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Goat hoof health

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These are copies of the slides from a PowerPoint presentation prepared for the 2011 Missouri Livestock Symposium.

These are copies of the slides from a PowerPoint presentation prepared for the 2011 Missouri Livestock Symposium.

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  • 1. Goat hoof health and management 11/28/2011 Factors affecting the  need for hoof trimming: Genetics  Individual Breed SUSAN SCHOENIAN    (Shāy‐nē‐ŭn) Color of hoof Sheep & Goat Specialist Structure of hoof Western Maryland Research & Education Center sschoen@umd.edu  ‐ www.sheepandgoat.com Environment Soil moisture and   characteristics (terrain) Season and rainfall Housing Diet Hoof care is an important  aspect of animal  1. Hoof shears (trimmers) YOU CAN’T DO A THOROUGH JOB OF HOOF TRIMMING WITHOUT A KNIFE. management. Manual Hoof health can affect an  ▪ Smooth vs. serrated animal’s performance,  p , ▪ Rotating handle g disease resistance, and  Air‐compression driven welfare. [large flocks] Hooves should be regularly  checked  for disease and  2. Hoof knife excess growth. Straight vs. curved Animals with excessive or  abnormal hoof growth and  3. Brush chronic hoof disease should  CULLING IS YOUR MOST POWERFUL TOOL! be culled. [for cleaning hoof] To prevent lameness. While goat is  standing against  To allow air to reach the  a fence or on a  hoof, to eliminate the  stand or work  bacteria that cause  platform. infections. infections On its side  To create a flat sole  or rump surface, removing trapped  mud and feces and  Tilt table or  reducing the possibility of  “squeeze” infections. Manual ▪ Half‐tilt In young animals to  ▪ Full‐tilt promote proper hoof  Automatic growth. 1
  • 2. Goat hoof health and management 11/28/2011 Not during late  Gram‐negative, anaerobic  gestation. CAUSES FOOT SCALD bacteria that lives in the  (INTERDIGITAL DERMATITIS) digestive tract and feces of  j In conjunction with  animals. other management  Interacts with other  tasks. bacteria to cause foot scald  and foot abscesses. 2 to 3 weeks before a  show. Works in conjunction with  ON EVERY FARM D. Nodosus to  When hooves are soft. cause footrot.  Clean hoof An inflammation and  SKIN BETWEEN TOES IS redness between the  Trim excess growth RAW AND INFLAMED. toes (claws). Trim to pad (sole) No (or minimal  Trim axial surface involvement) of  Don’t cut tip PRACTICE MAKES “PERFECT.” the hoof. [entry for infection] Try not to draw blood. Precursor to footrot and  [entry for infection] foot abscesses. NOT CONTAGIOUS Disinfect tools  Outbreaks occur during  between animals periods of wet weather. COMMON Occurs when Actinomyces HEEL OR TOE bacteria invade tissue  Foot scald (esp. goats) already weakened by an  BACTERIAL Foot abscess interdigital infection. Footrot (esp. sheep) Footrot (esp  sheep) A Causes lameness, pain,  swelling, and heat. LESS COMMON Affects mostly mature and  Laminitis (founder) heavy animals. Bluetongue Usually only one hoof or  VIRAL Soremouth digit is affected. ACTINOMYCES IS UBIQUITIOUS. Foot‐and‐mouth disease 2
  • 3. Goat hoof health and management 11/28/2011 Gram‐negative, anaerobic  Moisture / trauma CAUSES FOOTROT bacteria  that live in the feet of  infected animals. Softening, damage to skin between toes Release protease enzymes which  digest connect tissue between the  Invasion by Fusobacterium necrophorum horn and flesh of the hoof. INTERDIGITAL DERMATITIS OR FOOT SCALD Survival of D. Nodosus Does not infect healthy hooves Up to three years in  Invasion by Invasion by chronically‐infected hooves. Actinomyces pyogenes Dichelorbacter nodosus 20 DIFFERENT STRAINS OF BACTERIA Up to 14 days on soil, feces,  and pasture THAT VARY IN VIRULENCE. FOOT ABSCESS FOOTROT Up to 6 weeks  in hoof horn clippings Other surfaces: not known Source: Guide to Footrot in Sheep, Alberta Sheep & Wool Commission Involves a separation of  Primary the horny portions of the  In the hooves of newly  UNDERMINING OF HOOF hoof from the underlying  acquired animals. sensitive areas. Secondary On contaminated  O   t i t d  Putrid odor equipment. In contaminated bedding at  Both claws are usually  sales, fairs, and during  transport. affected. In the hooves of sheep  and cattle. HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS On pasture and in barn lots. More than one hoof may  be involved. On footwear. FOOTROT USUALLY “WALKS ON” TO A FARM IN THE From service personnel HOOVES OF AN INFECTED ANIMAL OR CHRONIC CARRIER. Irritation of interdigital tissue  caused by moisture or trauma  Have a written  allows entry of F. necrophorum. biosecurity plan and  follow it. Other disease‐causing  y bacteria invade tissue already  y Do not buy animals from  weakened by interdigital flocks with a history of foot  dermatitis. diseases or noticeable  lameness. Predisposing factors: Warmth (>45°F) + moisture All newly acquired animals  Overgrown hooves should be suspected of  Abnormal hoof growth having footrot and be  Infection or exposure does not  quarantined  for a minimum  provide natural immunity. of 3 weeks. FOOTROT PUTS PEOPLE OUT OF BUSINESS! 3
  • 4. Goat hoof health and management 11/28/2011 Observe all new  Trim, inspect, and  animals for lameness. score feet of every goat (and sheep) on  Carefully inspect  the farm. each foot. h f t Separate into groups Closely trim hooves. 1. Healthy,  infection‐free  2. Infected (recovering)  Spray each foot with  a solution of 20% zinc  Consider culling sulfate. infected animals. Re‐trim (if necessary)  Health (scale of 1‐5) 1. No sign of infection and thoroughly  2. Inflammation of digital skin,  examine hooves for  possible odor 3. Odor, undermining/  signs of infection. p , separation,  lameness 4. Excessive undermining two  or more feet infected, odor If there is any evidence  5. Chronic carrier of footrot infection, all  Structure animals in the group  Pockets should be foot bathed  Other abnormal growth with a 10% solution of  Hoof color “Pocket” zinc sulfate. white, mottled, black, brown, gray  Goal:  eliminate  the effects  of footrot in sheep  flocks in the Northeast. 1. Education ▪ Cooperating flocks ▪ 4 week protocol for  eliminating foot rot ▪ Web site:  extension. umaine/sheep/ 2. Research ▪ Scoring ▪ DNA testing Dr. Richard Brzozowksi University of Maine Extension 4
  • 5. Goat hoof health and management 11/28/2011 Foot bath all animals Inspect all goats (and sheep) Check and trim hooves  Protocol for foot bathing (if necessary). Mix 8.5 pounds of zinc sulfate in  Score hooves 10 gallons of  water + 1 cup of  laundry detergent (wetting  Move infected animals that  agent). have recovered to healthy  group and vice versa. Create a “soak” pad in bottom of  footbath (wool or sawdust) to  prevent splashing and loss of  Repeat foot bathing and  solution. drying protocol. Goats (and sheep) should  Move groups to separate  stand in foot bath for at least   pastures where goats (and  3 to 5 minutes (preferably  sheep) have not been for at  longer). least 2 weeks. After soaking, put  Repeat foot bathing  animals in drying area: Well‐bedded barn area  and drying protocol. Dry, hard surface  ▪ Clean concrete pad  Observe animals and  Ob   i l   d  ▪ Wooden floor check for any limpers. After drying, put groups  Check and trim feet  into separate pastures or  of limpers in healthy  barn areas where goats  group and move to  (or sheep) have not been  for at least two weeks. infected group. Repeat foot bathing  Inspect all goats  and drying protocol. (and sheep) Observe animals and  Score each hoof check for any limpers. Check and trim feet of  limpers in healthy group  Repeat foot  and move to infected  bathing and  group. drying protocol. 5
  • 6. Goat hoof health and management 11/28/2011 After 4 weeks,  all animals except  “carriers” should  have been able   h  b   bl to heal. Cull any animal  that is still  infected. Cull carriers! http://www.sheepandgoat.com/footrot.html http://extension.maine.edu/sheep Thank you for your attention Visit the Maryland Small Ruminant Page on Facebook @  http://www.facebook.com/MDSmallRuminant Any questions? Antibiotic therapy Penicillin [Rx] Tetracyclines [Rx] Antibiotic sprays Topical treatment with Koppertox Topical treatment with Koppertox®   or 7% iodine Dry chemicals Absorptive pads Vaccination [prevent and treat] not FDA‐approved for goats Zinc supplementation CONTROL AND/OR ERADICATION OF SUSAN SCHOENIAN FOOTROT USUALLY REQUIRES A sschoen@umd.edu Genetic selection COMBINATION OF PRACTICES. www.sheepandgoat.com CONVENTIONAL SELECTION MARKER‐BASED SELECTION USING FOOTROT LESION SCORING USING DNA TESTING Resistance to footrot is  Genetic markers have been  found which can identify if a  heritable in ewes, but  sheep is resistant to footrot. not lambs. not lambs A blood test for resistance  Low to moderate heritability is currently available (NZ) 0.02 to 0.40 (UK) To be effective the same  strains of D. nodosus must  0.30 to 0.40 (NZ) be causing footrot. Low repeatability A rapid test to identify D.  At least two footrot scores  nodosus strains is being  are recommended commercialized. Creation of EPDs/EBVs Does not require exposure  to disease. 6

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