Intro to small ruminant enterprises


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Intro to small ruminant enterprises

  1. 1. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 SUSAN SCHOENIAN Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center – Introduction Sheep and goat enterprises What you need to raise sheep/goats Breed resources Getting started Economics S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 1
  2. 2. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Monogastric ◦ Simple stomach p ◦ Pigs and poultry (and people) Ruminant ◦ Cud-chewing ◦ 4 compartment stomach. - Cows, sheep, and goats ◦ Pseudo-ruminant (3 compartment stomach) - Alpacas and llamas Hind-gut fermenter ◦ Fermentation occurs in the caecum and/or large intestine ◦ Horses and rabbits Economic ◦ Profit ◦ Tax advantages Lifestyle Self-sufficiency produce own f d f b d food, fiber Landscape management S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 2
  3. 3. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Less acreage required Less investment Ease of handling Multi-purpose Reproductive efficiency Grazing behavior Niche demand for products Complement other farm enterprises Small industry. f f Lack of infrastructure. Lack of mainstream demand for products. Fencing requirements. Labor L b requirements. i t Predator risk. S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 3
  4. 4. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Similar production practices and inputs. Same diseases. Similar niche and ethnic demand for products. Similar constraints to production: th 3 P’ d ti the P’s. ◦ Prices ◦ Predators ◦ Parasites Grazer Browser Prefer forbs Prefer shrubs Graze close to ground Top-down grazer T d Grow slow Grow faster Produce more milk Produce better milk Less genetic diversity More genetic diversity Curious and Strong flocking instinct independent and group mentality New and growing Traditional enterprise industry SHEEP GOATS S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 4
  5. 5. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Meat Dairy a y Fiber Landscape management Agri-tourism Primary income is from the sale of live animals for meat and/or the sale of meat. Most popular sheep and goat enterprise. There is a demand for many different kinds of goats. lambs and goats Marketing infrastructure is already in place. S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 5
  6. 6. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Primary income is from the sale of milk, cheese and/or other cheese, dairy products. In most states, operation must be certified grade A or B to sell food products. Usually requires own product development and marketing. Fiber sales comprise a significant portion of h i f the income from theh enterprise. ◦ Wool ◦ Mohair ◦ Cashmere ◦ Alpaca Must direct market to make a profit. S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 6
  7. 7. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Land improvement on your own farm. Fee-based grazing “Turn-key” operation Animals Transportation g Fencing Care Greatest economic potential ! ? Sell stock for trophy hunting or operate your own hunting reserve. Usually hair sheep rams. S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 7
  8. 8. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Feed Fencing Housing and shelter Feeders Watering system Labor S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 8
  9. 9. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Pasture and browse Hay Grain Alternative feedstuffs Purpose ◦ To keep livestock contained ◦ To keep predators out ◦ To control grazing and manage livestock Three kinds 1. Perimeter or boundary 2. Interior or cross Possible cost share from 3. Heavy use areas NRCS (EQUIP program) for rotational grazing. S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 9
  10. 10. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Multi-strand, high- tensile electric tensile, electric. Woven wire with extra barbed and electric offset wires. Barbed wire ire Adapt existing fences. Permanent Semi-permanent Temporary, electric ◦ Smooth wire ◦ Polywire, tape, or rope ◦ Electric netting S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 10
  11. 11. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Outdoor lots H ldi Holding areas Working corrals Net wire Metal gates Solid panels Livestock panels Non-electric Purpose ◦ Animal management ◦ Isolation area ◦ Feed storage ◦ Equipment storage ◦ Human comfort Needs vary by ◦ Climate ◦ Production system ◦ Timing of l bi Ti i f lambing and d kidding ◦ Availability of natural shelter. ◦ Personal preference S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 11
  12. 12. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Maybe not, but if they have access to it, they will usually use it. Th “appreciate” protection from bad weather. They “ i ” i f b d h S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 12
  13. 13. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Ample feed storage protects y p your investment in feed and allows you to make bulk purchases. Annual hay requirements ◦ ¼ to ⅓ ton per animal Hay storage ◦ 180 to 240 ft3 per ton Uncovered hay deteriorates rapidly in quality. S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 13
  14. 14. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Hand ◦ Buckets ◦ Troughs ◦ Tanks ◦ Tubs Automatic waterers Possible cost share from NRCS (EQUIP program) for pasture watering systems. Daily care of animals Twice daily milking Annual shearing g Pasture management Lambing and kidding Parasite control Hoof trimming S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 14
  15. 15. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 1) Purpose meat, milk, or wool , , 2) Use sire or dam 3) Wool or coat type fine, medium, long, carpet, or hair (shedding) ) 4) Other tail, prolificy, minor, rare, heritage S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 15
  16. 16. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Grow wool with the smallest fiber diameter. Their wool is the most valuable in the commodity wool market. They are best adapted to hot, dry climates. They are hardy and long-lived, gregarious, and less seasonal in their breeding h bi h i b di habits. 50 percent of the world’s sheep population are fine wool based. Crosses between fine and medium wool. White face raised for meat, but have better quality wool than the East Friesian medium meat-type wool breeds. Columbia Finnsheep Polypay A few specialty breeds 1. East Friesian – d dairy 2. Finnsheep – prolific 3. Polypay – 4 way cross S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 16
  17. 17. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Grow wool that is i t intermediate i fib di t in fiber diameter and staple length. Excel in meat production (growth and carcass). Mostly of British origin. Most popular : Suffolk, Suffolk Dorset, Hampshire, and Southdown. Comprise 15 percent of the world’s sheep population. Romney Grow wool that has the l largest fib di t fiber diameter, t staple length, and yield. Their wool is popular Lincoln among hand spinners. Best-adapted to high rainfall areas with abundant forage. Romney S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 17
  18. 18. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Their bodies are covered by hair or a Katahdin mixture of hair and wool that is naturally shed. atu a y s ed Do not require shearing or tail docking. Possess some unique characteristics: ◦ Caribbean-type Resistant to parasites (worms) ◦ Romanov - very prolific Romanov 10 percent of the world’s sheep population. population Growing in popularity in the U.S. and other western countries. Katahdin and Dorper most popular. Vary in the type and quantify Blueface of wool they produce. Leicester Vary in characteristics. Possess some unique characteristics ◦ Double-coated ◦ Carpet wool ◦ Four horns ◦ Rat tails ◦ Solid black color ◦ Persian lamb skin Many are heritage breeds. Karakul S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 18
  19. 19. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Boer Classify according y g to purpose . . . ◦ Dairy ◦ Meat ◦ Fiber ◦ Miniature (small) Boer Kiko B Boer Kiko Myotonic Myotonic Spanish Tennessee fainting goat Spanish (brush) Pygmy Savannah Pygmy Savannah S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 19
  20. 20. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 ADGA recognized Saanen ◦ Swiss Saanen Alpine Toggenburg Oberhasli Alpine ◦ Nubian ◦ La Mancha ◦ Nigerian Dwarf Other ◦ Sable Toggenbur g Oberhasli (colored Saanens) ◦ Golden Guernsey ◦ Mini dairy goats Nubian La Mancha Angora Angora g Cashmere More of a fiber type than a breed Cashmere Pygora Pygma x Angora Cashgora Cashmere x Angora Pygora Cashgora S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 20
  21. 21. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Pygmy (meat) Nigerian Dwarf (dairy) Kinder Pygmy x Nubian Pygmy Mini Silky y g Myotonic x Nigerian Dwarf ? Nigerian Dwarf D f Mini dairy goats Nigerian Dwarf x standard dairy There is a great deal of variation among sheep breeds; less among goat breeds, especially meat. There are no “perfect” breeds. All breeds have strengths and weaknesses. Saanen There is usually as much difference within a breed as between breeds. S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 21
  22. 22. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Mating animals from Boer x Kiko x Alpine different breeds or breed types. Maximizes performance and profitability ◦ Hybrid vigor Crossbred offspring are supe o t e superior to their purebred parents ◦ Breed complementarity Use breeds in their appropriate roles Southdown If you want to show b di t k breeding stock If you want to sell purebred and/or registered breeding stock To produce a specific type of fiber. To T produce a d consistent type and quality of fiber. To preserve a rare or heritage breed. S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 22
  23. 23. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Get pastures and facilities ready before b ing your first buying o r sheep or goats. Start small and gradually increase size of herd. Start with healthy animals. animals ◦ Ewe lambs/doelings vs. mature females. Spend more money on ram and buck. Reputable breeders Dispersal sa es spe sa sales Performance and production sales Consignment sales Local salebarn Free S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 23
  24. 24. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Web-based directories Breed associations West Virginia Shepherd’s Federation MPWV Meat Goat Producers Association West Virginia Market Bulletin h // i l / k b ll i / k b ll i h l Virginia sheep and goat clearinghouse lists Lancaster Farming S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 24
  25. 25. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Business planning Enterprise budgeting File a schedule F Record keeping Make decisions based on science and economics. Control costs Production efficiency Smart marketing Know your costs! Feed least-cost rations. ◦ Shop around for feed ingredients. ◦ Balance your own rations. ◦ Maximize forage resource. Do you own vet work. Cull non-productive and problematic animals. S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 25
  26. 26. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Feed balanced rations. Aim for a 200% (or more) lamb/kid crop. crop Select for lbs. of quality lamb or goat weaned. Cull animals that fail to raise a lamb or kid. Manage to breed ewe lambs and doe kids to lamb or kid by the time they are 12 to 15 months of age. Use performance tested rams and bucks. Aim for the highest “net” price, not necessarily the highest price. Evaluate direct marketing as a means to increase profitability. Consider marketing alliances with other like-minded producers and/or entities. Choose one or two target markets. markets Don’t let higher market prices compensate for poor production efficiency. S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 26
  27. 27. Intro to small ruminant enterprises 3/2/2010 Thank you for your attention. Any questions? S. Schoenian ‐ Univ. of MD Ext. 27