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Intro to small ruminant enterprises
 

Intro to small ruminant enterprises

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    Intro to small ruminant enterprises Intro to small ruminant enterprises Presentation Transcript

    • An introduction to small ruminant enterprise$
      SUSAN SCHOENIANSheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu – www.sheepandgoat.com
    • Introduction
      Sheep and goat enterprises
      What you need to raise sheep/goats
      Breed resources
      Getting started
      Economics
      Presentation topics
    • Monogastric
      Simple stomach
      Pigs and poultry (and people)
      Ruminant
      Cud-chewing
      4 compartment stomach.- Cows, sheep, and goats
      Pseudo-ruminant (3 compartment stomach)- Alpacas and llamas
      Hind-gut fermenter
      Fermentation occurs in the caecum and/or large intestine
      Horses and rabbits
      Classification of farm livestockBy their digestive systems
    • Economic
      Profit
      Tax advantages
      Lifestyle
      Self-sufficiency produce own food, fiber
      Landscape management
      Why raise sheep and/or goats?
    • Less acreage required
      Less investment
      Ease of handling
      Multi-purpose
      Reproductive efficiency
      Grazing behavior
      Niche demand for products
      Complement other farm enterprises
      Pros and cons: PROS
    • Small industry.
      Lack of infrastructure.
      Lack of mainstream demand for products.
      Fencing requirements.
      Labor requirements.
      Predator risk.
      Pros and cons: CONS
    • Similar production practices and inputs.
      Same diseases.
      Similar niche and ethnic demand for products.
      Similar constraints to production: the 3 P’s.
      Prices
      Predators
      Parasites
      Sheep vs. goatsMore similarities than differences
    • Differences
      SHEEP
      GOATS
      Grazer
      Prefer forbs
      Graze close to ground
      Grow faster
      Produce better milk
      More genetic diversity
      Strong flocking instinct and group mentality
      Traditional enterprise
      Browser
      Prefer shrubs
      Top-down grazer
      Grow slow
      Produce more milk
      Less genetic diversity
      Curious and independent
      New and growing industry
    • Meat
      Dairy
      Fiber
      Landscape management
      Agri-tourism
      Sheep and goat enterprises
    • Primary income is from the sale of live animals for meat and/or the sale of meat.
      Most popular sheep and goat enterprise.
      There is a demand for many different kinds of lambs and goats.
      Marketing infrastructure is already in place.
      Meat production
    • Dairy production
      Primary income is from the sale of milk, cheese, and/or other dairy products.
      In most states, operation must be certified grade A or B to sell food products.
      Usually requires own product development and marketing.
    • Fiber sales comprise a significant portion of the income from the enterprise.
      Wool
      Mohair
      Cashmere
      Alpaca
      Must direct market to make a profit.
      Fiber production
    • Land improvement on your own farm.
      Fee-based grazing“Turn-key” operation
      Animals
      Transportation
      Fencing
      Care
      Greatest economic potential ! ?
      Landscape management
    • Agri-tourism : trophy hunting
      Sell stock for trophy hunting or operate your own hunting reserve. Usually hair sheep rams.
    • Agri-entertainment
    • Feed
      Fencing
      Housing and shelter
      Feeders
      Watering system
      Labor
      What do you need to raise sheep and goats?
    • Pasture and browse
      Hay
      Grain
      Alternative feedstuffs
      Feed resourceThe largest cost associated with raising livestock is feed.
    • Purpose
      To keep livestock contained
      To keep predators out
      To control grazing and manage livestock
      Three kinds
      Perimeter or boundary
      Interior or cross
      Heavy use areas
      Fencing
      Possible cost share from NRCS (EQUIP program) for rotational grazing.
    • Multi-strand, high-tensile, electric.
      Woven wire with extra barbed and electric offset wires.
      Barbed wire
      Adapt existing fences.
      Perimeter fencingYour first line of defense against predators.
    • Permanent
      Semi-permanent
      Temporary, electric
      Smooth wire
      Polywire, tape, or rope
      Electric netting
      Interior fencingFor rotational grazing and animal management.
    • Outdoor lots
      Holding areas
      Working corrals
      Net wire
      Metal gates
      Solid panels
      Livestock panels
      Non-electric
      Heavy use areas
    • Purpose
      Animal management
      Isolation area
      Feed storage
      Equipment storage
      Human comfort
      Needs vary by
      Climate
      Production system
      Timing of lambing and kidding
      Availability of natural shelter.
      Personal preference
      Housing and shelter
    • Space requirements
    • Do grazing animals require shelter?
      Maybe not, but if they have access to it, they will usually use it.
      They “appreciate” protection from bad weather.
    • FeedersFor supplemental feeding
    • Ample feed storage protects your investment in feed and allows you to make bulk purchases.
      Annual hay requirements
      ¼ to ⅓ ton per animal
      Hay storage
      180 to 240 ft3 per ton
      Uncovered hay deteriorates rapidly in quality.
      StorageFeed and equipment
    • Water
      Hand
      Buckets
      Troughs
      Tanks
      Tubs
      Automatic waterers
      Possible cost share from NRCS (EQUIP program) for pasture watering systems.
    • Daily care of animals
      Twice daily milking
      Annual shearing
      Pasture management
      Lambing and kidding
      Parasite control
      Hoof trimming
      Labor
    • Purposemeat, milk, or wool
      Usesire or dam
      Wool or coat typefine, medium, long, carpet, or hair (shedding)
      Othertail, prolificy, minor, rare, heritage
      Sheep breeds (~50 in U.S.)
    • Classification of U.S. sheep breeds
    • Grow wool with the smallest fiber diameter.
      Their wool is the most valuable in the commodity wool market.
      They are best adapted to hot, dry climates.
      They are hardy and long-lived, gregarious, and less seasonal in their breeding habits.
      50 percent of the world’s sheep population are fine wool based.
      Fine wool Rambouillet, Delaine Merino, Debouillet, Booroola Merino, American Cormo
      Rambouillet
      Merino
    • Medium wool dual-purposeColumbia, Corriedale, East Friesian, Finnsheep, Panama, Polypay, Targhee
      Crosses between fine and medium wool.
      Whiteface sheep raised for meat, but have better quality wool than the medium meat-type wool breeds.
      A few specialty breeds
      East Friesian – dairy
      Finnsheep – prolific
      Polypay – 4 way cross
      East Friesian
      Columbia
      Finnsheep
      Polypay
    • Grow wool that is intermediate in fiber diameter and staple length.
      Excel in meat production (growth and carcass).
      Mostly of British origin.
      Most popular : Suffolk, Dorset, Hampshire, and Southdown.
      Comprise 15 percent of the world’s sheep population.
      Medium wool (meat)Cheviot, Dorset (polled and horned) North Country Cheviot, Hampshire,Oxford, Shropshire, Southdown, Suffolk, Texel, Tunis
      Suffolk
      Polled Dorset
    • Long woolBorder Leicester, Coopworth, Cotswold, Lincoln, Perendale, Romney, Wensleydale
      Romney
      Grow wool that has the largest fiber diameter, staple length, and yield.
      Their wool is popular among hand spinners.
      Best-adapted to high rainfall areas with abundant forage.
      Lincoln
      Romney
    • Their bodies are covered by hair or a mixture of hair and wool that is naturally shed.
      Do not require shearing or tail docking.
      Possess some unique characteristics:
      Caribbean-typeResistant to parasites (worms)
      Romanov - very prolific
      10 percent of the world’s sheep population.
      Growing in popularity in the U.S. and other western countries.
      Katahdin and Dorper most popular.
      Hair (or shedding) sheepAmerican Blackbelly, Barbados Blackbelly, California Red, Dorper, Katahdin, Romanov, Royal White, St. Croix
      Katahdin
      Romanov
    • Minor breedsBlack Welsh Mountain, Blueface Leicester, California Varietated Mutant, Clun Forest, Gulf Coast, Icelandic, Jacob, Karakaul, Navajo-Churro, Scottish Blackface, Shetland, Wiltshire Horn
      Blueface Leicester
      Vary in the type and quantify of wool they produce.
      Vary in characteristics.
      Possess some unique characteristics
      Double-coated
      Carpet wool
      Four horns
      Rat tails
      Solid black color
      Persian lamb skin
      Many are heritage breeds.
      Karakul
    • Classify according to purpose . . .
      Dairy
      Meat
      Fiber
      Miniature (small)
      Goat breeds (~20 in U.S.)
      Boer
    • Meat goat breeds
      Boer
      Kiko
      Boer
      Kiko
      MyotonicTennessee fainting goat
      Spanish (brush)
      Pygmy
      Savannah
      Spanish
      Myotonic
      Savannah
      Pygmy
    • ADGA recognized
      Swiss
      Saanen
      Alpine
      Toggenburg
      Oberhasli
      Nubian
      La Mancha
      Nigerian Dwarf
      Other
      Sable (colored Saanens)
      Golden Guernsey
      Mini dairy goats
      Dairy goat breeds
      Saanen
      Alpine
      Toggenburg
      Oberhasli
      Nubian
      La Mancha
    • Angora
      CashmereMore of a fiber type than a breed
      PygoraPygma x Angora
      CashgoraCashmere x Angora
      Fiber goat breeds
      Angora
      Cashmere
      Cashgora
      Pygora
    • Pygmy (meat)
      Nigerian Dwarf (dairy)
      KinderPygmy x Nubian
      Mini SilkyMyotonic x Nigerian Dwarf ?
      Mini dairy goats Nigerian Dwarf x standard dairy
      Mini goat breeds
      Pygmy
      Nigerian Dwarf
    • There is a great deal of variation among sheep breeds; less among goat breeds, especially meat.
      There are no “perfect” breeds.
      All breeds have strengths and weaknesses.
      There is usually as much difference within a breed as between breeds.
      Sheep and goat breeds
      Saanen
    • Mating animals from different breeds or breed types.
      Maximizes performance and profitability
      Hybrid vigorCrossbred offspring are superior to their purebred parents
      Breed complementarityUse breeds in their appropriate roles
      Crossbreeding Systematic, not random
      Boer x Kiko x Alpine
    • If you want to show breeding stock
      If you want to sell purebred and/or registered breeding stock
      To produce a specific type of fiber.
      To produce a consistent type and quality of fiber.
      To preserve a rare or heritage breed.
      When to raise purebreds
      Southdown
    • Get pastures and facilities ready before buying your first sheep or goats.
      Start small and gradually increase size of herd.
      Start with healthy animals.
      Ewe lambs/doelings vs. mature females.
      Spend more money on ram and buck.
      Getting started
    • Reputable breeders
      Dispersal sales
      Performance and production sales
      Consignment sales
      Local salebarn
      Free
      Sources of breeding stock
    • Web-based directories
      www.sheepgoatmarketing.info
      Breed associationshttp://www.sheepandgoat.com/goatbreedassoc.htmlhttp://www.sheepandgoat.com/sheepbreedassoc.html
      West Virginia Shepherd’s Federation http://www.sheepwv.org/
      MPWV Meat Goat Producers Associationhttp://www.meatgoat.biz
      West Virginia Market Bulletinhttp://www.wvagriculture.org/market_bulletin/market_bulletin.html
      Virginia sheep and goat clearinghouse listshttp://www.vdacs.virginia.gov/livestock/
      Lancaster Farminghttp://lancasterfarming.com
      Where to find breeding stock
    • EconomicsCan you make any money raising sheep and/or goats?
      Yes or No
    • Business planning
      Enterprise budgeting
      File a schedule F
      Record keeping
      Make decisions based on science and economics.
      Control costs
      Production efficiency
      Smart marketing
      How to make a profit
    • Know your costs!
      Feed least-cost rations.
      Shop around for feed ingredients.
      Balance your own rations.
      Maximize forage resource.
      Do you own vet work.
      Cull non-productive and problematic animals.
      Control costs
    • Feed balanced rations.
      Aim for a 200% (or more) lamb/kid crop.
      Select for lbs. of quality lamb or goat weaned.
      Cull animals that fail to raise a lamb or kid.
      Manage to breed ewe lambs and doe kids to lamb or kid by the time they are 12 to 15 months of age.
      Use performance tested rams and bucks.
      Production efficiency (meat)
    • Aim for the highest “net” price, not necessarily the highest price.
      Evaluate direct marketing as a means to increase profitability.
      Consider marketing alliances with other like-minded producers and/or entities.
      Choose one or two target markets.
      Don’t let higher market prices compensate for poor production efficiency.
      Smart marketing
    • Thank you for your attention. Any questions?