Income opportunities with sheep and goats
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Income opportunities with sheep and goats

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Income opportunities with sheep and goats Income opportunities with sheep and goats Presentation Transcript

  • Income opportunities with sheep and goats
    SUSAN SCHOENIANSheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education Centersschoen@umd.edu – www.sheepandgoat.com
  • Introduction
    Sheep and goat enterprises
    What you need to raise sheep/goats
    Breed resources
    Getting started
    Economics
    Presentation topics
  • Monogastric
    Simple stomach
    Pigs and poultry (and people)
    Ruminant
    Cud-chewing
    4 compartment stomach.- Cows, sheep, and goats
    Pseudo-ruminant (3 compartment stomach)- Alpacas and llamas
    Hind-gut fermenter
    Fermentation occurs in the caecum and/or large intestine
    Horses and rabbits
    Classification of farm animalsBy their digestive systems
    • Sheep
    • Goats
    Cervids(deer)
    Camelids (alpacas and llamas)
    Small ruminants
  • Economic
    Profit
    Tax advantages
    Lifestyle – quality of life
    Self-sufficiency produce own food, fiber
    Landscape management
    Why raise sheep and/or goats?
  • Less acreage required
    Less investment
    Quick return on investment
    Ease of handling
    Multi-purpose
    Reproductive efficiency
    Grazing behavior
    Niche demand for products
    Complement other farm enterprises
    Pros and cons: PROS
  • Small industries
    Lack of infrastructure
    Lack of mainstream demand for products.
    Fencing requirements.
    Labor requirements.
    Predator risk.
    Pros and cons: CONS
  • Similar production practices and inputs.
    Same diseases.
    Similar niche and ethnic demand for products.
    Similar constraints to production: the 3 P’s.
    Prices
    Predators
    Parasites
    Sheep vs. goatsMore similarities than differences
  • Differences between species
    SHEEP - ovine
    GOATS - caprine
    Grazer
    Prefer forbs
    Graze close to ground
    Grow faster
    Produce better milk
    More genetic diversity
    Strong flocking instinct and group mentality (aloof)
    Traditional enterprise
    Browser
    Prefer shrubs
    Top-down grazer
    Grow slow
    Produce more milk
    Less genetic diversity
    Curious and independent
    New and growing industry
  • Meat
    Dairy
    Fiber
    Landscape management
    Agritourism
    Sheep and goat enterprises
  • Most popular sheep and goat enterprise.
    Primary income is from the sale of live animals for meat and/or the sale of fresh, frozen, or processed meat products.
    There is a demand for many different kinds and sizes of market lambs and goats.
    Primarily an ethnic demand.
    A marketing infrastructure is already in place for meat animals.
    Meat production
  • Dairy production
    Primary income is from the sale of milk, cheese, and/or other dairy products.
    In most states, operation must be certified grade A or B to sell dairy products for human consumption.
    Usually requires own product development and marketing.
    More investment required, but greater income potential.
  • Fiber sales comprise a significant portion of the income from the enterprise.
    Wool (many kinds)
    Mohair (Angora goats)
    Cashmere
    Alpaca
    Prices in commodity market (wool pool) don’t usually cover costs of production and marketing.
    Must direct market to make a profit.
    Fiber production
  • Land improvement on your own farm or property.
    Fee-based grazing“Turn-key” operation
    Animals
    Transportation
    Fencing
    Care
    Perhaps, greatest economic potential ! ?
    Landscape management
  • Agri-tourism : trophy hunting
    Sell stock for trophy hunting or operate your own hunting reserve. Usually hair sheep rams.
  • Agri-entertainment
    • Feed
    Fencing
    Housing and shelter
    Feeders
    Watering system
    Labor
    What do you need to raise sheep and goats?
    • Usually pasture and browse
    Hay
    Grain
    Alternative feedstuffs
    Feed resourceThe largest cost associated with raising livestock is feed.
  • FencingA major investment
    Purpose
    To keep livestock contained
    To keep predators out
    To control grazing and manage livestock
    Three kinds of fencing
    Perimeter or boundary
    Interior or cross
    Heavy use areas
    • Possible cost share from NRCS (EQIP program) for rotational grazing.
  • Multi-strand, high-tensile, electric.
    Woven wire with extra barbed and electric offset wires.
    • Barbed wire
    Adapt existing fences.
    Perimeter fencingYour first line of defense against predators.
  • Permanent
    Semi-permanent
    Temporary, electric
    Smooth wire
    Polywire, tape, or rope
    Electric netting
    Interior fencingFor rotational grazing and animal management.
  • For
    Outdoor lots
    Holding areas
    Working corrals
    Materials
    Net wire
    Metal gates
    Solid panels
    Livestock panels
    High-tensile, non-electric
    Heavy use areas
  • Purpose
    Animal management
    Isolation area
    Feed storage
    Equipment storage
    Human comfort
    Needs vary by
    Climate
    Production system
    Timing of lambing and kidding
    Availability of natural shelter.
    Personal preference
    Housing and shelter
  • Space requirements
  • Do grazing animals require shelter?
    Maybe not, but if they have access to it, they will usually use it.
    They “appreciate” protection from bad weather.
  • FeedersFor supplemental feeding
  • Ample feed storage protects your investment in feed and allows you to make bulk purchases.
    Annual hay requirements
    ¼ to ⅓ ton per animal
    Hay storage
    180 to 240 ft3 per ton
    Uncovered hay deteriorates rapidly in quality.
    StorageFeed and equipment
  • Hand / manual watering
    Buckets
    Troughs
    Tanks
    Tubs
    Automatic waterers
    Possible cost share from NRCS (EQIP program) for pasture watering systems.
    Water
  • Daily care of animals
    Twice daily milking
    Annual shearing
    Pasture management
    Lambing and kidding
    Parasite control
    Hoof trimming
    Labor
  • Purposemeat, milk, or wool
    Usesire or dam
    Wool or coat typefine, medium, long, carpet, or hair (shedding)
    Othertail, prolificacy, minor, rare, heritage
    Sheep breeds (~50 in U.S.)
  • Classification of U.S. sheep breeds
  • Grow wool with the smallest fiber diameter.
    Their wool is the most valuable in the commodity wool market.
    They are best adapted to hot, dry climates.
    They are hardy and long-lived, gregarious, and less seasonal in their breeding habits.
    50 percent of the world’s sheep population are fine wool based.
    Fine wool Rambouillet, Delaine Merino, Debouillet, Booroola Merino, American Cormo
    Rambouillet
    Merino
  • Long woolBorder Leicester, Coopworth, Cotswold, Lincoln, Perendale, Romney, Wensleydale
    Grow wool that has the largest fiber diameter, staple length, and yield.
    Their wool is popular among hand spinners and wool craftsmen.
    Best-adapted to high rainfall areas with abundant forage.
    Romney
    Lincoln
  • Grow wool that is intermediate in fiber diameter and staple length.
    Excel in meat production (growth and carcass).
    Mostly of British origin.
    Most popular breeds: Suffolk, Dorset, Hampshire, and Southdown.
    Comprise 15 percent of the world’s sheep population.
    Medium wool (meat)Cheviot, Dorset (polled and horned) North Country Cheviot, Hampshire, Oxford, Shropshire, Southdown, Suffolk, Texel, Tunis
    Suffolk
    Polled Dorset
  • Medium wool, dual-purposeColumbia, Corriedale, East Friesian, Finnsheep, Panama, Polypay, Targhee
    Crosses between fine and medium wool.
    Whiteface sheep raised for meat, but have better quality wool than the medium meat-type wool breeds.
    A few specialty breeds
    East Friesian – dairy
    Finnsheep – prolific
    Polypay – 4 way cross
    East Friesian
    Columbia
    Finnsheep
    Polypay
  • Hair coats or hair/wool mix.
    Do not require shearing or tail docking.
    Possess some unique characteristics:
    Caribbean-typeResistant to parasites (worms)
    Romanov - very prolific
    10 percent of the world’s sheep population.
    Growing in popularity in the U.S. and other western countries.
    Katahdin and Dorper most popular and suitable for meat production.
    Hair (or shedding) sheepAmerican Blackbelly, Barbados Blackbelly, California Red, Dorper, Katahdin, Romanov, Royal White, St. Croix
    Katahdin
    Romanov
  • Minor breedsBlack Welsh Mountain, Blueface Leicester, California Varietated Mutant, Clun Forest, Gulf Coast, Icelandic, Jacob, Karakaul, Navajo-Churro, Scottish Blackface, Shetland, Wiltshire Horn
    Blueface Leicester
    Vary in the type and quantify of wool they produce.
    Vary in characteristics.
    Possess some unique characteristics
    Double-coated
    Carpet wool
    Four horns
    Rat tails
    Solid black color
    Persian lamb skin
    Many are heritage breeds.
    Karakul
  • Classify according to purpose . . .
    Dairy
    Meat
    Fiber
    Miniature (small)
    Goat breeds (~20 in U.S.)
    Boer
  • Meat goat breeds
    Boer
    Kiko
    Boer
    Kiko
    MyotonicTennessee fainting goat
    Spanish (brush)Not really a breed; a type
    Pygmy
    Savannah
    Spanish
    Myotonic
    Savannah
    Pygmy
  • ADGA recognized
    Swiss
    Saanen
    Alpine
    Toggenburg
    Oberhasli
    (Anglo) Nubian
    La Mancha
    Nigerian Dwarf
    Other
    Sable (colored Saanens)
    Golden Guernsey
    Mini dairy goats
    Dairy goat breeds
    Saanen
    Alpine
    Toggenburg
    Oberhasli
    Nubian
    La Mancha
  • Milk productionlbs., 275-305 days in milk
    Source: Breed averages, ADGA, 2008
  • Percent butterfat Percent, 275-305 days in milk
    Source: Breed averages, ADGA, 2008
  • Angora
    CashmereMore of a fiber type than a breed
    PygoraPygma x Angora
    CashgoraCashmere x Angora
    Fiber goat breeds
    Angora
    Cashmere
    Cashgora
    Pygora
  • Pygmy (meat)
    Nigerian Dwarf (dairy)
    KinderPygmy x Nubian
    Mini SilkyMyotonic x Nigerian Dwarf ?
    Mini dairy goats Nigerian Dwarf x standard dairy
    Mini goat breeds
    Pygmy
    Nigerian Dwarf
  • There is a great deal of variation among sheep breeds; less among goat breeds, especially meat.
    There are no “perfect” breeds.
    All breeds have strengths and weaknesses.
    There is usually as much difference within a breed as between breeds.
    Sheep and goat breeds
    Saanen
  • Mating animals from different breeds or breed types.
    Maximizes performance and profitability.
    Hybrid vigor
    Crossbred offspring are superior to their purebred parents.
    Breed complementarity
    Balances strengths and weaknesses of breeds.
    Use breeds in their appropriate roles
    Crossbreeding Systematic, not random
    Boer x Kiko x Alpine
  • If you want to show purebred breeding stock.
    If you want to sell purebred and/or registered breeding stock.
    To produce a specific type of fiber.
    To produce a consistent type and quality of fiber.
    To preserve a rare or heritage breed.
    When to raise purebreds
    Southdown
  • Get pastures and facilities ready before buying your first sheep or goats.
    Start small and gradually increase size of herd.
    Start with healthy animals.
    Ewe lambs/doelings vs. mature females.
    Spend more money on ram and buck.
    e.g. 5x the value of a market lamb
    Getting started
    • Reputable breeders
    Dispersal sales
    • Performance and production sales
    Consignment sales
    • Local salebarn
    • Free
    Sources of breeding stock
  • Web-based directories
    www.sheepgoatmarketing.info
    Breed associationshttp://www.sheepandgoat.com/goatbreedassoc.htmlhttp://www.sheepandgoat.com/sheepbreedassoc.html
    Maryland Sheep Breeders Association http://www.mdsheepbreeders.org
    MPWV Meat Goat Producers Associationhttp://www.meatgoat.biz
    Maryland Dairy Goat Associationhttp://www.marylanddairygoat.org
    Frederick County Sheep Breeders Associationhttp://www.fredericksheepbreeders.com
    West Virginia Market Bulletinhttp://www.wvagriculture.org/market_bulletin/market_bulletin.html
    Virginia sheep and goat clearinghouse listshttp://www.vdacs.virginia.gov/livestock/
    Lancaster Farminghttp://lancasterfarming.com
    Where to find breeding stock
  • EconomicsCan you make any money raising sheep and/or goats?
    Yes or No
  • Business planning
    Enterprise budgeting
    File a schedule F
    Record keeping
    Make decisions based on science and economics.
    Control costs
    Production efficiency
    Smart marketing
    How to make a profit
  • Know your costs!
    Feed least-cost rations.
    Shop around for feed ingredients.
    Balance your own rations.
    Maximize forage resource.
    Do you own vet work.
    Cull non-productive and problematic animals.
    Control costs
  • Feed balanced rations.
    Aim for a 200% (or more) lamb/kid crop.
    Select for lbs. of quality lamb or goat weaned.
    Cull animals that fail to raise a lamb or kid.
    Manage to breed ewe lambs and doe kids to lamb or kid by the time they are 12 to 15 months of age.
    Use performance tested rams and bucks.
    Production efficiency (meat)
  • Aim for the highest “net” price, not necessarily the highest price.
    Evaluate direct marketing as a means to increase profitability.
    Consider marketing alliances with other like-minded producers and/or entities.
    Choose one or two target markets.
    Don’t let higher market prices compensate for poor production efficiency.
    Smart marketing
  • Thank you for your attention. Any questions?