Poster

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Poster

  1. 1. Effects of agriculture on evolution of native species Scott A. Chamberlain1, Kenneth D. Whitney2, and Jennifer A. Rudgers2 1 Simon Fraser University, Canada – 2 Rice University, USA = the take-home message The Idea What did we find? …what did we find?•  Agriculture covers ~50% of vegetated land surface Does proximity to sunflower crops alter: Does proximity to sunflower crops alter:•  Evolution is altered in agricultural landscapes 1. …abundance of mutualists and antagonists? 4. …contribution of mutualists and antagonists to –  Gene flow occurs from crops to wild relative plants Mutualists more abundant near, antagonists more selection on native plant floral traits? –  Evolution of resistance occurs in plants to GMOs abundant far from crops Changes in mutualist/antagonist communities drive –  Evolution of plants/insects to herbicides/pesticides Results Predictions differences in selection near vs. far from crops•  Yet, we know less of how natural selection is altered Far   Near   Visits inflorescence-1 in agricultural landscapes through species interactions Floral  traits   Inflor.  traits   Floral  traits   Inflor.  traits  •  There is much evidence for altered biotic communities Abundance min-1•  How do changes in abundance and community structure Site  1   -­‐0.06   0.004   of mutualists and antagonists near sunflower crops Far Near 2011   Iso  sp.   N.  hel.   Pollen   Iso  sp.   N.  hel.   Pollen   alter natural selection on flower traits in wild N. Helianthi abundance sunflowers? Fitness   Fitness   Abundance The Questions Far Near Floral  traits   Inflor.  traits   Floral  traits   Inflor.  traits  Does proximity to crops alter: Site  2   2011  1. Abundance of mutualists and antagonists? 2. …community structure of mutualists and antagonists? 0.002   Iso  sp.   N.  hel.   Pollen   -­‐0.01   Iso  sp.   N.  hel.   Pollen  2. Community structure of mutualists and antagonists? Beta-diversity of mutualists greater near crops3. Selection on native plant floral traits? Fitness   Fitness   Predictions Results4. Contribution of mutualists and antagonists to selection on native plant floral traits? What does it mean? Conclusions •  Sunflower mutualists more abundant near, The Approach antagonists more abundant far from crops Natural habitat •  Beta-diversity of mutualists greater near crops Agricultural Other Crop •  Natural selection altered by proximity to sunflower landscape [corn/sorghum/ wheat/cotton] crops Distance Far No difference for antagonists •  Changes in mutualist/antagonist communities drive ~ 2.5 km differences in selection near vs. far from crops •  This is one of few studies to show agricultural 3. …selection on native plant floral traits? effects on natural selection across a landscape in a Sunflower Crop native plant species Natural selection altered by proximity to sunflower crops, Distance and more variable near sunflower crops Near ≤ 10 m Implications Proximity to sunflowers (2 levels) •  Mutualist-antagonist framework may be useful in X understanding agricultural effects on plant evolution Seed source (2 levels) •  Natural selection altered in agricultural landscapes, @ 5 sites in ‘10, @ 2 sites in ‘11 BUT contrary to expectation Silhouettes from phylopic.orgData Collected•  Pollinators: pollinator observations Scott Chamberlain•  Seed predators: counted damaged seeds scott.sfu@gmail.com t: @recology_•  Folivores: leaf damage http://schamberlain.github.com/scott

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