Psychology of Space 2010

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Psychology of Space 2010

  1. 1. the psychology of space FALL Tim Stock 2010 Design Research Methods School of Design Strategies Parsons the New School for Design DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 1
  2. 2. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE IMAGE: Flickr /ubac humans desire space... how a culture values space reflects identity and beliefs. our concepts of what is “livable” is shaped by our culture. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 2
  3. 3. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE MACROS: NEW CITY reshaping our vocabulary of space... our understanding of space is always changing... we once thought of the world as flat because we drew it as flat. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 3
  4. 4. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL proxemics kinesiology behavior shapes the evolving meaning... studies of distances and movement in spaces DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 4
  5. 5. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE “I am part of a bigger story.” “My needs are most important.” our sense of self our sense of space is tied to our sense of self. IMAGE: Flickr /edenpictures DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 5
  6. 6. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE “I belong to the land.” perspectives of ownership... how we plan begins with our sense of our position to the spaces we inhabit. IMAGE: © Barry Skipsey DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 6
  7. 7. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE IMAGE: Elliottng do you give good directions? cognitive maps our sense of space has as much to do with our perspective and narrative context. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 7
  8. 8. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE places to hang out more parks cool shops locally grown foods what kind of spaces do we aspire to? our aspirations are shaped by the limits of our existing vocabulary. IMAGE: Flickr /caruba DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 8
  9. 9. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE HOWARD KUNSTLER a sense of place depends on our ability to define space with buildings. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 9
  10. 10. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE people respond to spaces based on... reinforcement functionality rational emotional relevance safe public pecking order clean home interactional belonging fidelity territory turf motives DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 10
  11. 11. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE motives drive what is important... the question is who we are listening to... if you plan a city around cars… you get more cars. IMAGE: Flickr /Kevin Coles DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 11
  12. 12. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE parking lots public parks don’t live here MOTIVES live here convenience oasis features work based on our perspective on motives. IMAGE: Flickr /twinxamot IMAGE: Flickr /dandeluca DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 12
  13. 13. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE graffiti culture tests ownership reclaiming spaces as discourse on ownership and meaning. IMAGE: Flickr /timstock DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 13
  14. 14. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE the public sidewalk Improv Everywhere cultural perspectives on the use of space. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 14
  15. 15. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE “thanks for the cool new green sidewalk” bicycle lanes the space doesn’t define the use...the behavior does. big design changes such as bike lanes require broader realignment of community culture. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 15
  16. 16. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE cyclist moving lane? bicycle lanes design disconnect comes from a lack of cultural integration. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 16
  17. 17. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE “hope we don’t get hit..at least the ambulance is nearby” cyclists lunch break lane? bicycle lanes design disconnects comes from a lack of cultural integration. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 17
  18. 18. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE COMMUTERS “...my safe portal” ATHLETES “...my training track” MESSENGERS “...for suckers” bicycle lanes the vocabulary of space varies because motivations vary. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 18
  19. 19. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE personal space social space public space for interactions among interactions among speaking/ intimate good friends or family space members acquaintances performing PROXEMICS REFERENCE: EDWARD T. HALL THE HIDDEN DIMENSION (1966) our response varies based on proximity and culture. how we interact with the spaces around us is a vocabulary cultivated from birth. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 19
  20. 20. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE WHAT IMPACTS ON OUR SENSE OF SAFETY AND WELL BEING? DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 20
  21. 21. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE The concept of personal space is an invisible and undefined three-dimensional area surrounding an individual which, when invaded, causes sensations of nervousness, discomfort and/or embarrassment. we are not tigers tigers personal space is 30 feet. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 21
  22. 22. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE WAR OF THE WORLDS (2005) “You’re safe in your space” personal space space offers safety..... our sense of what creates uneasiness varies. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 22
  23. 23. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE public transportation tests the struggle between our rational and emotional mind. the subway surrender of personal space tests our concept of necessity... IMAGE: Flickr /gustty DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 23
  24. 24. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE IMAGE: Flickr /doortoriver “Can I touch that?” “Is it safe in there?” the public bathroom public bathrooms force us to rewire our body mechanics to mitigate the proximity to the stuff we fear. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 24
  25. 25. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE WHAT DO LINES SAY ABOUT OUR CULTURAL CONDITIONING? DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 25
  26. 26. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE The Russian Bread Line monochronic cultures value orderliness and sense a focus on one task at a time. polychronic cultures like to do multiple things at the same time. The Polite British Queue waiting in line queues reinforce our sense of identity in relation to society. IMAGE: Flickr /SophieMuc DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 26
  27. 27. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE When McDonald’s first opened in Hong Kong in 1975, customers crowded around the cash registers, shouting orders and waving money over the heads of people in front of them. McDonald’s responded by introducing queue monitors—young women who channeled customers into orderly lines. Queuing subsequently became a hallmark of Hong Kong’s cosmopolitan, middle-class culture. reshaping line behavior queues can work as critical catalysts in reshaping cultural norms. IMAGE: Flickr /financeguy DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 27
  28. 28. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE “I’m more important.....I go first” the economics of waiting queues can also reinforce behavior that agitates a sense of fairness. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 28
  29. 29. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE the starbucks line queues can work in shaping our perception of value. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 29
  30. 30. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE HOW IS OUR SENSE OF HOME SHAPED? DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 30
  31. 31. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE own rented subsidized home sweet home home is at the core of our emotional identity. ...our sense of aspiration and ideology. IMAGE: Flickr /thomas.merton DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 31
  32. 32. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE new kitchen for mom a garage for dad white picket fence as symbol of the suburbia as mythology boundaries of ownership and suburban middle-class status. the language of aspiration DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 32
  33. 33. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE suburbia as kinship a language of consumption interwoven with purposeful migrations. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 33
  34. 34. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE retrofitting suburbia ELLEN DUNHAM-JONES the great design projects of the next 50 years will be in retrofitting suburbia. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 34
  35. 35. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE IMAGE: Hertha Hernaus; Dwell, July/August 2008 (via Unhappy Hipsters) what is our memory of home what make us feel safe and balances our relationships to others. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 35
  36. 36. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE kitchen rituals sounds, smells and story lines imprint codes of meaning. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 36
  37. 37. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE magnolia bakery tapping into that emotional memory with sensory cues. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 37
  38. 38. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE the backseat sensory memory and a search for control. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 38
  39. 39. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE RITES OF PASSAGE ARE EXPRESSIONS OF OWNERSHIP ON SPACES. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 39
  40. 40. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE the garage band middle-class suburban teenagers take over space at home. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 40
  41. 41. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE dogtown cultural colonization of under-utilized spaces DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 41
  42. 42. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE the drive-in for boomers food, freedom and sexual maturation are interwoven. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 42
  43. 43. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE WHAT SPATIAL CODES DEFINE OUR SENSE OF WORK? DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 43
  44. 44. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE deeper spaces helped by fluorescent lighting and air conditioning. large cavernous spaces space vocabulary shifts as expression of what is technically possible. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 44
  45. 45. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE work as fraternity early office layouts reinforced existing gender codes DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 45
  46. 46. secretarial pools functional departmentalizing around commoditized tasks. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 46
  47. 47. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE the cubicle IMAGE: Flickr Jackal of all trades we inject our own identity on borrowed spaces DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 47
  48. 48. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE the corner office the idea of space a reward and spatial cue for pecking order. IMAGE: Flickr All rights reserved by Edward Steven Perry DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 48
  49. 49. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE the corporate campus work space as an extension of the behavior of college life. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 49
  50. 50. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE GOOGLE PLAY WORK hybrid work spaces spaces that challenge convention propel the cultural narrative. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 50
  51. 51. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE Besides a mate and a job, we need a dependable place of refuge where, for a few minutes a day, we can escape the demands of family and bosses. —Ray Oldenburg author of “The Great Good Place” a place between home and work third place offers an escape and builds community narrative. IMAGE: Jack Mazzola, Jack’s Stir Brew DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 51
  52. 52. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE where things happen is less important than how things happen. the new office space physical space becomes less important than access. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 52
  53. 53. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE TRAVEL REVEALS SPATIAL CODES. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 53
  54. 54. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE The goal of any hotel room is to make you feel as if you are the first person to use it. hotel spaces spaces that aspire to the illusion of personal space. IMAGE: Flickr /uberzombie DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 54
  55. 55. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE First how brands manage our sense of space Class Business Coach reflects on their relevance and resonance. airline seating the economics of proximity plays out in plain view. IMAGE: Flickr /WexDub DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 55
  56. 56. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE Premium Economy was first introduced in 1992. It is a service aimed at the cost conscious business traveller who, for budgetary reasons, travels economy but still requires extra space in which to work or relax. premium space emotional ownership as brand strategy. IMAGE: Flickr /WexDub DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 56
  57. 57. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE HEALTHY SHARED SPACES CULTIVATE A SENSE OF PLACE. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 57
  58. 58. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE movie theaters shared spaces like cinemas allow us to feel connected to communal stories that reinforce our belonging. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 58
  59. 59. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE local to elicit abstract concepts of fidelity and belonging. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 59
  60. 60. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE Brooklyn has meaning beyond the bricks and cement. neighborhoods the identity of location is shaped by the stories that make them meaningful. IMAGE: Spike Lee as Mars Blackmon DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 60
  61. 61. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE absolut brooklyn the identity of location is shaped by the stories that make them meaningful. IMAGE: Spike Lee as Mars Blackmon DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 61
  62. 62. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE Many businesses in Germany cater to those who feel Ostalgie and have begun providing them with artifacts that remind them of life under the GDR; artifacts that imitate the old ones. ostalgie nostalgia for a lost sense space... IMAGE: Spike Lee as Mars Blackmon DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 62
  63. 63. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE ARE ALL RETAIL SPACES THE SAME? DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 63
  64. 64. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE APPLE STORE cult retail retail that works as a hub in the consumer storyline. IMAGE: Flickr /Matt Garland DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 64
  65. 65. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE SEPHORA research retail retail that leverages a connected knowledge network. IMAGE: Flickr /Matt Garland DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 65
  66. 66. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE ABERCROMBIE & FITCH clubhouse retail retail that seeks to stoke the desire to be on the list. IMAGE: Flickr CVerwaal DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 66
  67. 67. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE WHAT IMPACT DOES TECHNOLOGY HAVE ON OUR CONCEPTS OF SPACE? DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 67
  68. 68. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE New York Talk Exchange illustrates the global exchange of information in real time by visualizing volumes of long distance telephone and IP (Internet Protocol) data flowing between New York and cities around the world. west east urban suburban global local technology is transformative technology transforms how meaning is cultivated. IMAGE: Flickr /dorywithserifs DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 68
  69. 69. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE where things happen is less important than how things happen. second life real and virtual space begins to blur IMAGE: Flickr /dorywithserifs DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 69
  70. 70. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE grand theft auto real and virtual space begins to blur with detail and real time data. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 70
  71. 71. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE dead drops anonymous, offline, peer to peer file-sharing network in public space. IMAGE: MAKE Magazine DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 71
  72. 72. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE tower bridge buildings that converse opens opportunities for empathy and connectedness. connect DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 72
  73. 73. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE projection bombings layering digital narrative on physical space DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 73
  74. 74. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE scattered light inserts low res footage from Grand Central via led lights. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 74
  75. 75. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE farmville game mechanics incite involvement... DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 75
  76. 76. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE games are catalysts for behavior building a game layer on top of the world DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 76
  77. 77. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE transmedia narrative paths games open up thinking to non-linear paths. mirroring of retail spaces online falls short of this narrative potential DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 77
  78. 78. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE 1. Choose a hotel lobby to study 2. Identify the basic history and design of the lobby. 3. Gather photos (online and in person) that reveal different uses within that space. 4. Take notes and identify elements within the space that relate to concepts from this lecture. 5. Bring printouts to class to discuss with our guest speaker from IDEO. field research: the hotel lobby DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 78
  79. 79. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SPACE THANK YOU. DESIGN RESEARCH METHODS 79

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