Hoof Health
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These are copies of PowerPoint slides (2 per page) from a presentation on foot heath of sheep and goats. The presentation was used in a two-part webinar held Feb. 2012.

These are copies of PowerPoint slides (2 per page) from a presentation on foot heath of sheep and goats. The presentation was used in a two-part webinar held Feb. 2012.

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Hoof Health Document Transcript

  • 1. Hoof health and management February  2012 RICHARD BRZOZOWKSI SUSAN SCHOENIAN     Extension Educator, Agriculture Sheep & Goat Specialist University of Maine University of Maryland Extension richardbrzozowski@maine.edu   sschoen@umd.edu     www.extension.maine.edu/sheep www.sheepandgoat.com Hoof care is an important  aspect of sheep and goat  management. Hoof health can affect an  animal’s performance,  disease resistance, and  welfare. Hooves should be regularly  checked  for disease and  h k d  f  di   d  excess growth. Animals with excessive or  abnormal hoof growth  and/or chronic hoof disease  CULLING IS THE MOST POWERFUL TOOL! should be culled. 1
  • 2. Hoof health and management February  2012 To prevent lameness. To allow air to reach the  hoof to eliminate the  bacteria that cause  infection. To create a flat sole  surface, removing trapped  mud and feces and  d  d f   d  reducing the possibility of  infection. To promote proper hoof  growth in young animals. Factors affecting the  need for hoof trimming: Animal ‐ genetics  Breed Individual Color of hoof Structure/shape of hoof Environment Soil moisture and   characteristics (terrain) Season and rainfall Housing Diet 2
  • 3. Hoof health and management February  2012 1. Hoof shears (trimmers) YOU CAN’T DO A THOROUGH JOB OF Manual HOOF TRIMMING WITHOUT A KNIFE. ▪ Smooth vs. serrated ▪ Rotating handle Air‐compression driven [large flocks] 2. Hoof knife Straight vs. curved 3. Brush  [for cleaning hoof] 4. Tight fitting (nitrile) gloves (for safety and comfort) Tip animal onto  its  rump Use deck chair Use tilt table  or “squeeze” Manual ▪ Half‐tilt ▪ Full‐tilt Automatic  3
  • 4. Hoof health and management February  2012 While goat is  standing against  t di   i t  a fence or on a  stand or work  platform. On its side  or rump Tilt table or  l bl “squeeze” Manual ▪ Half‐tilt ▪ Full‐tilt Automatic ot ast 6 8 ee s o Not last 6‐8 weeks of  gestation. In conjunction with  other management  tasks.  [e.g. shearing] 2 to 3 weeks before  a show or exposition. When hooves are soft. 4
  • 5. Hoof health and management February  2012 Clean hoof with brush. Trim excess growth Trim to pad (sole) Trim axial surface Don’t cut tip PRACTICE MAKES “PERFECT.” Potential entry for infection Try not to draw blood. Potential entry for infection Disinfect tools  between animals COMMON Foot scald (esp. goats) BACTERIAL Foot abscess Footrot (esp. sheep)  LESS COMMON Laminitis (founder) Bluetongue VIRAL Soremouth (orf) Foot‐and‐mouth disease 5
  • 6. Hoof health and management February  2012 g , Gram‐negative, anaerobic  CAUSES FOOT SCALD bacteria that live in the  (AKA INTERDIGITAL DERMATITIS) digestive tracts and feces  of animals.  Interacts with other  bacteria to cause  foot abscesses. BACTERIA FOUND ON EVERY FARM WHERE Works in conjunction  THERE ARE SHEEP, GOATS, OR CATTLE.  with D. Nodosus to cause  footrot.  An inflammation and  SKIN BETWEEN TOES IS redness between the  RAW AND INFLAMED. toes (claws) of the hoof. No (or minimal  involvement) of  the hoof. A precursor to footrot  A     f   and foot abscesses. NOT CONTAGIOUS ‐ ENVIRONMENTAL Outbreaks occur during  periods of wet weather. 6
  • 7. Hoof health and management February  2012 HEEL OR TOE Occurs when Actinomyces bacteria invade tissue that  is already weakened by an  interdigital infection. Causes lameness, pain,  swelling, and heat. Affects mostly mature  and heavy animals. ACTINOMYCES IS A COMMON Usually only one hoof or  BACTERIA ON FARMS. digit is affected. Gram‐negative, anaerobic bacteria   CAUSES FOOTROT that live in the feet of infected  animals. Release protease enzymes which  digest connective tissue between  the horn and flesh of the hoof. Survival of D. Nodosus Does not infect healthy hooves Survives up to three years in  chronically‐infected hooves. 20 DIFFERENT STRAINS OF BACTERIA Survives up to 14 days on soil,  in feces, and on pasture THAT VARY IN VIRULENCE. Survives up to 6 weeks  in hoof  horn clippings. Other surfaces: not known 7
  • 8. Hoof health and management February  2012 Involves a separation of the  horny portions of the hoof  UNDERMINING OF HOOF from the underlying  sensitive areas. Characterized by a putrid  odor. Both claws of hoof are  usually affected. HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS More than one hoof is  usually involved. Starts with an irritation of  interdigital tissue caused by  moisture or trauma which allows  i t    t   hi h  ll   entry of F. necrophorum. Other disease‐causing  bacteria invade tissue already  weakened by interdigital  dermatitis. Predisposing factors to hoof  disease: Warmth (>45°F) + moisture Overgrown hooves Abnormal hoof growth Infection or exposure does not  result in immunity. 8
  • 9. Hoof health and management February  2012 Moisture / trauma Softening, damage to skin between toes Invasion by Fusobacterium necrophorum INTERDIGITAL DERMATITIS OR FOOT SCALD Invasion by Invasion by Actinomyces pyogenes Dichelorbacter nodosus FOOT ABSCESS FOOTROT Source: Guide to Footrot in Sheep, Alberta Sheep & Wool Commission Primary In the hooves of newly   I  th  h   f  l acquired animals. Secondary On contaminated  equipment. In contaminated bedding  at sales, fairs, and during  at sales  fairs  and during  transport. On pasture and in barn  lots. On footwear. FOOTROT USUALLY “WALKS ON TO”  From service personnel A FARM IN THE HOOVES OF AN INFECTED OR CARRIER ANIMAL. 9
  • 10. Hoof health and management February  2012 Have a written biosecurity  plan and follow it. Do not buy animals from  flocks or herds with a  history of foot diseases or  noticeable lameness. All newly‐acquired animals  y q should be suspected of  having footrot and be  quarantined  for a minimum  of 3 weeks. FOOTROT PUTS PEOPLE OUT OF BUSINESS! Observe all new  animals for lameness. i l  f  l Carefully inspect  the hoof of each  animal. Closely trim hooves. Spray each foot with a  solution of 20% zinc  sulfate. 10
  • 11. Hoof health and management February  2012 Re‐trim hooves (if  necessary) and  )  d  thoroughly examine all  hooves for signs of  infection. If there is any evidence  of footrot infection, all  animals in the group  should be foot bathed  in a 10% solution of  zinc sulfate. Goal:  eliminate  the effects  of footrot in sheep  flocks in the Northeast. 1. Education ▪ Cooperating flocks ▪ 4 week protocol for  eliminating foot rot ▪ Web site:  extension.umaine/sheep/ 2. Research ▪ Scoring ▪ DNA testing Dr. Richard Brzozowksi University of Maine Extension 11
  • 12. Hoof health and management February  2012 Trim, inspect, and  score feet of every  f t  f  sheep and/or goat on  the farm. Separate into 2 groups 1. Healthy,  infection free  infection‐free  2. Infected (recovering)  Consider culling infected animals at  this point. Health (scale of 1‐5) 1. 1 No sign of infection 2. Inflammation of digital skin,  possible odor 3. Odor, undermining/  separation,  lameness 4. Excessive undermining two  or more feet infected, odor 5. Chronic carrier Structure St t Pockets Other abnormal growth Hoof color “Pocket” white, mottled, black, brown, gray  12
  • 13. Hoof health and management February  2012 Foot bath all animals Protocol for foot bathing Mix 8.5 pounds of zinc sulfate in  10 gallons of  water + 1 cup of  laundry detergent (wetting  agent). Create a “soak” pad in bottom of  footbath (wool or sawdust) to  ( ) prevent splashing and loss of  solution. Animals should stand in foot bath  for at least  3 to 5 minutes  (preferably longer). 13
  • 14. Hoof health and management February  2012 After soaking, put  animals in drying area: Well‐bedded barn area  Dry, hard surface  ▪ Clean concrete pad  ▪ Wooden floor After drying, put groups  into separate pastures or  barn areas where sheep  and/or goats have not  been for at least two  weeks. p g Repeat foot bathing  and drying protocol. Observe animals and  check for any limpers. Check and trim feet of  limpers in healthy group  and move to infected  group. 14
  • 15. Hoof health and management February  2012 Inspect all animals  Check and trim hooves  (if necessary). Score hooves Move infected animals that  have recovered to healthy  group and vice versa. Repeat foot bathing and  drying protocol. Move groups to separate  pastures where sheep and/or  goats have not been for at least  2 weeks. p g Repeat foot bathing  and drying protocol. Observe animals and  check for any limpers. Check and trim feet  of limpers in healthy  group and move to  infected group. 15
  • 16. Hoof health and management February  2012 p p Inspect all sheep  and goats Score each hoof Repeat foot  R  f   bathing and  drying protocol. 4 , After 4 weeks,  Cull carriers! all animals except  “carriers” should  have been able  to heal. Cull any animal  that is still  infected. 16
  • 17. Hoof health and management February  2012 TRIM TREAT ISOLATE CULL Day 0 plus 4-p s Day 7 Day 14 Day 21 Day 28 F o o t r o t   e r a d i c a t e d ! Antibiotic injections Penicillin Tetracyclines Antibiotic sprays Topical treatment with  Koppertox® or 7% iodine Dry chemicals Absorptive pads  Vaccination [prevent + treat] Zinc supplementation  CONTROL AND/OR ERADICATION OF Genetic selection FOOTROT USUALLY REQUIRES A COMBINATION OF PRACTICES. 17
  • 18. Hoof health and management February  2012 CONVENTIONAL SELECTION MARKER‐BASED SELECTION USING FOOTROT LESION SCORING USING DNA TESTING Resistance to footrot is  Genetic markers have been  found which can identify if a  heritable. sheep is resistant to footrot. Low to moderate heritability A blood test for resistance  0.02 to 0.40 (UK) is currently available (NZ) 0.30 to 0.40 (NZ) To be effective the same  strains of D. nodosus must  Low repeatability p y be causing footrot. be causing footrot At least two footrot scores  are recommended (UK) A rapid test to identify D.  nodosus strains is being  Creation of EPDs/EBVs commercialized. Does not require exposure  to disease. Any questions? Thank you for your attention. 18