sometimes necessary.
    Bo-Se must be obtained from a licensed veterinarian.
    There is a narrow range between what animals need and Se toxicity.
  • 20. Calcium
    Calcium requirements virtually double during late pregnancy.
    Milk fever is caused by low blood calcium resulting from …
    An inadequate intake of calcium
    Failure to mobilize calcium reserves.
    You also need to avoid excessive Ca intake.
    Save pure legume (alfalfa) hay for lactation diet.
    This ewe required IV calcium.
  • 21. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of a 176-lb. ewe (twins)
    Grams per day
    NRC, 2007
  • 22. Calcium and phosphorus requirements of a 132-lb. doe (twins)
    Grams per day
    NRC, 2007
  • 23. Calcium
    Grains (corn, barley, and oats) and soybean meal are low in calcium.
    Forages are higher in calcium, especially legumes.
    Supplemental Ca
    Complete grain mixes
    Mineral supplements
    Dicalcium phosphate
    Limestone
    Bonemeal
    If a low quality forage is fed, calcium should be added to the grain ration.
  • 24. Pre-lambing/kidding vaccinationsCD-T: clostridium perfringins type C & D (overeating disease) and tetanus
    Vaccinate pregnant females approximately one month prior to parturition.
    Only way to protect lambs and kids from type C overeating disease and provide early immunity to tetanus.
    Females never vaccinated before or whose vaccination status is unknown should receive two vaccinations during late pregnancy.
    Do not vaccinate within 2 weeks of parturition.
    Lambs and kids will acquire passive immunity when they consume colostrum (first milk).
  • 25. Periparturient egg rise
    Small ruminant females suffer a temporary loss of immunity to parasites around and after parturition.
  • 26. Management options
    Deworm all females prior to lambing or kidding.
    At the time of vaccination
    Two weeks prior
    At the time of parturition
    Use the FAMACHA© system and Five Point Check© to determine the need for deworming individual females.
    Increase the level of protein in the ration during late gestation.
    Do not administer Valbazen® during first 30 days of pregnancy.
  • 27. Feed a coccidiostatTo reduce the number coccidia oocytes in the lambing and kidding environment
    In feed or mineral
    Bovatec® - sheep
    Rumensin® - goats
    Deccox® - both
    Continue through weaning.
    As an aid to prevent abortions caused by Toxoplasmagondii.
     Coccidiostats, especially Rumensin® are toxic to the equine family.
  • 28. AntibioticsIf there is a flock history or risk of abortions
    Feed
    Chlortetracycline (aureomycin) fed at a level of 80 mg/head/day during the last 6 weeks of gestation
    Injections
    Oxytetracycline (LA-200) at 2 week intervals.
  • 29. Give injectable antibiotics to remaining females.
    Isolate aborting females
    Submit fetuses and placenta to diagnostic lab.
    Destroy fetuses, fluid, and placenta from abortion females.
    Disinfect pens.
    In the event of an abortion “storm”
  • 30. Shear or crutch before lambing/kidding (about one month prior)
    Results in a cleaner, drier, healthier, environment for babies.
    Shorn ewes are less likely to lay on their lambs.
    Ewes take up less space in barn and around feeders
    • Results in cleaner fleeces
    Shorn ewes will seek shelter
    Shorn ewes/does will need more feed to compensate for heat loss from shearing.
    Freshly shorn ewes/does require adequate shelter.
    Crutching– removal of wool around udder and vulva area.
  • 31. Get your facilities, equipment, and supplies ready 2 weeks before the first babies are due.
  • 32. Clean, dry, draft-free building (cold or inclement weather)
    Put dams and offspring in small pen after parturition
    Called a “jug”
    5 ft. by 5 ft. (bigger or smaller depending upon size of female)
    1-3 days
    Clean, well-rested pastures (during mild weather)
    Have shelter available
    Pen dams and offspring with problems
    Lambing and kidding
  • 33. Recommended supplies to have on hand
    Frozen colostrum
    Prolapse retainer or harness
    Weigh sling
    Milk replacer
    Colostrum supplement
    Elastrator
    OB lube
    Needles and syringes
    Ear tags
    OB sleeves
    Antibiotic(s)
    Rubber rings
    OB lubricant
  • Do’s and don’ts during late gestation
    DO’s
    • Increase nutrient intake(increase grain intake slowly)
    • 47. Monitor calcium intake
    • 48. Feed a coccidiostat
    • 49. Vaccinate for CD-T
    • 50. Encourage exercise
    • 51. Shear or crutch full-fleeced animals.
    • 52. Deworm or evaluate need for deworming
    • 53. Prepare facilities
    • 54. Inventory supplies
    DON’T’s
    Introduce new animals
    Mix pregnant ewe lambs and doelings with mature females
    Overfeed
    Underfeed
    Stress
  • 55. Thank you for your attention. Questions?
    Susan Schoenianwww.sheepandgoat.com
    sschoen@umd.edu
    Small Ruminant Program