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Scdnr li dardata Scdnr li dardata Presentation Transcript

  • South Carolina Statewide LiDARAcquisitionSouth CarolinaDepartment of Natural ResourcesTechnology Development ProgramColumbia, South Carolinahttp://www.dnr.sc.govSCARC GIS - February 12, 2013Holly M. GillamSpatial Data Managergillamh@dnr.sc.govGeoff SchwitzgebelGIS Applications Managerschwitzgebelg@dnr.sc.gov
  • Slide provided by: Gary MerrillU.S. Geological Survey(803) 750-6124, glmerrill@usgs.govProject PrincipalsJim ScurryTechnology DevelopmentProgram DirectorSC Dept. of NaturalResourcesGary MerrillUSGS Geospatial Liaisonto the CarolinasNSDI Partnership OfficeU.S. Geological Survey
  • 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Vendor PhotoScience Furgo Earthdata Sanborn Sanborn Dewberry DewberryQA/QC unknown Dewberry Dewberry Aerometrics AerometricsProjectCoordinatorNOAA SCDNR/USGS * SCDNR/USGS * SCDNR/USGS * SCDNR/USGS * SCDNR/USGS *ǂ - NOAA contributed LiDAR data from 2007 project to statewide effort* - Also includes monetary and in-kind contribution from numerous federal, state, county, and local entitiesǂLiDAR Acquisition for SCYear & VendorGeoreferencing of lidar points uses GPSto derive the position of the aircraft, INS todetermine the pointing direction of thesensor, and the lidar range to extrapolatethe coordinates of a target point on theground.Source: ASPRS
  • Delivered LiDAR Data and Data Products• Raw LiDAR data (LAS format)• Intensity Images• Bare Earth Terrain Surface• Hydrobreaklines• Metadata• LiDAR Report• County-wide data setsLASIntensity ImageBare-earth Terrain Surface Hydrobreaklines DEM
  • LiDAR File SizesBerkeley 2009Total Size - 329 GBLAS 258GBIntensity Images 27.1GBTerrain Geodatabase 40.6GBHydro Geodatabase 50MBCounty Data File SizeAnderson 2011Total Size - 213 GBLAS 138GBIntensity Images 2.86GBTerrain Geodatabase(Surface only) 35.2GBTerrain Geodatabase(hydro enforced) 34.7GBHydro Geodatabase 4MBCounty Data File SizeOconee 2011Total Size - 241 GBLAS 159GBIntensity Images 2.61GBTerrain Geodatabase(Surface only) 38GBTerrain Geodatabase(hydro enforced) 39.2GBHydro Geodatabase 11MBCounty Data File SizeSaluda 2010Total Size - 101 GBLAS 89.5GBIntensity Images 809MBTerrain Geodatabase 10.8GBHydro Geodatabase 4.36MB
  • LiDAR Data Format• Raw LiDAR - LAS file format , 1.4 meter nominalpoint spacing, 18.4 cm vertical RMSE• LAS files delivered as 5000’ x 5000’ tiles following SCGeodetic 1:200 scale index naming convention• Point Cloud Classes• Class 1 - Unclassified (non-ground)• Class 2 - Ground (bare-earth extra points)• Class 8 - Model Key Point (thinned bare-earth)• Class 9 - Water (water as defined from the hydro enforcementprocess)• Class 12 - Overlap Points (overlap from adjoining flight lines)• Note: Points for Bridges and box culverts are in Class 10 forthe 2009/2010 and Class 13 for 2012 acquition
  • ASPRS LAS formatClassificationClass2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Unclassified 1 X X X X X XGround (bare-earth) 2 X X X X X XLow Vegetation 3 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----Medium Vegetation 4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----High Vegetation 5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----Building 6 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----Noise 7 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----Model Key-point(Thinned bare-earth) 8---- X X X X XWater 9 ---- X X X X XReserved 10---- ----Bridges and boxculverts---- ----Reserved 11 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----Overlap Points 12 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----Reserved 13---- ---- ---- ---- ----Bridges and boxculvertsReserved 14-31 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----ASPRS class used for LAS point cloud dataPoint data for this class put into Class 1, unclassifiedOptional use by vendor following ASPRS standard----LAS Point Classes by Project Year
  • QA/QC LiDAR Data• Independent QA/QC of LiDAR dataSCDNR / USGS• Confirm edits from Independent check if required andrecommendations.• Criteria into two sections Usability and Data.• Software:• ESRI ArcGIS Desktop• ESRI 3D Analyst Extension• Merrick MARS ExplorerUsability:• Coordinate system• Data products complete• Data products follow format• Metadata• ReportData:• hydrofeatures follow standard• Inspect terrain surface for anomalies• generate hillshade, inspect for issues• LAS if required
  • SCDNR’s usability QA/QC on the LiDAR data products Overview:•Coordinate System: passedConfirmed the coordinate system for the LAS files using MARS software andthe Geodatabase in ArcCatalog.•Metadata: passedComplete: Separate xml file was provided for each of the features in theTerrainGeodatabase and an overall metadata file for the LAS and Intensity Images.The final report.•Hydrobreaklines: passedA separate geodatabase with just hydrobreakline data set was provided.•Intensity Images: passedData includes intensity images for Sumter County.Images follow tiles and naming convention using SC Geodetic Survey 1:200scale index.•Terrain: passedNo void areas.County boundary is covered., 1000’ bufferNote: the tile levels where determined by vendor.•DEM:DEM is in the Terrain geodatabase using the linear method.Raster Information: Cellsize 10 x 10 ft, GRID, floating points, 32 bit.LAS Point File Information (follows SC Geodetic Survey 1:200 scale index namingconvention)•Point Spacing Range: 1.338 – 7.007•Z Minimum: (-391.67) – (+273.33)•Z Maximum: (+178.9) – (+5566.71)SCDNR’s usability QA/QC onthe LiDAR data products Overview
  • LiDAR CheckISSUE: Charleston Terrain and DEM contains void areas and short required buffer fromcounty boundary.RESOLUTION: Recreate masspoints to include missing LAS tiles along Berkeley andCharleston County boundary. Rebuild terrain surface, and DEM.
  • ISSUE: Points misclassified in class 2 & 8,Need to be in class 1 - unclassifiedLAS data viewed in MARS SoftwareRESOLUTION: Points moved from class 2 and 8to class 1 in LAS tile. Update masspoints,recreate Terrain surface, and DEM
  • ISSUE: Location marked aspossible issue in terrain basedDEM.RESOLUTION: No action required.Location is an entrance/exit to aparking garage.
  • ISSUE: Location marked aspossible issue in terrainsurface.RESOLUTION: Verified pointsclassified in the incorrect class. Pointsin class 8 should be moved in class 1.Update masspoints, rebuild terrain, andDEM
  • Tile 977402-03.lasISSUE: LAS tile has points classified inclass 1 that should be in class 2 and 8.RESOLUTION: Move points into correct classification. Updatemasspoints, rebuild terrain surface, and DEM
  • ISSUE: Single line stream used as a datasource to build terrain with soft line optioninstead of hard line.Resolution: Change the Sftype option to hardline and rebuild Terrain.Properties of Terrain Surface
  • RESOLUTION: Delete points from LAS tile ormove points to Class 1 – unclassified.Note: Not an issue in the terrain surface if theboundary used does not include areas inquestion.ISSUE: LAS points beyond CountyBoundary buffer are not classified.
  • Note: LAS data for 2008 removed any points outside theproject boundary.
  • Note: LAS data for 2011 and 2012 have points outside of the project boundaryand may be incomplete for some tiles.
  • Bare-earth Terrain SurfaceGround only Hydro Enforced Hydro FlattenedFeature Classes in Terrain Surface:• Masspoints• Project BoundaryFeature Classes in Terrain Surface:• Masspoints• Hydrofeature• Islands• LiDAR Extent• WaterbodyFeature Classes in Terrain Surface:• Masspoints• Hydrofeature Banklines• Islands• LiDAR Extent• Waterbody
  • LAS to MasspointsCreate a file Geodatabase and a new feature data set. Save the Multipoint feature class to thisfeature data set.ArcToolbox• 3D Analyst Tools  Conversion  From File  LAS to Multipoint• Average point spacing: 3• Input class Codes: 2, 8 (bare earth)Requires 3D Analyst Extension
  • New Terrain Surface (Ground Only)• ArcCatalog• In the File Geodatabase , create a new terrain inthe feature data set.• Select the data sets that will make up terrainsurface
  • Hydroenforced Terrain Surface
  • Hydro Flattened Terrain Surface
  • ArcToolbox• 3D Analyst Tools  Conversion  From Terrain  Terrain to Raster• Options: Float, Natural_Neighbor, CELLSIZE 10, Processing ExtentTerrain to DEMBare-earthTerrainSurfaceDEMRound extent values to the nearesttenth or higherRequires 3D Analyst Extension
  • Natural Neighbor Method Linear MethodFlorence County, SC LiDAR2-foot Topographic Contours(from 5-foot DEMs)1:500-scaleOpen Drain Closed DrainComparisonSlide provided by: Gary MerrillU.S. Geological Survey(803) 750-6124, glmerrill@usgs.govStep 1: ArcToolbox  3D Analyst Tools  Conversion  From Terrain  Terrain to RasterStep 2: ArcToolbox  3D Analyst Tools  Raster Surface  Contours or Contours with Barriers
  • DEM from Terrain Surface DifferenceGroundvs.Hydro EnforcedGroundvs.Hydro FlattenedHydro Enforcedvs.Hydro FlattenedGround Terrain:• Masspoints• LiDAR ExtentHydro Enforced:• Masspoints• Hydrofeature• Islands• LiDAR Extent• WaterbodyHydro Flattened:• Masspoints• HydrofeatureBanklines• Islands• LiDAR Extent• WaterbodyGround Terrain:• Masspoints• LiDAR ExtentHydro Enforced:• Masspoints• Hydrofeature• Islands• LiDAR Extent• WaterbodyHydro Flattened:• Masspoints• HydrofeatureBanklines• Islands• LiDAR Extent• WaterbodyVS. VS. VS.
  • ArcToolbox• 3D Analyst Tools  Raster Surface  From Terrain  Hillshade• Options: use default settingsHillshade fromTerrain BasedDEMDEMHillshadeRequires 3D Analyst Extension
  • Ground OnlyHydro flattened(no island constraints)Hydro flattened(with island constraints)Hydro enforcedHYDROFEATURE
  • Terrain BasedDEM to 2ftContoursArcToolbox• 3D Analyst Tools  Raster Surface  Contour with Barriers• Options: Save to output to a file geodatabase, enhance by using Indexed intervalDEMRequires 3D Analyst ExtensionContour
  • USGS NHD 1:24,000Hydrography Data Set
  • LiDAR based Hydrobreaklines
  • LiDAR HydrobreaklinesUSGS Hydrography vs.HydrofeatureLAS Point DataHydrofeatureNHD Hydro
  • ISSUE: Elevation of waterbodyhigher than adjacent ground.RESOLUTION: Updatehydrobreakline with correctelevation value. Recreateterrain surface and DEM.
  • • http://mappingcenter.esri.com/index.cfm?fa=arcgisResources.gateway• ColorRamps3.0• Elevation/Bathymetry• ShadeMax Color Ramps Hypsometry styleElevation Color Ramps
  • Layer order Hillshade: created from LiDAR based DEM (10’x10’ cell size)• Color Ramp Black to White: color 1-black , color 2-white, Algorithm: HSV• Transparency: 50% Contours 25’ foot intervals: from LiDAR based DEM• minor: Color CMYK 0,25,36,36; Width=0.40• major: Color CMYK 0,25,36,37; Width= 1.20• Transparency: 0% Municipality Boundary• color RGB 255, 211, 127• Transparency: 0% DEM (10’x10’ cell size)from Terrain Surface• Color Ramp Fern greento yellow:Color 1-HSV 99, 50, 80,Color 2-HSV 60, 25, 100Algorithm: HSV• Transparency: 0%Map Reference scale 1:54,000LiDAR Based Cartographic Maps
  • LiDAR Derived Products
  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM)Digital Surface Model (DSM)Intensity ImagesSlopeAspectRaster Products
  • LiDAR Derived ProductsVector Products:•Building Footprints•Applying Building Heights•Contours•Line of Sight•Derived Shorelines•Tree CanopiesOther:•ESRI Terrains
  • Digital Elevation Model (DEM)•Ground Only•Class 2 and 8 used•Can be created from LAS Dataset, TIN or Terrain
  • •Only delineates features above the ground•Class 1 points used (Unclassified)•Use last returns – This includes single returns•Helps filter out some excess tree canopiesDigital Surface Model (DSM)
  • •Use last returns – This includes single returns•Helps filter out some excess tree canopiesDigital Surface Model (DSM)All Returns Last Returns
  • nDSM used to get actual surface heightsnDSM = DSM – DEMNormalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM)DSM (Canopy)Class 1DEM (Ground)Class 2 and 8-
  • •Based on the reflective intensity of a LiDAR pulse.•Looks similar to a panchromatic aerial photo•Can be used in place of aerial photography if not availableIntensity Images
  • Intensity Images3’ Resolution
  • SlopeDisplays terrain steepness•Building development•Water run-off modeling•Site Analysis
  • Site Suitability Analysis
  • Building Footprints•Approximate building outlines can be created•May need to have Class 6 (buildings) processed to getthe most accurate results•Building filters can be applied using 3rd party softwaresuch as Merrick’s MARS software
  • Building Footprints•Approximate building outlines can be delineated•Filter nDSM values based on desired height values to beevaluatedResidential with minimal tree cover Residential with tree cover
  • Applying Feature Heights•Radio Towers, Well Locations, Buildings, etc•Various tools available to add height valuesAdd Surface Information (3D) Zonal Geometry As Table (SA)
  • •Derived From:Terrain – Surface Contour (3D Analyst)TIN – Surface Contour (3D Analyst)DEM – Contour (3D or Spatial Analyst)Contours
  • Terrain Datasets•Created using 3D Analyst•Derived from LAS Dataset•Use layers as constraints•Hydro Breaklines•Waterbodies•Project Extent
  • Locating Water Impoundments0 0.25 0.50.125MilesImpoundmentsWaterbodiesTouch HydrographyNOYESHydrography (24K)Orangeburg NAIP 2009.jp2RGBRed: Band_1Green: Band_2Blue: Band_3
  • Applying Imagery Colors to LAS File
  • Color By Imagery
  • Color By Elevation
  • Color By Intensity
  • LAS Datasets – On The Fly DataCan provide 4 layers on the flyElevation SlopeAspectContours
  • LAS Datasets – Filter PropertiesFilter LAS Display by Class Number and Return Type1.2.
  • LAS Datasets – Surface ConstraintsCan enforce on the fly layers with hydro breaklines, bridges,culverts, etc
  • ABCDEFGHIALAS Dataset Symbology in ArcGISTable of Contents: Properties for LAS Data set
  • LAS Datasets – On The Fly DataElevation - SurfaceLAS Dataset Properties
  • LAS Datasets – On The Fly DataContours and TerrainLAS Dataset Properties
  • LAS Datasets – On The Fly DataCartographic Output
  • How Do I Obtain LiDAR Related Data?Raw LAS File Download– USGS CLICK http://lidar.cr.usgs.gov/– NOAA Digital Coasthttp://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/coastallidar/index.htmlLiDAR Data Products (DEM, Hydrobreaklines, Intensity Images, Terrainsurface, Contours)– SCDNR http://dnr.sc.gov/GIS/lidar.htmlDEM Download– USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) http://ned.usgs.gov/Statewide 200 scale Index– SC Geodetic Survey http://www.gis.sc.gov/data.html
  • How Do I Obtain LiDAR Related Data?Available Vendor and SCDNR Derived LiDAR Productshttp://dnr.sc.gov/GIS/lidarstatus.html• Organized by County• Includes:• DEM (10’x10’ grid)• Hydro breaklines• Intensity Images• Terrain surface• Contours (2 foot interval)Raw LAS Tiles Not AvailableThrough the DNR
  • Download the *.exe and ALLof *.rar files with the countyname in it to the same folder1open the *.exe file touncompress the files2Follow prompts to extract.3Compressed Terrain on FTP ServerSoftware used: WinRARAbility to split files into volume sizes.Note: Users are not required to have software to uncompressfiles.
  • How Do I Obtain LiDAR Related Data?Raw LAS File Download– USGS CLICK http://lidar.cr.usgs.gov/– NOAA Digital Coasthttp://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/coastallidar/index.htmlDEM Download– USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) http://ned.usgs.gov/
  • Jim Scurry, Technology Development Program DirectorSouth Carolina Department of Natural ResourcesPhone:(803) 734-9494scurryj@dnr.sc.govGary Merrill, Geospatial Liaison to SCU.S. Geological SurveyPhone: (803) 750-6124glmerrill@usgs.govSC LiDAR Consortium ProgramHolly Gillam , Spatial Data ManagerSouth Carolina Department of Natural Resourcesgillamh@dnr.sc.govGeoff Schwitzgebel, GIS Applications ManagerSouth Carolina Department of Natural Resourcesschwitzgebelg@dnr.sc.govOther Questions?
  • SC Statewide LiDAR AcquisitionProject PrincipalsJim ScurryTechnology Development ProgramDirectorSC Dept. of Natural Resources(803) 734-9494ScurryJ@dnr.sc.govGary MerrillUSGS Geospatial Liaison to the CarolinasNSDI Partnership OfficeU.S. Geological Survey(803) 750-6124glmerrill@usgs.gov