STRONGYLE-TYPE WORMS OF IMPORTANCE
HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS #1
Barber pole worm
• Blood-feeding parasite that causes
blood and protein loss (anemia) and
bottle jaw and sudden death.
TRICHOSTRONGYLUS SPP. and
• Cause gastritis and enteritis in host:
weight loss, diarrhea, production loss.
• Usually of secondary importance to
Haemonchus in mixed parasitic
• Short, simple life cycles: no intermediate host
• Able to go into hypobiotic (arrested) state (in
animal) to survive unfavorable environmental
conditions (e.g. winter).
• Control with management: pasture rest/rotation,
clean pastures, annual pastures, mixed species
grazing, tanniferous forages, browsing, minimum
grazing heights, zero grazing, genetic selection, etc.
• Control with targeted, selective treatment(s) with
effective anthelmintic(s); test for anthelmintic
resistance every 2-3 years.
• Prefer cool conditions. Muellerious requires an
• Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, finding larvae
in feces (Baermann technique), and post-mortem
Usually no signs of infection
In severe cases, coughing, rapid breathing, nasal
discharge, loss of appetite, and ill thrift.
• Most anthelmintics are effective against
• Generally not very pathogenic; more
problematic in goats , especially kids (?)
• Parasite of white tail deer
• Sheep, goats, and camelids are unnatural,
dead end hosts (no eggs in feces) for parasite.
• Require intermediate host: terrestrial snail or slug
• Digestive tract central nervous system.
Cause neurological symptoms , paralysis, death.
• Treat with fenbendazole, ivermectin, and antiinflammatory drugs (Rx).
• Prevention (?)
Monthly treatments with ivermectin.
Control of snail, slug population
• Can be a significant problem on some farms.
OTHER HELMINTH PARASITES
CESTODES - TAPEWORMS
TREMATODES - FLUKES
• Only parasite that is visible in feces
• Oval-shape, leaf-like
• Require intermediate host (pasture
mites) to complete life cycle (6 weeks).
• Tend to be non-pathogenic;
usually no benefit to treatment.
• Can treat with albendazole,
fenbendazole (Rx), or praziquantel
(Quest® Plus Gel, Rx).
• Require intermediate host (snail, slug) to complete
life cycle (2-3 months).
• Diagnose by finding eggs in feces and post-mortem
exam (liver damage, flukes in bile ducts).
• Cause liver damage and hemorrhage.
Similar symptoms as barber pole worm: anemia,
submandibular edema (bottle jaw), sudden death.
• Treat with albendazole, closantel (Rx), and Ivomec®
• Geographic distribution: Gulf Coast States,
especially Florida, and Pacific Northwest.
PROTOZOA: COCCIDIA (EIMERIA SPP.)
• Single-cell protozoa
• Species specific
• Not all strains are pathogenic
• More complicated life cycle than worms,
e.g. spores and asexual reproduction.
• Affects mostly young animals, 1-6
months of age, especially weanlings.
• Adults are largely immune, but serve as
reservoirs of infection.
COCCIDIOSIS (EIMERIA SPP.)
Clinical (5%) vs. sub-clinical (95%)
Scours (diarrhea): none to mild to severe
Ill-thrift, anorexia, lethargy, dehydration
Dirty hocks, rough coat, open fleece
Drench with amprolium (Corid) or sulfa
antibiotic* for 5 days (Rx).
Supportive therapy as needed.
Good management, sanitation, and nutrition.
Coccidiostats in feed, water, or mineral:
Corid (Rx), Bovatec®, Rumensin®, or Deccox®.
• Ticks, mites, lice, keds
Excessive rubbing and scratching,
Irritation and itching
Biting at self
Loss of hair, wool
• Specific treatment recommendations
vary by pest.
• Nasal bots
Head shaking, teeth grinding
Snorting with head to ground
Pour-ons*, sprays, dips, and aerosols
• Anthelmintics (Rx for goats)
Ivomec® is only labeled for the control of nasal bots in sheep. Cydectin® is not labeled for external parasite control.
RESPIRATORY DISEASE IN SHEEP AND GOATS
• Respiratory problems are common in sheep and goats;
they can have many causes, including bacteria, viruses,
tumors, parasites, and aspiration.
• Common bacterial causes of pneumonia in sheep/goats
include Pasteurella multocida, Mannheamia haemolytica,
• Respiratory disease is characterized by fever (>104°F),
coughing, nasal discharge, difficulty breathing, weakness,
• Prevent with management, e.g. good nutrition, sanitation,
proper ventilation, and vaccination (pasteurella).
• Treat with antibiotics: penicillin, LA-200®, Nuflur®*,
Naxcel®, or Excenel® (Rx)* and anti-inflammatory
THREE HOOF DISEASES THAT COMMONLY
INFECT SUSCEPTIBLE SHEEP AND GOATS.
• An inflammation or
redness between toes
(claws) of hoof.
• Infection of hoof:
involves separation of
horny portions of hoof
from the underlying
• Bacterial infection of
damaged hoof tissue,
causing formation of
• Characteristic foul odor.
• Foot scald is caused by a
bacteria that is present on
all sheep and goat farms:
• Foot rot requires the
interaction of two
F. necrophorum +
• Foot abscesses are
caused by bacteria that
are normally found on
farms, e.g. actinomyces
• It is not thought to be
• Occurs during periods of
• D. nodosus does not infect
• D. nodosus is introduced
to a farm via infected hooves.
• D. nodosus can only survive
outside of hoof for 14 d.
• Usually an individual
mostly mature, heavy
• Seems to be more of a
problem with goats than
• Highly contagious.
Topical treatment or foot
soak with zinc sulfate
• Treatment and eradication
Hoof trimming + foot soaking + culling (+ antibiotics/UK)
• Hard to eradicate.
Termination of pregnancy, stillbirths, weak offspring, congenital abnormalities
1-5% loss is normal. Hard to know how many is normal in a small flock/herd.
• Infectious causes of abortion (zoonotic!)
Top three causes
Chlamydia (enzootic, EAE)
Toxoplasmosis (coccidia of cat)
Less common causes
Border disease (related to BVD)
Cache Valley Virus
• Non-infectious causes of abortion
Nutrition, stress, diseases, near-term situations
• During an abortion storm
Isolate aborting ewes/does
Remove and destroy all bedding and aborted material
Thoroughly disinfect pens
Submit samples for necropsy (50% chance of diagnosis)
Feed antibiotics to remaining females (goats, Rx)
Antibiotic injections to remaining females (Rx)
Maintain a closed flock or herd
Vaccinate at-risk flocks/herds (vibrio, Chlamydia)
Vaccinate replacement females (vibrio, Chlamydia)
Purchase maiden ewes/does
Feed ionophore during late gestation (Rx).
Feed antibiotic during late gestation (goats, Rx)
Keep cats from contaminating feed and bedding
DYSTOCIA (DIFFICULT BIRTHS)
• Disproportionate size
Small pelvic opening
Breech (tail only)
Dead and deformed
Backwards is also normal.
Failure of cervix to dilate
• Assisting with difficult births
• If no progress after 45-60 minutes of hard labor
(after water breaks), examine ewe/doe, identify
problem (if any), and correct (if necessary).
• Wear gloves or OB sleeves.
• Make liberal use of lubricant.
• Gentle, steady pressure and manipulation.
• After 30 minutes of trying and no progress, call
a veterinarian or experienced shepherd for help.
• Give antibiotic after assisted deliveries.
Special case: ringwomb
Do not attempt to pull lambs/kids
• Occurs during last month of pregnancy
• Contributing factors
Excessive body condition
High fiber diets
Overcrowding at feeders
Previous vaginal prolapse
Replace after cleaning
Use suture, bearing retainer, harness, or
truss to hold prolapse in until lambing.
Adequate feeder space
Cull affected ewes and don’t save their
• Occurs immediately after or 12 to
48 hours after parturition.
• Can be life threatening
• Contributing factors
Excessive straining from
Wash and replace (administer
Uterine relaxant (oxytocin, Rx)
Okay to keep for another year
MASTITIS - INFLAMMATION OF UDDER
• Mostly costly form
No (little) milk: starving lambs, kids
Lumps in udder
Swelling of udder, “hot” to touch
Depression, fever, poor appetite
Nothing obvious, but adverse
effects on production.
Can detect with SCC and CMT.
Intramammary antibiotics (Rx)
• Cull chronically-infected ewes and does.
RISK FACTORS FOR MASTITIS
• Most infections are caused by bacteria:
Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp.,
Pasteurella spp., and coliforms (e. coli).
Mastitis is also a common symptom of OPP and CAE.
• Stressful conditions (e.g. weather)
• Poor sanitation, hygiene
• Teat and udder damage
• Poor udder conformation
• Heavy-milkers, age
• Sore mouth
• Genetic susceptibility
PREGNANCY TOXEMIA AND MILK FEVER
• Metabolic diseases that commonly affect
pregnant and lactating ewes and does.
Late gestation (ewes)
Early lactation (does)
• Diseases present with similar symptoms
• Can be differentiated by response to treatment:
energy (glucose) vs. calcium.
• Early treatment can be successful.
• Is usually a flock or herd problem: primarily nutrition
PREGNANCY TOXEMIA (KETOSIS)
MILK FEVER (HYPOCALCEMIA)
Low blood calcium (Ca)
Inadequate energy (TDN) in late gestation diet
Low blood glucose
Elevated ketone levels in urine
Inadequate Ca in late gestation diet or failure to
mobilize Ca reserves (too much Ca in diet).
Off feed, lethargy
Lack of coordination, recumbency
Off feed, unsteady gait
Legs splayed out
Early: oral propylene glycol, IV glucose
Advanced: induce labor, c-section
Oral, Sub-Q, or IV calcium solution
Adequate energy in late gestation diet
Proper amount of Ca in late gestation diet
Usually necessary (advisable) to feed grain,
specially to high-producing ewes and does.
• Sheep: Ca requirements peak in late gestation
• Goats : Ca requirements similar throughout gestation.
Grain poisoning, grain overload, engorgement
• Production of large quantities of lactic acid
which lowers rumen pH.
• Caused by rapid fermentation of
• Associated with feeding grains, pellets, and
by-product feeds. Can also occur on rapidly
growing pastures and when feeding high
• Clinical vs. sub-clinical
Acute clinical - life-threatening
Mild clinical - depression, diarrhea, bloat
Sub-clinical - reduced performance, laminitis
Remove grain from ration; feed hay
Gradual adaptation to high starch diets
Do not crack or grind grains
Feed additives: bentonite, sodium bicarb,
limestone, rumen modifiers (ionophores),
• Caused by an accumulation of gas in the
rumen and reticulum; animal unable to
belch. There are two kinds of bloat:
Caused by diets that promote the
formation of froth (foam): legumous
forages, wet, grass pastures, cereal grain
pastures, garden greens, and grain.
• Free gas
Caused by diets that promote excessive
free gas production: high-grain diets .
• Abomasal bloat can occur in artificiallyreared lambs/kids. It is caused by
improper milk feeding.
Severity varies, can be life-threatening
Distended abdomen, swelling on left side
Varies by severity
Passage of stomach tube (free gas)
Drench with vegetable oil, mineral oil, antacid
Introduce to feed or pasture slowly
Feed dry stemmy hay before allowing access to
Commercial bloat preventatives, ionophores,
Proper milk feeding.
URINARY CALCULI (“WATER BELLY”)
• Blockage of urinary tract by calculi (kidney stones)
Most common in wethers; intact males also susceptible
Caused by improper feeding (too much phosphorus, P)
Restlessness, anxiety, off-feed
Abdominal pain, humped-up appearance
Straining, urine dribbling
Distended abdomen, edema
Depends upon location of obstruction
Ammonium chloride drench surgery
Often not rewarding
Feed a properly balanced ration. Ca: P ratio of >2:1.
Adequate forage in diet
Adequate water intake
Addition of ammonium chloride to diet
COMMON NEUROLOGICAL PROBLEMS
Differential diagnoses: scrapie, rabies, meningeal worm, pregnancy toxemia, enterotoxemia
LISTERIOSIS (CIRCLING DISEASE)
• Bacterial disease caused by
listeria monocytogenes (widespread)
Primary source is spoiled feed
and forage (especially silage).
• Disturbance in thiamine metabolism.
Commonly associated with high
concentrate diets (lower rumen pH), high
sulfur diets, amprolium (Corid), and
ingestion of thiaminase or thiamine
Infection limited to one side of brain
One-sided appearance of paralysis
Disorientation, drooling, drooping ear
Lean against objects; walk in “circles”
Can also cause abortion (zoonotic).
Prompt and aggressive antibiotic therapy:
penicillin or tetracycline (Rx).
Blindness, star gazing, head pressing
High doses of thiamine (Rx).
Complete recovery is possible if treatment
is initiated in early stages of disease.
INFECTIOUS KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS - PINK EYE
• Infectious and contagious; tends to occur as an outbreak
in a flock or herd.
• Many causative organisms. Most common are Chlamydia
psittaci ovis and Mycoplasma conjunctivae.
Discharge from eye, wet below eye
Aversion towards light
Red and irritated membranes
Cloudy or opaque membranes
Isolation in shady area
Antibiotic therapy: Terramycin® opthamalic, LA-200® (Rx),
penicillin (Rx), mastitis treatments (Rx).
Maintain a closed flock or herd.
Quarantine new animals or those returning from show.
SORE MOUTH (ORF)
• Most common skin problem in sheep/goats.
Caused by a virus in pox family.
Contagious to other animals and people (zoonotic)
Lesions on mouth, nose, feet, limbs, udder, and genital areas.
Takes 1-4 weeks for disease to run its course.
Treat secondary bacterial infections that may result.
Maintain a closed flock or herd.
Quarantine new animals and those returning from a show.
Once infected, vaccinate to control outbreaks.
Where gloves when vaccinating or handling infected animals.
THURSDAY, FEB 20
7 PM EST
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