Intro to small ruminant enterprises


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  • Thnaks for this practical advice to potential goat keepers. Apart from Angoras with high greaze content in their mohair, I think most goats need shelter. I have seen many deaths in Australia due to wet cold weather, even in summer. . The lack of lanolin in their coats mean that goats can rapidly become soaked and cold stressed..
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Intro to small ruminant enterprises

  1. 1. An introduction to small ruminant enterprise$<br />SUSAN SCHOENIANSheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education –<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Sheep and goat enterprises<br />What you need to raise sheep/goats<br />Breed resources<br />Getting started<br />Economics<br />Presentation topics<br />
  3. 3. Monogastric<br />Simple stomach<br />Pigs and poultry (and people)<br />Ruminant<br />Cud-chewing <br />4 compartment stomach.- Cows, sheep, and goats<br />Pseudo-ruminant (3 compartment stomach)- Alpacas and llamas<br />Hind-gut fermenter<br />Fermentation occurs in the caecum and/or large intestine<br />Horses and rabbits<br />Classification of farm livestockBy their digestive systems<br />
  4. 4. Economic<br />Profit<br />Tax advantages<br />Lifestyle<br />Self-sufficiency produce own food, fiber<br />Landscape management<br />Why raise sheep and/or goats?<br />
  5. 5. Less acreage required<br />Less investment<br />Ease of handling<br />Multi-purpose<br />Reproductive efficiency<br />Grazing behavior<br />Niche demand for products<br />Complement other farm enterprises<br />Pros and cons: PROS<br />
  6. 6. Small industry.<br />Lack of infrastructure.<br />Lack of mainstream demand for products.<br />Fencing requirements.<br />Labor requirements.<br />Predator risk.<br />Pros and cons: CONS<br />
  7. 7. Similar production practices and inputs.<br />Same diseases.<br />Similar niche and ethnic demand for products.<br />Similar constraints to production: the 3 P’s.<br />Prices<br />Predators<br />Parasites<br />Sheep vs. goatsMore similarities than differences <br />
  8. 8. Differences<br />SHEEP<br />GOATS<br />Grazer<br />Prefer forbs<br />Graze close to ground<br />Grow faster<br />Produce better milk<br />More genetic diversity<br />Strong flocking instinct and group mentality<br />Traditional enterprise<br />Browser<br />Prefer shrubs<br />Top-down grazer<br />Grow slow<br />Produce more milk<br />Less genetic diversity<br />Curious and independent<br />New and growing industry<br />
  9. 9. Meat<br />Dairy<br />Fiber<br />Landscape management<br />Agri-tourism<br />Sheep and goat enterprises<br />
  10. 10. Primary income is from the sale of live animals for meat and/or the sale of meat.<br />Most popular sheep and goat enterprise.<br />There is a demand for many different kinds of lambs and goats.<br />Marketing infrastructure is already in place.<br />Meat production<br />
  11. 11. Dairy production<br />Primary income is from the sale of milk, cheese, and/or other dairy products.<br />In most states, operation must be certified grade A or B to sell food products.<br />Usually requires own product development and marketing.<br />
  12. 12. Fiber sales comprise a significant portion of the income from the enterprise.<br />Wool<br />Mohair <br />Cashmere<br />Alpaca<br />Must direct market to make a profit.<br />Fiber production<br />
  13. 13. Land improvement on your own farm.<br />Fee-based grazing“Turn-key” operation<br />Animals<br />Transportation<br />Fencing<br />Care<br />Greatest economic potential ! ? <br />Landscape management<br />
  14. 14. Agri-tourism : trophy hunting<br />Sell stock for trophy hunting or operate your own hunting reserve. Usually hair sheep rams.<br />
  15. 15. Agri-entertainment<br />
  16. 16. Feed<br />Fencing<br />Housing and shelter<br />Feeders<br />Watering system<br />Labor<br />What do you need to raise sheep and goats?<br />
  17. 17. Pasture and browse<br />Hay<br />Grain<br />Alternative feedstuffs<br />Feed resourceThe largest cost associated with raising livestock is feed.<br />
  18. 18. Purpose<br />To keep livestock contained<br />To keep predators out<br />To control grazing and manage livestock<br />Three kinds<br />Perimeter or boundary<br />Interior or cross<br />Heavy use areas<br />Fencing<br />Possible cost share from NRCS (EQUIP program) for rotational grazing.<br />
  19. 19. Multi-strand, high-tensile, electric.<br />Woven wire with extra barbed and electric offset wires.<br />Barbed wire<br />Adapt existing fences.<br />Perimeter fencingYour first line of defense against predators.<br />
  20. 20. Permanent<br />Semi-permanent<br /> Temporary, electric<br />Smooth wire<br />Polywire, tape, or rope<br />Electric netting<br />Interior fencingFor rotational grazing and animal management.<br />
  21. 21. Outdoor lots<br />Holding areas<br />Working corrals<br />Net wire<br />Metal gates<br />Solid panels<br />Livestock panels<br />Non-electric<br />Heavy use areas<br />
  22. 22. Purpose<br />Animal management<br />Isolation area<br />Feed storage<br />Equipment storage<br />Human comfort<br />Needs vary by<br />Climate <br />Production system<br />Timing of lambing and kidding<br />Availability of natural shelter.<br />Personal preference<br />Housing and shelter<br />
  23. 23. Space requirements<br />
  24. 24. Do grazing animals require shelter?<br />Maybe not, but if they have access to it, they will usually use it. <br />They “appreciate” protection from bad weather.<br />
  25. 25. FeedersFor supplemental feeding<br />
  26. 26. Ample feed storage protects your investment in feed and allows you to make bulk purchases.<br />Annual hay requirements<br />¼ to ⅓ ton per animal<br />Hay storage <br />180 to 240 ft3 per ton<br />Uncovered hay deteriorates rapidly in quality.<br />StorageFeed and equipment<br />
  27. 27. Water<br />Hand<br />Buckets<br />Troughs<br />Tanks<br />Tubs<br />Automatic waterers<br />Possible cost share from NRCS (EQUIP program) for pasture watering systems.<br />
  28. 28. Daily care of animals<br />Twice daily milking<br />Annual shearing<br />Pasture management<br />Lambing and kidding<br />Parasite control<br />Hoof trimming<br />Labor<br />
  29. 29. Purposemeat, milk, or wool<br />Usesire or dam<br />Wool or coat typefine, medium, long, carpet, or hair (shedding)<br />Othertail, prolificy, minor, rare, heritage<br />Sheep breeds (~50 in U.S.)<br />
  30. 30. Classification of U.S. sheep breeds<br />
  31. 31. Grow wool with the smallest fiber diameter.<br />Their wool is the most valuable in the commodity wool market.<br />They are best adapted to hot, dry climates.<br />They are hardy and long-lived, gregarious, and less seasonal in their breeding habits.<br />50 percent of the world’s sheep population are fine wool based.<br />Fine wool Rambouillet, Delaine Merino, Debouillet, Booroola Merino, American Cormo<br />Rambouillet<br />Merino<br />
  32. 32. Medium wool dual-purposeColumbia, Corriedale, East Friesian, Finnsheep, Panama, Polypay, Targhee<br />Crosses between fine and medium wool.<br />Whiteface sheep raised for meat, but have better quality wool than the medium meat-type wool breeds.<br />A few specialty breeds<br />East Friesian – dairy<br />Finnsheep – prolific<br />Polypay – 4 way cross<br />East Friesian<br />Columbia<br />Finnsheep<br />Polypay<br />
  33. 33. Grow wool that is intermediate in fiber diameter and staple length.<br />Excel in meat production (growth and carcass).<br />Mostly of British origin.<br />Most popular : Suffolk, Dorset, Hampshire, and Southdown.<br />Comprise 15 percent of the world’s sheep population.<br />Medium wool (meat)Cheviot, Dorset (polled and horned) North Country Cheviot, Hampshire,Oxford, Shropshire, Southdown, Suffolk, Texel, Tunis<br />Suffolk<br />Polled Dorset<br />
  34. 34. Long woolBorder Leicester, Coopworth, Cotswold, Lincoln, Perendale, Romney, Wensleydale<br />Romney<br />Grow wool that has the largest fiber diameter, staple length, and yield.<br />Their wool is popular among hand spinners.<br />Best-adapted to high rainfall areas with abundant forage.<br />Lincoln<br />Romney<br />
  35. 35. Their bodies are covered by hair or a mixture of hair and wool that is naturally shed.<br />Do not require shearing or tail docking.<br />Possess some unique characteristics:<br />Caribbean-typeResistant to parasites (worms)<br />Romanov - very prolific<br />10 percent of the world’s sheep population.<br />Growing in popularity in the U.S. and other western countries.<br />Katahdin and Dorper most popular.<br />Hair (or shedding) sheepAmerican Blackbelly, Barbados Blackbelly, California Red, Dorper, Katahdin, Romanov, Royal White, St. Croix<br />Katahdin<br />Romanov<br />
  36. 36. Minor breedsBlack Welsh Mountain, Blueface Leicester, California Varietated Mutant, Clun Forest, Gulf Coast, Icelandic, Jacob, Karakaul, Navajo-Churro, Scottish Blackface, Shetland, Wiltshire Horn<br />Blueface Leicester<br />Vary in the type and quantify of wool they produce.<br />Vary in characteristics.<br />Possess some unique characteristics <br />Double-coated<br />Carpet wool<br />Four horns<br />Rat tails<br />Solid black color<br />Persian lamb skin<br />Many are heritage breeds.<br />Karakul<br />
  37. 37. Classify according to purpose . . .<br />Dairy<br />Meat<br />Fiber<br />Miniature (small)<br />Goat breeds (~20 in U.S.)<br />Boer<br />
  38. 38. Meat goat breeds<br />Boer<br />Kiko<br />Boer<br />Kiko<br />MyotonicTennessee fainting goat<br />Spanish (brush)<br />Pygmy<br />Savannah<br />Spanish<br />Myotonic<br />Savannah<br />Pygmy<br />
  39. 39. ADGA recognized<br />Swiss<br />Saanen<br />Alpine<br />Toggenburg<br />Oberhasli<br />Nubian<br />La Mancha<br />Nigerian Dwarf<br />Other<br />Sable (colored Saanens)<br />Golden Guernsey<br />Mini dairy goats<br />Dairy goat breeds<br />Saanen<br />Alpine<br />Toggenburg<br />Oberhasli<br />Nubian<br />La Mancha<br />
  40. 40. Angora<br />CashmereMore of a fiber type than a breed<br />PygoraPygma x Angora<br />CashgoraCashmere x Angora<br />Fiber goat breeds<br />Angora<br />Cashmere<br />Cashgora<br />Pygora<br />
  41. 41. Pygmy (meat)<br />Nigerian Dwarf (dairy)<br />KinderPygmy x Nubian<br />Mini SilkyMyotonic x Nigerian Dwarf ?<br />Mini dairy goats Nigerian Dwarf x standard dairy<br />Mini goat breeds<br />Pygmy<br />Nigerian Dwarf<br />
  42. 42. There is a great deal of variation among sheep breeds; less among goat breeds, especially meat.<br />There are no “perfect” breeds.<br />All breeds have strengths and weaknesses.<br />There is usually as much difference within a breed as between breeds.<br />Sheep and goat breeds<br />Saanen<br />
  43. 43. Mating animals from different breeds or breed types.<br />Maximizes performance and profitability<br />Hybrid vigorCrossbred offspring are superior to their purebred parents<br />Breed complementarityUse breeds in their appropriate roles<br />Crossbreeding Systematic, not random<br />Boer x Kiko x Alpine<br />
  44. 44. If you want to show breeding stock<br />If you want to sell purebred and/or registered breeding stock<br />To produce a specific type of fiber.<br />To produce a consistent type and quality of fiber.<br />To preserve a rare or heritage breed.<br />When to raise purebreds<br />Southdown<br />
  45. 45. Get pastures and facilities ready before buying your first sheep or goats.<br />Start small and gradually increase size of herd.<br />Start with healthy animals.<br />Ewe lambs/doelings vs. mature females.<br />Spend more money on ram and buck.<br />Getting started<br />
  46. 46. Reputable breeders<br />Dispersal sales<br />Performance and production sales<br />Consignment sales<br />Local salebarn<br />Free<br />Sources of breeding stock<br />
  47. 47. Web-based directories<br /><br />Breed associations<br />West Virginia Shepherd’s Federation <br />MPWV Meat Goat Producers Association<br />West Virginia Market Bulletin<br />Virginia sheep and goat clearinghouse lists<br />Lancaster Farming<br />Where to find breeding stock<br />
  48. 48. EconomicsCan you make any money raising sheep and/or goats?<br />Yes or No<br />
  49. 49. Business planning<br />Enterprise budgeting<br />File a schedule F<br />Record keeping<br />Make decisions based on science and economics.<br />Control costs<br />Production efficiency<br />Smart marketing<br />How to make a profit<br />
  50. 50. Know your costs!<br />Feed least-cost rations.<br />Shop around for feed ingredients.<br />Balance your own rations.<br />Maximize forage resource.<br />Do you own vet work.<br />Cull non-productive and problematic animals.<br />Control costs<br />
  51. 51. Feed balanced rations.<br />Aim for a 200% (or more) lamb/kid crop.<br />Select for lbs. of quality lamb or goat weaned.<br />Cull animals that fail to raise a lamb or kid.<br />Manage to breed ewe lambs and doe kids to lamb or kid by the time they are 12 to 15 months of age.<br />Use performance tested rams and bucks.<br />Production efficiency (meat)<br />
  52. 52. Aim for the highest “net” price, not necessarily the highest price.<br />Evaluate direct marketing as a means to increase profitability.<br />Consider marketing alliances with other like-minded producers and/or entities.<br />Choose one or two target markets.<br />Don’t let higher market prices compensate for poor production efficiency.<br />Smart marketing<br />
  53. 53. Thank you for your attention. Any questions? <br />