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  • 1. PREJUDICE SW 6103: Human Behaviour and Social Environment Group- ”D”
  • 2. Synopsis
    • Concept and Characteristics – Ms. Sarita
    • Origin and Process of Prejudice – Mr. Rupesh
    • Sources of Prejudice – Mr. Ravi
    • Applicability in Social Work – Ms. Sakshi
    • Concluding Remarks – Mr. Ravi
  • 3. Prejudice…Negative Attitude “ Prejudice decides our perception of reality”
  • 4. Concept
    • Prejudice is an attitude that predisposes a person to think, perceive, feel and act in favorable or unfavorable way
    • In social psychology ...is defined as a negative attitude
  • 5. Characteristics
    • … required
    • … has emotional terms
    • … directed towards the group as a whole
    • … based on rigid/inflexible generalizations
    • … not factual
  • 6. Origin and Process
    • Prejudice is learned
    • Develops during Socialization
    • Views expressed by parents, friends, teachers and others
    Early Experience: The Role of Social Learning
  • 7. Early Experience: The Role of Social Learning
    • Social Norms of groups: “If the members of my group dislike the person ‘X’, many children seem to reason, ‘then I should too!”
    • Mass Media
  • 8. Origin and Process contd… Direct Intergroup Conflict “ Competition as a source of Prejudice”
  • 9. Origin and Process contd…
    • Things people want and value most are always in short supply
    • Realistic Conflict Theory: Prejudices stems from competition among social groups over valued commodities or opportunities
    • As such competition continues – members of group involved come to view each other in increasingly negative terms
  • 10.
    • Social Categorization: The ‘Us’ vs. ‘Them’ Effect
    Origin and Process contd…
    • View other person as belonging either to their own group (ingroup) or another group (outgroup)
    • Commonly based on gender, religion, age, ethnic background, occupation, income…
    • People view ‘Us’ category in favorable terms – ‘Them’ category – perceived more negatively
  • 11.
    • Social Cognition: ways in which we think about others and make judgements about them
    • Stereotypes: allow us to make quick and dirty judgements about others without engaging in complex and more effortful thought
    Origin and Process contd…
  • 12. Sources of Prejudice
    • Social
    • Emotional
    • Cognitive
    An outcome of the intricate interplay of three distinct sources:
  • 13. Social Sources of Prejudice
    • Inequality and Prejudice:
    • “ Unequal status breeds prejudice”
    • “ Discrimination breeds prejudice, and prejudices legitimize discrimination” (Pettigrew, 1980)
    • Religion and Prejudice:
    • “ By defining and deciding what is sacred/sin or ethical/unethical”
  • 14. Social Sources of Prejudice contd…
    • In Group and Out Group:
    • Conformity:
    • “ Most of the people tend to follow the path of least resistance and conform to the existing trend”
    • - David G. Myers
    • An inherent human need to get liked and accepted
  • 15.
    • Self fulfilling Prophecy:
    • Social beliefs tend to be self confirming
    • Institutional Support:
    • Socio-political Institutions [schools, governments, media etc] reflect and reinforce prevailing attitudes
    Social Sources of Prejudice contd…
  • 16. Emotional Sources of Prejudice
    • “ Prejudice is bred by social situations, emotional factors add fuel to fire”
    • Frustration and Aggression:
    • Intimidating or Vague causes to frustration redirect or hostility in prejudices
    • “ Deprivation leads to passions which provoke prejudices”
    • - Neal Miller and Richard Bugelski, 1948
  • 17.
    • Personality Factor:
    • Two people with equal reasons need not be equally prejudiced
    • “ People hold to beliefs and attitudes that satisfy unconscious needs”
    • - Sigmund Freud
    Emotional Sources of Prejudice contd…
  • 18.
    • Need for status:
    • to perceive ourselves as having status, we need people below us
    • “ Prejudice is often greater among those low or slipping on the socio-economic ladder and among those whose positive self image is being threatened”
    • - Lemyre & Smith, 1985; Thompson & Crocker, 1985
    Emotional Sources of Prejudice contd…
  • 19.
    • The Authoritarian Personality
    • “ Authoritarian People often are harshly disciplined…leading them to repress their hostilities and impulses…makes them to project these onto outgroups”
    • David G. Myers
    Emotional Sources of Prejudice contd…
  • 20. Cognitive Sources of Prejudices
    • Prejudice is also a by-product of normal thinking process
    • Categorization: to organize the world by clustering objects into groups…exaggerating the uniformity within a group and the differences among groups
  • 21.
    • Distinctive Stimuli: Distinctive cases fuel stereotypes …assumes a correlation between group membership and individual’s characteristics
    • Ultimate attribution Error:
    • Assigning outgroup members’ negative behaviour to their natural character
    • - Thomas Pettigrew (1979, ’80)
    Cognitive Sources of Prejudices
  • 22. Prejudices and social work practice
    • Principles of social work seek to help the social worker adopt an objective approach while dealing with the client.
    • The social worker has to rise above his own prejudices and stereotypes to be effective in helping the client.
    • We have to learn to accept the person as s/he is irrespective of his/her cultural, social, economic background.
  • 23.
    • Discrimination based on prejudice is not acceptable, especially not in social work or any public service.
    • Discrimination founded on a professional judgment on a presenting issue, based on knowledge, assessed evidence and interpretation, is at the heart of good social work practice.
    Prejudices and social work practice contd…
  • 24.
    • "These anxieties about discrimination have deep roots, we argue - in social work training, professional identity and organizational cultures - and the remedies for these go beyond the remit of any single council or inquiry report”
    • The social worker should understand the cultural context which gives rise to prejudices.
    Prejudices and social work practice contd…
  • 25. Personal Field Experience…
    • All the practitioners working in this field [HIV and AIDS] have to be cautious to keep themselves protected .
    • Even doctors who have been associated to the field of HIV and AIDS have been unable to rise from their prejudices about such people.
    • Cases of discrimination have been reported from various hospitals etc.
  • 26.
    • It is equally important for a person to know how the disease is not spread as it is for a person to know how it is spread because incorrect knowledge gives rise to prejudices and discrimination
    • The major cause of transmission of the disease is through sexual route therefore people living with hiv and aids fear discrimination and stigmatization.
    Personal Field Experience…
  • 27. Concluding Remarks…
    • Stereotypes (Belief)
    • Prejudice (Attitude)
    • Biasness (Behaviour)
    • Discrimination (Action)
    • Segregation (Phenomenon)
  • 28. References
    • Baron, R.A. & Byrne, D., 1999. Social Psychology (8thEdition), Prentice Hall, New Delhi
    • Kuppuswamy, B., 1980. Introduction to Social Psychology, Asia Publishing House (P.) Ltd., New Delhi
    • Myers, David G., 2000. Social Psychology, Mc Graw-Hill, Inc, London