3 Motivational Challenges to Student Academic Success
Dr. Gordon B. Schmidt, PhD
Organizational Leadership & Supervision
1...
Why is he texting in class?

IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
Multiple goals

• People often have many different things going
on in their lives
• Work-family-school balance- needs from...
#1: People always have multiple goals
And they are working on them at the same time

IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Ac...
Goal setting over time

• My dissertation looked at how people set and
change personal goals over time
• Lab study- each c...
Goal setting over time
• Donovan & Williams (2003)
• Looked at changing goals of track athletes over
course of a season
• ...
2. People use performance information to modify goals
So the goal they had yesterday might not be the goal today

• Goals ...
Procrastination
Piers Steel Research

IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.

How have you
seen students
pr...
Procrastination

• People make decisions about what to do (or
delay doing) based on perceived current utility
• They look ...
3. People do what seems to have most present marginal value
And these preferences differ significantly from person to pers...
So we got some issues
• We want them to focus on school
• But they have goals across domains (#1)
• We want to help them c...
So what can we do?
• 3 major means of help:
• Implementation Intentions
• Proximal and Distal Goals
• Tasks that overlap g...
1. Implementation Intentions
• Work by Gollwitzer (1999; & Brandstatter,
1997)
• We often have good intentions but don’t f...
Implementation Intentions
• So these help by having clear behaviors to
implement in goal related situations
• Goal Ex. Red...
Implementation Intentions

• Goal: To get an A on the first exam in a class
• What are some potential implementation
inten...
2. Proximal & Distal Goals
• We can have goals that vary on their time
horizons
• Distal goals: ultimate goal for the futu...
Proximal & Distal Goal Examples

• (Distal) Goal: Get a B for a course
• What are some proximal goals we could set?

IPFW ...
3. Tasks that overlap domains
• If students have multiple goals then tasks that help
fulfill multiple goals at once are es...
Tasks that overlap domains
• Education and work goals
• Focus on application of course content to
work domains
• Ex. focus...
Overall Summary
• How people naturally set, revise, and use goals
over time offers challenges to how goals have
an impact
...
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Gordon B. Schmidt (11/22/2013 SAEM) 3 motivational challenges to student academic success

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Presentation given to IPFW Student Affairs and Enrollment Management for staff development on November 22nd, 2013.

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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Gordon B. Schmidt (11/22/2013 SAEM) 3 motivational challenges to student academic success

  1. 1. 3 Motivational Challenges to Student Academic Success Dr. Gordon B. Schmidt, PhD Organizational Leadership & Supervision 11/22/2013
  2. 2. Why is he texting in class? IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  3. 3. Multiple goals • People often have many different things going on in their lives • Work-family-school balance- needs from all 3 domains • And potentially a whole host of others • All need effort and attention • They all have time deadlines and goals that overlap in time IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  4. 4. #1: People always have multiple goals And they are working on them at the same time IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  5. 5. Goal setting over time • My dissertation looked at how people set and change personal goals over time • Lab study- each condition given different assigned goals IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  6. 6. Goal setting over time • Donovan & Williams (2003) • Looked at changing goals of track athletes over course of a season • Found runners reduced goals over time toward actual performance, especially in 2nd half • Initial season goals often below previous best • Campion & Lord (1982) • Students in a college course setting course grade goals • Test scores below goal led to downward goal revision of course goal IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  7. 7. 2. People use performance information to modify goals So the goal they had yesterday might not be the goal today • Goals motivate people to put in effort and direct attention • But personal goals can be and are often changed • Tie our goals to what seems reasonable and likely IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  8. 8. Procrastination Piers Steel Research IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University. How have you seen students procrastinate?
  9. 9. Procrastination • People make decisions about what to do (or delay doing) based on perceived current utility • They look to their time to deadline, preferences, and anxieties IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  10. 10. 3. People do what seems to have most present marginal value And these preferences differ significantly from person to person • Can make it hard for people to work toward far off goals, especial if their value seems ambiguous or hard to fathom • Utility difference means each person’s reactions can be pretty unique IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  11. 11. So we got some issues • We want them to focus on school • But they have goals across domains (#1) • We want to help them create goals that motivate them • But then its easy for them to modify those goals over time (#2) • We want to help them set goals that help them to graduate and be successful in school • But graduation is often long term and relatively far away (#3) IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  12. 12. So what can we do? • 3 major means of help: • Implementation Intentions • Proximal and Distal Goals • Tasks that overlap goal domains • These help us to take the problems we know are there and have interventions that help those specific issues IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  13. 13. 1. Implementation Intentions • Work by Gollwitzer (1999; & Brandstatter, 1997) • We often have good intentions but don’t follow through • when, where, and how of responses leading to goal attainment • Link anticipated critical situations to goaldirected responses • Ex. "Whenever situation x arises, I will initiate the goal-directed response y!". IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  14. 14. Implementation Intentions • So these help by having clear behaviors to implement in goal related situations • Goal Ex. Reduce litter in my neighbor • Implementation Intention Ex. When I see litter I will pick it up immediately • Implementation Intention Ex. When I see someone litter I will scold them IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  15. 15. Implementation Intentions • Goal: To get an A on the first exam in a class • What are some potential implementation intentions for this? IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  16. 16. 2. Proximal & Distal Goals • We can have goals that vary on their time horizons • Distal goals: ultimate goal for the future • Ex. Get my college degree • Proximal goals: goals that are more near in time • Ex. Get an A on my next exam • We can use proximal goals as more short term goals that lead up to completion of that long term distal goal IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  17. 17. Proximal & Distal Goal Examples • (Distal) Goal: Get a B for a course • What are some proximal goals we could set? IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  18. 18. 3. Tasks that overlap domains • If students have multiple goals then tasks that help fulfill multiple goals at once are especially appealing • Highlighting or framing aspects of education that help other goals • Education and family goals • Ex. Communication class helps you to understand and talk to loved ones better IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  19. 19. Tasks that overlap domains • Education and work goals • Focus on application of course content to work domains • Ex. focus on how knowledge of topic will help you to understand better organizational events and other workers’ motivations • Education and recreational goals • Use “fun” activities in course of learning Others? IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
  20. 20. Overall Summary • How people naturally set, revise, and use goals over time offers challenges to how goals have an impact • In understanding these factors we can do particular intervention and find ways to structure goals that help them to remain effective • We need to always be on the lookout for applying these methods and coming up with new ones that fit with reality! IPFW is an Equal Opportunity/Equal Access University.
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