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  • 1. South Carolina Statewide LiDARAcquisitionSouth CarolinaDepartment of Natural ResourcesTechnology Development ProgramColumbia, South Carolina GIS - February 12, 2013Holly M. GillamSpatial Data SchwitzgebelGIS Applications
  • 2. Slide provided by: Gary MerrillU.S. Geological Survey(803) 750-6124, glmerrill@usgs.govProject PrincipalsJim ScurryTechnology DevelopmentProgram DirectorSC Dept. of NaturalResourcesGary MerrillUSGS Geospatial Liaisonto the CarolinasNSDI Partnership OfficeU.S. Geological Survey
  • 3. 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Vendor PhotoScience Furgo Earthdata Sanborn Sanborn Dewberry DewberryQA/QC unknown Dewberry Dewberry Aerometrics AerometricsProjectCoordinatorNOAA SCDNR/USGS * SCDNR/USGS * SCDNR/USGS * SCDNR/USGS * SCDNR/USGS *ǂ - NOAA contributed LiDAR data from 2007 project to statewide effort* - Also includes monetary and in-kind contribution from numerous federal, state, county, and local entitiesǂLiDAR Acquisition for SCYear & VendorGeoreferencing of lidar points uses GPSto derive the position of the aircraft, INS todetermine the pointing direction of thesensor, and the lidar range to extrapolatethe coordinates of a target point on theground.Source: ASPRS
  • 4. Delivered LiDAR Data and Data Products• Raw LiDAR data (LAS format)• Intensity Images• Bare Earth Terrain Surface• Hydrobreaklines• Metadata• LiDAR Report• County-wide data setsLASIntensity ImageBare-earth Terrain Surface Hydrobreaklines DEM
  • 5. LiDAR File SizesBerkeley 2009Total Size - 329 GBLAS 258GBIntensity Images 27.1GBTerrain Geodatabase 40.6GBHydro Geodatabase 50MBCounty Data File SizeAnderson 2011Total Size - 213 GBLAS 138GBIntensity Images 2.86GBTerrain Geodatabase(Surface only) 35.2GBTerrain Geodatabase(hydro enforced) 34.7GBHydro Geodatabase 4MBCounty Data File SizeOconee 2011Total Size - 241 GBLAS 159GBIntensity Images 2.61GBTerrain Geodatabase(Surface only) 38GBTerrain Geodatabase(hydro enforced) 39.2GBHydro Geodatabase 11MBCounty Data File SizeSaluda 2010Total Size - 101 GBLAS 89.5GBIntensity Images 809MBTerrain Geodatabase 10.8GBHydro Geodatabase 4.36MB
  • 6. LiDAR Data Format• Raw LiDAR - LAS file format , 1.4 meter nominalpoint spacing, 18.4 cm vertical RMSE• LAS files delivered as 5000’ x 5000’ tiles following SCGeodetic 1:200 scale index naming convention• Point Cloud Classes• Class 1 - Unclassified (non-ground)• Class 2 - Ground (bare-earth extra points)• Class 8 - Model Key Point (thinned bare-earth)• Class 9 - Water (water as defined from the hydro enforcementprocess)• Class 12 - Overlap Points (overlap from adjoining flight lines)• Note: Points for Bridges and box culverts are in Class 10 forthe 2009/2010 and Class 13 for 2012 acquition
  • 7. ASPRS LAS formatClassificationClass2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Unclassified 1 X X X X X XGround (bare-earth) 2 X X X X X XLow Vegetation 3 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----Medium Vegetation 4 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----High Vegetation 5 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----Building 6 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----Noise 7 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----Model Key-point(Thinned bare-earth) 8---- X X X X XWater 9 ---- X X X X XReserved 10---- ----Bridges and boxculverts---- ----Reserved 11 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----Overlap Points 12 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----Reserved 13---- ---- ---- ---- ----Bridges and boxculvertsReserved 14-31 ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----ASPRS class used for LAS point cloud dataPoint data for this class put into Class 1, unclassifiedOptional use by vendor following ASPRS standard----LAS Point Classes by Project Year
  • 8. QA/QC LiDAR Data• Independent QA/QC of LiDAR dataSCDNR / USGS• Confirm edits from Independent check if required andrecommendations.• Criteria into two sections Usability and Data.• Software:• ESRI ArcGIS Desktop• ESRI 3D Analyst Extension• Merrick MARS ExplorerUsability:• Coordinate system• Data products complete• Data products follow format• Metadata• ReportData:• hydrofeatures follow standard• Inspect terrain surface for anomalies• generate hillshade, inspect for issues• LAS if required
  • 9. SCDNR’s usability QA/QC on the LiDAR data products Overview:•Coordinate System: passedConfirmed the coordinate system for the LAS files using MARS software andthe Geodatabase in ArcCatalog.•Metadata: passedComplete: Separate xml file was provided for each of the features in theTerrainGeodatabase and an overall metadata file for the LAS and Intensity Images.The final report.•Hydrobreaklines: passedA separate geodatabase with just hydrobreakline data set was provided.•Intensity Images: passedData includes intensity images for Sumter County.Images follow tiles and naming convention using SC Geodetic Survey 1:200scale index.•Terrain: passedNo void areas.County boundary is covered., 1000’ bufferNote: the tile levels where determined by vendor.•DEM:DEM is in the Terrain geodatabase using the linear method.Raster Information: Cellsize 10 x 10 ft, GRID, floating points, 32 bit.LAS Point File Information (follows SC Geodetic Survey 1:200 scale index namingconvention)•Point Spacing Range: 1.338 – 7.007•Z Minimum: (-391.67) – (+273.33)•Z Maximum: (+178.9) – (+5566.71)SCDNR’s usability QA/QC onthe LiDAR data products Overview
  • 10. LiDAR CheckISSUE: Charleston Terrain and DEM contains void areas and short required buffer fromcounty boundary.RESOLUTION: Recreate masspoints to include missing LAS tiles along Berkeley andCharleston County boundary. Rebuild terrain surface, and DEM.
  • 11. ISSUE: Points misclassified in class 2 & 8,Need to be in class 1 - unclassifiedLAS data viewed in MARS SoftwareRESOLUTION: Points moved from class 2 and 8to class 1 in LAS tile. Update masspoints,recreate Terrain surface, and DEM
  • 12. ISSUE: Location marked aspossible issue in terrain basedDEM.RESOLUTION: No action required.Location is an entrance/exit to aparking garage.
  • 13. ISSUE: Location marked aspossible issue in terrainsurface.RESOLUTION: Verified pointsclassified in the incorrect class. Pointsin class 8 should be moved in class 1.Update masspoints, rebuild terrain, andDEM
  • 14. Tile 977402-03.lasISSUE: LAS tile has points classified inclass 1 that should be in class 2 and 8.RESOLUTION: Move points into correct classification. Updatemasspoints, rebuild terrain surface, and DEM
  • 15. ISSUE: Single line stream used as a datasource to build terrain with soft line optioninstead of hard line.Resolution: Change the Sftype option to hardline and rebuild Terrain.Properties of Terrain Surface
  • 16. RESOLUTION: Delete points from LAS tile ormove points to Class 1 – unclassified.Note: Not an issue in the terrain surface if theboundary used does not include areas inquestion.ISSUE: LAS points beyond CountyBoundary buffer are not classified.
  • 17. Note: LAS data for 2008 removed any points outside theproject boundary.
  • 18. Note: LAS data for 2011 and 2012 have points outside of the project boundaryand may be incomplete for some tiles.
  • 19. Bare-earth Terrain SurfaceGround only Hydro Enforced Hydro FlattenedFeature Classes in Terrain Surface:• Masspoints• Project BoundaryFeature Classes in Terrain Surface:• Masspoints• Hydrofeature• Islands• LiDAR Extent• WaterbodyFeature Classes in Terrain Surface:• Masspoints• Hydrofeature Banklines• Islands• LiDAR Extent• Waterbody
  • 20. LAS to MasspointsCreate a file Geodatabase and a new feature data set. Save the Multipoint feature class to thisfeature data set.ArcToolbox• 3D Analyst Tools  Conversion  From File  LAS to Multipoint• Average point spacing: 3• Input class Codes: 2, 8 (bare earth)Requires 3D Analyst Extension
  • 21. New Terrain Surface (Ground Only)• ArcCatalog• In the File Geodatabase , create a new terrain inthe feature data set.• Select the data sets that will make up terrainsurface
  • 22. Hydroenforced Terrain Surface
  • 23. Hydro Flattened Terrain Surface
  • 24. ArcToolbox• 3D Analyst Tools  Conversion  From Terrain  Terrain to Raster• Options: Float, Natural_Neighbor, CELLSIZE 10, Processing ExtentTerrain to DEMBare-earthTerrainSurfaceDEMRound extent values to the nearesttenth or higherRequires 3D Analyst Extension
  • 25. Natural Neighbor Method Linear MethodFlorence County, SC LiDAR2-foot Topographic Contours(from 5-foot DEMs)1:500-scaleOpen Drain Closed DrainComparisonSlide provided by: Gary MerrillU.S. Geological Survey(803) 750-6124, glmerrill@usgs.govStep 1: ArcToolbox  3D Analyst Tools  Conversion  From Terrain  Terrain to RasterStep 2: ArcToolbox  3D Analyst Tools  Raster Surface  Contours or Contours with Barriers
  • 26. DEM from Terrain Surface DifferenceGroundvs.Hydro EnforcedGroundvs.Hydro FlattenedHydro Enforcedvs.Hydro FlattenedGround Terrain:• Masspoints• LiDAR ExtentHydro Enforced:• Masspoints• Hydrofeature• Islands• LiDAR Extent• WaterbodyHydro Flattened:• Masspoints• HydrofeatureBanklines• Islands• LiDAR Extent• WaterbodyGround Terrain:• Masspoints• LiDAR ExtentHydro Enforced:• Masspoints• Hydrofeature• Islands• LiDAR Extent• WaterbodyHydro Flattened:• Masspoints• HydrofeatureBanklines• Islands• LiDAR Extent• WaterbodyVS. VS. VS.
  • 27. ArcToolbox• 3D Analyst Tools  Raster Surface  From Terrain  Hillshade• Options: use default settingsHillshade fromTerrain BasedDEMDEMHillshadeRequires 3D Analyst Extension
  • 28. Ground OnlyHydro flattened(no island constraints)Hydro flattened(with island constraints)Hydro enforcedHYDROFEATURE
  • 29. Terrain BasedDEM to 2ftContoursArcToolbox• 3D Analyst Tools  Raster Surface  Contour with Barriers• Options: Save to output to a file geodatabase, enhance by using Indexed intervalDEMRequires 3D Analyst ExtensionContour
  • 30. USGS NHD 1:24,000Hydrography Data Set
  • 31. LiDAR based Hydrobreaklines
  • 32. LiDAR HydrobreaklinesUSGS Hydrography vs.HydrofeatureLAS Point DataHydrofeatureNHD Hydro
  • 33. ISSUE: Elevation of waterbodyhigher than adjacent ground.RESOLUTION: Updatehydrobreakline with correctelevation value. Recreateterrain surface and DEM.
  • 34. •• ColorRamps3.0• Elevation/Bathymetry• ShadeMax Color Ramps Hypsometry styleElevation Color Ramps
  • 35. Layer order Hillshade: created from LiDAR based DEM (10’x10’ cell size)• Color Ramp Black to White: color 1-black , color 2-white, Algorithm: HSV• Transparency: 50% Contours 25’ foot intervals: from LiDAR based DEM• minor: Color CMYK 0,25,36,36; Width=0.40• major: Color CMYK 0,25,36,37; Width= 1.20• Transparency: 0% Municipality Boundary• color RGB 255, 211, 127• Transparency: 0% DEM (10’x10’ cell size)from Terrain Surface• Color Ramp Fern greento yellow:Color 1-HSV 99, 50, 80,Color 2-HSV 60, 25, 100Algorithm: HSV• Transparency: 0%Map Reference scale 1:54,000LiDAR Based Cartographic Maps
  • 36. LiDAR Derived Products
  • 37. Digital Elevation Model (DEM)Digital Surface Model (DSM)Intensity ImagesSlopeAspectRaster Products
  • 38. LiDAR Derived ProductsVector Products:•Building Footprints•Applying Building Heights•Contours•Line of Sight•Derived Shorelines•Tree CanopiesOther:•ESRI Terrains
  • 39. Digital Elevation Model (DEM)•Ground Only•Class 2 and 8 used•Can be created from LAS Dataset, TIN or Terrain
  • 40. •Only delineates features above the ground•Class 1 points used (Unclassified)•Use last returns – This includes single returns•Helps filter out some excess tree canopiesDigital Surface Model (DSM)
  • 41. •Use last returns – This includes single returns•Helps filter out some excess tree canopiesDigital Surface Model (DSM)All Returns Last Returns
  • 42. nDSM used to get actual surface heightsnDSM = DSM – DEMNormalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM)DSM (Canopy)Class 1DEM (Ground)Class 2 and 8-
  • 43. •Based on the reflective intensity of a LiDAR pulse.•Looks similar to a panchromatic aerial photo•Can be used in place of aerial photography if not availableIntensity Images
  • 44. Intensity Images3’ Resolution
  • 45. SlopeDisplays terrain steepness•Building development•Water run-off modeling•Site Analysis
  • 46. Site Suitability Analysis
  • 47. Building Footprints•Approximate building outlines can be created•May need to have Class 6 (buildings) processed to getthe most accurate results•Building filters can be applied using 3rd party softwaresuch as Merrick’s MARS software
  • 48. Building Footprints•Approximate building outlines can be delineated•Filter nDSM values based on desired height values to beevaluatedResidential with minimal tree cover Residential with tree cover
  • 49. Applying Feature Heights•Radio Towers, Well Locations, Buildings, etc•Various tools available to add height valuesAdd Surface Information (3D) Zonal Geometry As Table (SA)
  • 50. •Derived From:Terrain – Surface Contour (3D Analyst)TIN – Surface Contour (3D Analyst)DEM – Contour (3D or Spatial Analyst)Contours
  • 51. Terrain Datasets•Created using 3D Analyst•Derived from LAS Dataset•Use layers as constraints•Hydro Breaklines•Waterbodies•Project Extent
  • 52. Locating Water Impoundments0 0.25 0.50.125MilesImpoundmentsWaterbodiesTouch HydrographyNOYESHydrography (24K)Orangeburg NAIP 2009.jp2RGBRed: Band_1Green: Band_2Blue: Band_3
  • 53. Applying Imagery Colors to LAS File
  • 54. Color By Imagery
  • 55. Color By Elevation
  • 56. Color By Intensity
  • 57. LAS Datasets – On The Fly DataCan provide 4 layers on the flyElevation SlopeAspectContours
  • 58. LAS Datasets – Filter PropertiesFilter LAS Display by Class Number and Return Type1.2.
  • 59. LAS Datasets – Surface ConstraintsCan enforce on the fly layers with hydro breaklines, bridges,culverts, etc
  • 60. ABCDEFGHIALAS Dataset Symbology in ArcGISTable of Contents: Properties for LAS Data set
  • 61. LAS Datasets – On The Fly DataElevation - SurfaceLAS Dataset Properties
  • 62. LAS Datasets – On The Fly DataContours and TerrainLAS Dataset Properties
  • 63. LAS Datasets – On The Fly DataCartographic Output
  • 64. How Do I Obtain LiDAR Related Data?Raw LAS File Download– USGS CLICK– NOAA Digital Coast Data Products (DEM, Hydrobreaklines, Intensity Images, Terrainsurface, Contours)– SCDNR Download– USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED) 200 scale Index– SC Geodetic Survey
  • 65. How Do I Obtain LiDAR Related Data?Available Vendor and SCDNR Derived LiDAR Products• Organized by County• Includes:• DEM (10’x10’ grid)• Hydro breaklines• Intensity Images• Terrain surface• Contours (2 foot interval)Raw LAS Tiles Not AvailableThrough the DNR
  • 66. Download the *.exe and ALLof *.rar files with the countyname in it to the same folder1open the *.exe file touncompress the files2Follow prompts to extract.3Compressed Terrain on FTP ServerSoftware used: WinRARAbility to split files into volume sizes.Note: Users are not required to have software to uncompressfiles.
  • 67. How Do I Obtain LiDAR Related Data?Raw LAS File Download– USGS CLICK– NOAA Digital Coast Download– USGS National Elevation Dataset (NED)
  • 68. Jim Scurry, Technology Development Program DirectorSouth Carolina Department of Natural ResourcesPhone:(803) Merrill, Geospatial Liaison to SCU.S. Geological SurveyPhone: (803) 750-6124glmerrill@usgs.govSC LiDAR Consortium ProgramHolly Gillam , Spatial Data ManagerSouth Carolina Department of Natural Schwitzgebel, GIS Applications ManagerSouth Carolina Department of Natural Questions?
  • 69. SC Statewide LiDAR AcquisitionProject PrincipalsJim ScurryTechnology Development ProgramDirectorSC Dept. of Natural Resources(803) MerrillUSGS Geospatial Liaison to the CarolinasNSDI Partnership OfficeU.S. Geological Survey(803)