4.  Expansion of DBG’s Steppe collection through plant exploration  Introduction of plants suited to our climate Serve as resource for Botanic Garden development Offer horticultural training – capacity building
5.  Middle of the continent, in the lee of high mountains Low precipitation – trees cannot grow Plants adapted to drought conditions – small with extensive root systems Cold winters with dry winds Cyclic droughts
6. South Africa•DBG has the only South African Garden in a coldtemperate climate•Over 1,000 taxa tested and hundreds displayed inour gardens (largest testing of South African plantsin temperate climate conditions)•Staff have been to South Africa 15 times in the last30 years•16 of 113 Plant Select® introductions are South 7African (14%)
7. Karroid Steppe > 10,000 species Drakensberg Mts. > 7000 species Fynbos Mts.CapeFloristicKingdom> 15,000 species
8.  Trips to Kazakhstan in 2009 and 2010 Funded by Plant Select® and DBG 2009 exploratory trip to assess floristic relevance 2010 collection driven
9.  KZ is home to the largest contiguous steppe region in the world Multiple mountain ranges of varying ages and sizes Isolated from oceanic influences 7th largest land mass country with 1,053,000 sq. mi. Extends from N41̊ to N55̊ and E44̊ to E87̊
10.  Home to an estimated 6,000 sp. Greatly under explored horticulturally Much of the documentation was lost during 1991 independence A few Russian floras still exist 650 collections made in 2010 Still germinating seed and planting trials around the state
11. Why Argentina? Patagonia is one of 4 major steppe regions worldwide. Andes are the longest mountain range in the world Patagonian steppe flora and Andean alpines are poorly represented in horticulture Argentina is the 8th largest country in the world.
12.  Research and relationship building began in 2008. Formal permitting process started in Feb 2010  1992 Convention on Biological Diversity  Benefit sharing Initial research and relationship building trip in Jan/Feb 2011  Drove 4,600 miles around Patagonia  50 waypoints taken  almost 8,000 photos documenting the landscape, conditions, flora and fauna.
14.  Superior performance Superior adaptation Uniqueness Long season Non-invasiveness Resistance to pests Low water performance Mass produced Potential for superior selection