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A Visual History of the Visual Arts - Part 2 From Abstract Art to Conceptual Art - A free supplement to "A Brief History of Knowledge" (Amazon ebook) - Downloadable version: ...

A Visual History of the Visual Arts - Part 2 From Abstract Art to Conceptual Art - A free supplement to "A Brief History of Knowledge" (Amazon ebook) - Downloadable version: http://www.scaruffi.com/art/history/index.html

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A Visual History of the Visual Arts - Part 2 A Visual History of the Visual Arts - Part 2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1 A Visual History of the Visual Arts Part 2: From Abstract Art to Conceptual Art 1946-1991 Piero Scaruffi www.scaruffi.com
  • This is a free ebook. Needless to say, it took many months to compile it, and the knowledge comes from many years of study. If you feel like supporting this work, make a donation at www.scaruffi.com/support.html
  • All the text is mine but you are welcome to do what you like with it as long as it is for nonprofit purposes. All the pictures (mostly in tiny resolution) are from the artist’s website or museum’s websites or my own photo collection. If you feel that a picture is used improperly, just email me. The goal obviously is to spread knowledge, not to make money. To send comments, corrections, complaints, etc: www.scaruffi.com/email.html If a volunteer would like to list all the illustrations and track down where those artworks are located in the world, it would be a nice addition to this file. I just didn’t find the time.
  • 4 The Space Age • Painting – Abstract Expressionism • The center of mass of modernism shifts from Paris to New York • New York imports cubism (abstraction) and surrealism (automatism), which create the dialectic between the conscious (geometric shapes) and unconscious (spontaneous expression) • Alienation of humans from the technological world causes angst (while European abstract painters marvel and rejoice) • Little abstract expressionism in sculpture
  • 5 The Space Age • Painting – From Surrealism to Abstract Expressionism • Rolph Scarlett (1891, USA) • Wilhelm de Kooning (1904, Holland) • Arshile Gorky (1905, Armenia) • Lawrence Kupferman (1909, USA) • Enrico Donati (1909, Italy) • Roberto Matta (1911, Chile) • William Baziotes (1912, USA) • Gerome Kamrowski (1914, USA)
  • 6 The Space Age Rolph Scarlett: “Abstraction” (1934) Lawrence Kupferman
  • 7 The Space Age • Abstract Expressionism – Wilhelm de Kooning (1904, Holland) • More cubist than surrealist “Excavation” (1950) “Attic” (1949)
  • 8 The Space Age • Abstract Expressionism – Arshile Gorky (1905, Armenia) • Automatism but grounded in autobiography “Garden in Sochi” series (1940-41)
  • 9 The Space Age • Abstract Expressionism • Roberto Matta (1911, Chile) “The Earth Is a Man” (1942) “Space Travel” (1938)
  • 10 The Space Age • Painting – Abstract Expressionism/Action Painting • Hans Hofmann (1880, Germany): teaches in Berkeley in 1930 and New York in 1933 • Adolph Gottlieb (1903, USA) • Jackson Pollock (1912, USA) • Robert Motherwell (1915, USA) • Joan Mitchell (1926, USA)
  • 11 The Space Age • Abstract Expressionism – Jackson Pollock • The subconscious • Jung’s influence “Male and Female” (1942) “Lavender Mist” (1950)
  • 12 The Space Age • Abstract Expressionism – Jackson Pollock • Action painting • Holistic • Non-referential “Autumn Rhythm” (1950) “Blue Poles” (1952)
  • 13 The Space Age • Abstract Expressionism – Wilhelm de Kooning • And even expressionist “Woman I” (1952) “Woman V” (1953)
  • 14 The Space Age • Abstract Expressionism/ Europe (Art Informel) – Reaction to cubism – Tachisme in France (1951) – COBRA (1948): Copenhagen (Co), Brussels (Br), Amsterdam (A) – Gutai in Japan (1954) Georges Mathieu (1921)Pierre Soulages (1919)
  • 15 The Space Age • Abstract Expressionism – Color Field Painting • Transcendent large rectangles of color • Clyfford Still (1904) in San Francisco • Barnett Newman (1905) • Mark Rothko (1903) • Franz Kline (1910) • Kenneth Noland (1924) • Ellsworth Kelly (1923) • Helen Frankenthaler (1928)
  • 16 The Space Age • Color Field Painting – Clyfford Still • abstract fields of color 1957-D, No. 1 1957 Untitled, 1952
  • 17 The Space Age • Color Field Painting – Barnett Newman Vir Heroicus Sublimis, 1951 Euclidean Abyss, 1947 Abraham, 1949
  • 18 The Space Age • Color Field Painting – Mark Rothko • Equilibrium between the rational and the irrational natures (Nietzsche) “Slow Swirl at Edge of Sea” (1945) “No 18” (1951) Green and White on Blue (1957) Young Rothko:
  • 19 The Space Age • Color Field Painting – Franz Kline • Black and white abstractions • Similar to Chinese calligraphy • Evoking urban landscape • Proto-minimalist “Mahoning” (1956) “High Street” (1956)
  • 20 The Space Age • Color Field Painting – Kenneth Noland – Ellsworth Kelly “Bridge” (1964) “Orange and Green” (1966)
  • 21 The Space Age • Color Field Painting – Helen Frankenthaler “Magic Carpet” (1964)“Canal” (1963)
  • 22 The Space Age • Painting – Neo-expressionism • Francis Bacon (1909, Britain) "Study after Velazquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X" (1953) “Painting" (1946)
  • 23 The Space Age • Painting – Neo-expressionism • Jean Dubuffet (1901, France) – Art Brut “Mother Goddess” (1945) “Group of Four Trees” (1971)“Tide of the Hourloupe” (1963)
  • 24 The Space Age • Painting – Neo-expressionism • Jean Dubuffet "Nunc Stans" (1965) "Inconsistancies" (1964)
  • 25 The Space Age • Painting – Neo-expressionism • Lucian Freud (1922, Britain) “Naked Portrait with Reflection” (1980) “Man with Thistle” (1946)
  • 26 The Space Age • Painting – Neo-expressionism • Larry Rivers (1923, USA) “Double Portrait of Berdie” (1955) “Double Nude” (1957)
  • 27 The Space Age • Painting – Richard Diebenkorn (1922) • West Coast school (Still, Rothko) • Influence of both action painting and color field painting but return to figure painting “Girl on a Terrace” (1956)
  • 28 The Space Age • Painting – Antoni Tapies (1923, Spain) • Abstract painting + textured relief “Painting Collage” (1964)
  • 29 The Space Age • Painting/ narrative – Andrew Wyeth (1917) “Christina's World” (1948) “Tenant Farmer” (1961)
  • 30 The Space Age • Sculpture – Henry Moore (1898, Britain) • Harking back to universal forms of Cycladic, African, pre-Columbian art Sheep Piece (1972) Nuclear Energy (1967)
  • 31 The Space Age • Sculpture – Alberto Giacometti (1901, Switzerland) • The spirit of existentialism • Elongated bronze sculptures “Diego in a Cloak” (1954)
  • 32 The Space Age • Sculpture – Barbara Hepworth (1903, Britain) “Sculpture with Color and String “ (1939-61) “Two Segments and a Sphere“ (1936)
  • 33 The Space Age • Sculpture/ Neocubism Barnett Newman: “Broken Obelisk” (1967)
  • 34 The Space Age • Sculpture/ Neocubism – David Smith (1906, USA) “Tank Totem IV” (1953) “Cubi” series (1963-64)
  • 35 The Space Age • Sculpture/ Neocubism – Lou Dorfsman (1918, USA) "Gastrotypographicalassemblage" (1966) in the cafeteria of the CBS Building
  • 36 The Space Age • Sculpture – Alexander Liberman (1912, USA) “Argo” (1974) Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin “Phoenix” (1974) Los Angeles
  • 37 The Space Age • Sculpture – Mathias Goeritz (1915, Mexico) “Torres De Satélite” (1957) Ciudad Satélite, Ciudad de Mexico “La serpiente de El eco” (1952) Monterrey
  • 38 The Space Age • Kinetic Sculpture – George Rickey (1907, USA) : tall stainless-steel sculptures with long arms (since the 1960s) – Jean Tinguely (1925, Switzerland): self-destructing “Homage to New York” (1960) – Nicolas Schoffer (1912, France): automated computerized “Cybernetic Tower” (1961)
  • 39 The Space Age • Kinetic Sculpture – Gianni Colombo (1937, Italy): “Elastic Space” (1967), a glowing network of elastic strings organized in a cube – Hans Haacke (1936): “Blue Sail” (1965) for blue chiffon, oscillating fan, fishing weights and thread – Robert Breer (1926): "Osaka I" (1970), motorized
  • 40 The Space Age • Interactive kinetic art – James Seawright (1936): “Watcher” (1966) – Charles Eames (1907, USA): “Solar Do-Nothing Machine” (1957), a colorful kinetic solar toy that has no function (other than doing nothing)
  • 41 The Space Age • Light Sculpture – Lucio Fontana (1899, Italy) – Julio LeParc (1928, Argentina) "Neon Structure" (1951) “Lumiére en mouvement” (1962)
  • 42 The Space Age • Light Sculpture – Dan Flavin (1933, USA) – Chryssa Vardea-Mavromichali (1933, Greece) “The Gates to Time Square” (1966)“Alternating Pink and Gold” (1967)
  • 43 The Space Age • Robot art – Nicolas Schoffer (1912, France): CYSP 1 (1956) - interactive sculpture that reacts to the presence of spectators – Nam June Paik and Shuya Abe: Robot K-456 (1964) - remote- controlled anthropomorphic robot – Gordon Pask (1928): “MusiColour” (1953), a cybernetic machine providing an audio-visual response to a musician
  • 44 The Space Age • Robot art – Tom Shannon (1947): Squat (1966) -interactive sculpture that reacts to the touch of spectators – Edward Ihnatowicz (1926, Poland): The Senster (1969) - interactive sculpture that reacts “intelligently” to the presence of spectators
  • 45 The Space Age • Sculpture/ Junk assemblage – Louise Nevelson (1899) : collages of found objects “Sky Cathedral” (1958)
  • 46 The Space Age • Sculpture/ Junk assemblage – Louise Nevelson (1899) : but later glass and steel “Transparent Horizon” (1975)“Transparent Sculpture” (1967)
  • 47 The Space Age • Sculpture/ Junk assemblage – Zoltan Kemeny (1907, Switzerland) “Zephyr” (1964)
  • 48 The Space Age • Sculpture/ Junk assemblage – Richard Stankiewicz (1922, USA) “Untitled”“Playground” (1959)
  • 49 The Space Age • Sculpture/ Junk and Kinetic – Jean Tinguely (1925)
  • 50 The Space Age • Junk Sculpture – Arman (Armand Fernandez, 1928) “Sonny Liston” (1963) “Long-term Parking” (1982)
  • 51 The Space Age • Junk Sculpture – Eva Hesse (1936) “Aught” (1968)
  • 52 The Space Age • Environmental Sculpture – George Segal (1924): ordinary people in ordinary environments “At the Diner” (1966) “Embracing Couple” (1975) but also:
  • 53 The Space Age • Environmental Sculpture – Lucas Samaras (1936): mirrored rooms 1966
  • 54 The Space Age • Optical Art – Victor Vasarely (1906, France) – Yaacov Agam (1928, Israel) “Vonal-KSZ” (1968) “Double Metamorphosis II” (1964)
  • 55 The Space Age • Optical Art – Richard Anuszkiewicz (1930) “Red And Green Reversed” (1960) "Water From The Rock" (1962) “Between" (1966)
  • 56 The Space Age • Optical Art – Bridget Riley (1931, Britain) “Blaze 1” (1961) “Movement in Squares" (1961)
  • 57 The Space Age • Pop Art – Mainly in the USA – Object and subject: the consumer society, mass- produced goods – A by-product of the mass market – Fashion – Junk materials, debris – Style-less art – The artwork is not unique, it is mass produced – Influences: Dada (born as “neo-dada movement”) – A return to figurative art after the abstract era
  • 58 The Space Age • Pop Art/ Combines – Jasper Johns (1930) • Paintings that incorporate sculpture, numbers, flags, maps, and targets – Robert Rauschenberg (1925) • Paintings that incorporate found objects (not just fragments like in Schwitters and Picasso’s collages)
  • 59 The Space Age • Pop Art/ Combines – Jasper Johns – Robert Rauschenberg Rauschenberg: “Bed” (1955)Johns: “Target with Four Faces” (1955)
  • 60 The Space Age • Pop Art (Neo-Dada) – Roy Lichtenstein (1923): the comic strip – Andy Warhol (1928) Lichtenstein: “Whaam” (1955) Warhol: “25 Marilyns” (1962)
  • 61 The Space Age • Pop Art (Neo-Dada) – Claes Oldenburg (1926, Sweden) • Caustic satire “Model Typewriter” (1963) “Clothespin” (1976)
  • 62 The Space Age • Pop Art (Neo-Dada) – James Rosenquist (1933) “F111” (1965)
  • 63 The Space Age • Pop Art (Neo-Dada) – James Rosenquist (1933) "Leaky Ride for Dr Leakey" (1983)
  • 64 The Space Age • Pop Art (Neo-Dada) – Tom Wesselmann (1931) “Smoker 1” (1967) “Great American Nude #57” (1964) “Bedroom Painting #25” (1967)
  • 65 The Space Age • European Pop Art – Richard Hamilton (1922, Britain) “Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing?” (1956) 26x23cm collage
  • 66 The Space Age • European Pop Art – Richard Hamilton (1922, Britain) “Man Machine and Motion” (1955), large-scale labyrinthine photo installation
  • 67 The Space Age • European Pop Art – David Hockney (1937, Britain) – RB Kitaj (1932) – Michelangelo Pistoletto (1933, Italy) “Venus of Rags” (1967) “Portrait of Nick Wilder” (1966)
  • 68 The Space Age • Minimalist Art – Art is not self-expression – Simple geometric forms – Industrial materials – Minimizing the role of artistic inspiration and of artistic virtuosity – Artwork assembled rather than sculpted – The environment is part of the sculpture
  • 69 The Space Age • Minimalist Art – Influences • Marcel Duchamp's readymades • Malevich’s suprematism • Barnett Newman: “Abraham” (1949) • Josef Albers (1888): “Homage to the Square” series (1949-59) (1950) (1959) (1951)
  • 70 The Space Age • Minimalist Art – Influences • Alexander Liberman’s circle paintings (1950) • Robert Rauschenberg’s large white paintings (1952) • Ad Reinhardt’s black squares (1960) • Yves Klein (1928, France)’s blue monochromes
  • 71 The Space Age • Minimalist Art – Dan Flavin (1933): “Tatlin Monument” (1964) – Don Judd (1928)’s untitled boxes (1966) – Carl Andre (1932): “Lever” (1966) – Robert Morris (1931): columns (1961)
  • The Space Age • Minimalist Art – Agnes Martin (1912) – Anthony Caro (1924, Britain) “White Stone” (1965) “Midday” (1960)
  • 73 The Space Age • Minimalist Art – Frank Stella (1936)’s black paintings (1959) – Tony Smith (1912)’s black monoliths – Larry Bell (1939)’s glass boxes – John McCracken (1934)’s colored planks – Sol LeWitt (1928)’s grid constructions
  • 74 The Space Age • Minimalist Art – Frank Stella (1936) • Shaped Canvas • Printmaking as an art Irregular Polygon series (1967) “Quathlamba I” print (1968)
  • 75 The Space Age • Minimalist Art – Frank Stella (1936) “Medinat as-Salam I” print (1970)
  • 76 The Space Age • Post-Minimalist Art – Philip Guston (1913) • Return to figurative painting, albeit cartoonish • Self-analysis “The Studio” (1969) “Ladder” (1978)
  • 77 The Space Age • Happenings/ Performance Art • Gutai Bijutsu Kyokai (1954. Japan) – Outdoor installations, theatrical events and art-making events • Allan Kaprov (1927, USA): "Eighteen Happenings in Six Parts“ (1959), the first major “happening” – The visual arts must move towards theater – Influenced by John Cage • George Maciunas (1931, Europe and USA): Fluxus movement to bridge art and life (1962)
  • 78 The Space Age • Conceptual Art • Marcel Duchamp’s “Fountain” (1917) • Arman (Armand Fernandez, 1928)’s "Le Plein“ (1960, Paris): a truckload of garbage filling the art gallery
  • 79 The Space Age • Conceptual Art • Piero Manzoni (1933, Italy): “Merda d'Artista” (1961) - cans containing shit • Robert Morris: “Box with the Sound of its Own Making” (1961) • Fluxus (George Maciunas et al): “Piano Activities” (1962) - a piano performance that results in the destruction of the piano • Nam June Paik (1932, Korea): “Random Access” (1963) - chance (the audience decides which tapes to play)
  • 80 The Space Age • Conceptual Art – John Baldessari (1931) “Painting for Kubler” (1968)
  • 81 The Space Age • Conceptual Art – Cy Twombly (1928) • Chinese scrolls, graffiti and comic strips • Dedicated to Graecoroman themes “Narcissus” (1960)
  • 82 The Space Age • Conceptual Art – Cy Twombly “Discourses on Commodus” (1963)
  • 83 The Space Age • Conceptual Art – Robert Whitman (1935, USA) • Theater pieces that combine video and live actors "Two Holes of Water- 3" (1966) Videos and closed-circuit television projections of live performances projected from seven cars
  • 84 The Space Age • Body Art – Living sculptures of live human models – Yves Klein (1928, France) “Anthropometries of the Blue Period” (1960) “Leap into the Void” (1960)
  • 85 The Space Age • Performance/ Body Art – Joseph Beuys (1921, Germany) • Social sculpture “How to Explain Paintings to a Dead Hare” (1965) - a three-hour discussion between the artist and a dead hare
  • 86 The Space Age • Body Art – Yayoi Kusama (Japan, 1929)
  • 87 The Space Age • Body Art – Günter Brus (1938, Austria) "Kunst und Revolution" (1968): The artist urinates into a glass, cover his body in his own excrement, drinks his own urine, sings the Austrian National Anthem while masturbating.
  • 88 The Space Age • Body Art – Bruce Nauman (1941) “Self Portrait as a Fountain” (1966)
  • 89 The Space Age • Body Art – Carolee Schneemann (1939) • The artist’s naked body is an artwork “Eye Body” (1963): The artist covers her body in grease, chalk and plastic in a chaotic dilapidated loft
  • 90 The Space Age • Body Art – Carolee Schneemann (1939) “Meat Joy” (1964): eight naked people dancing and playing found objects
  • The Space Age • Painting – Gerhard Richter (1932) • Photo + painting “Helga Matura” (1966) “Strontium” (2005), a mural from digitally-manipulated photographs
  • The Space Age • Painting – Gerhard Richter (1932) • Neo-expressionism + abstract expressionism “Travel Agency” (1966)
  • The Space Age • Painting – Gerhard Richter (1932) • Neo-expressionism + abstract expressionism “December” (1989)“18 Oktober” (1988)
  • 94 The Space Age • Photography • Diane Arbus (1923, USA) “Child with Toy Hand Grenade in Central Park” (1962)
  • 95 The Space Age • Photography – Robert Frank (1924, USA) • Critical, un-elegant “The Americans” (1959)
  • 96 The Space Age • Photography – Duane Michals (1932, USA) • Inspired by Magritte and Buddhism • Photo sequences “The Young Girl’s Dreams” (1969)
  • 97 The Space Age • Photography – Don Hong-Oai (1929, China) • Imitation of traditional Chinese painting
  • 98 The Space Age • Photography – Don Hong-Oai
  • The Space Age • Industrial design/ Italy Corradino D'Ascanio (1891, Italy): Vespa motorcycle (1946) Gio Ponti (1891, Italy): La Pavoni coffee machine (1948) Giancarlo Piretti (1940, Italy): Plia folding chair (1969)
  • The Space Age • Industrial design/ Italy – Marco Zanuso (1916, Italy) “1102 Superautomatica” sewing machine for Borletti (1956) "Doney 14" compact portable fully transistor tv set (1962) Folding radio TS 502 “Radio Cubo” for Brionvega (1965) "Grillo" folding telephone for Siemens (1966) withdial and earpiece on the same unit
  • The Space Age • Industrial design/ Italy – Joe Colombo (1930, Italy): total functioning unit "Visiona Livingroom of the future" (1969)
  • The Space Age • Industrial design/ Germany – Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm/ Ulm School of Design (1953) – Max Bill (1908, Switzerland): inspired by Relativity and Quantum Theory Junghans clock (1957)
  • The Space Age • Industrial design/ Britain Charles Eames (1907, Britain) and Ray Eames (1912, Britain): Lounge chair and ottoman (1956)
  • The Space Age • Industrial design/ Scandinavia Hans Wegner (1914, Denmark): JH 501 round chair (1949) Arne Jacobsen (1902, Denmark): Ameise chair (1952) Poul Henningsen (1894, Denmark): PH5 hanging lamp (1957)
  • The Space Age • Design – Verner Panton (1926, Denmark): colorful home furnishings, untraditional synthetic materials (plastics, steel, foam rubber) “Fun Upholstered furniture (1963), Shell lamps (1964) Plastic one-piece cantilevered chair (1967)
  • The Space Age • Design – Verner Panton (1926, Denmark) "Phantasy Landscape" foam rubber room of womb-like organic shapes (1970)
  • 107 The Space Age • Graphic Design – Switzerland • Max Miedinger designs Neue Haas Grotesk font, later renamed Helvetica • Mathematical grids are the most natural vehicle to convey information • Max Bill (1908) • Armin Hofmann (1920) (1945) 1958
  • 108 The Space Age • Graphic Design – Italy • Giovanni Pintori (1912) • Armando Testa (1917) 1956 1955
  • 109 The Space Age • Graphic Design – Italian posters Anselmo Ballester (1897): "Salome" (1953) Alfredo Capitani (1895): "Gilda" (1946) Gino Boccasile (1901): "Paglieri” (1950)
  • 110 The Space Age • Graphic Design – New York • Paul Rand (1914): visual metaphors • Cipe Pineles (1910): color and pattern • The Doyle Dane Bernbach advertising agency: text and image are separated but interdependent • Otto Storch (1913) (1946) (1949) (1960) (1956)
  • 111 The Space Age • Graphic Design/ New York • Will Burtin (1908, Germany): information graphics – Explaining science visually The brain (1954) (1956) Antiobiotics chart (1951)
  • 112 The Space Age • Graphic Design/ New York • Will Burtin: and beyond graphics Large-scale model of “The Human Cell” (1958) Travelling exhibition “Genes in Action” (1967) (1956)
  • 113 The Space Age • Graphic Design – New York • Henry Wolf (1925) • Herb Lubalin (1918): the Swiss grid • George Lois (1931) • Push Pin Studios (1954): revisiting art history of all periods • Harvey Kurtzman (1924) (1962)(1965) (1969) (1967, by Milton Glaser) (1960)
  • 114 The Space Age • Graphic Design – Japan: modernism + tradition • Yusaku Kamekura (1915) (1950s)
  • 115 The Space Age • Graphic Design – Japan • Kazumasa Nagai (1929) (1968) (1967) (1965)
  • 116 The Space Age • Graphic Design – Japan • Kazumasa Nagai (1929) (1974) (1976) (1976)
  • 117 The Space Age • Graphic Design – Japan • Masuda Tadashi (1922) • Ikko Tanaka (1930) (1959) (1961) (1965) (1981)
  • 118 The Space Age • Graphic Design – Japan • Tadanori Yokoo (1936, Japan) – Dada and comic strips (1966)
  • 119 The Space Age • Graphic Design – Europe • Robert Massin (1925, France) – Futurist art and comic strips • Wim Crouwel (1928, Holland) • Steff Geissbuhler (1942, Switzerland) (1964) (1968) (1965)
  • 120 The Space Age • Graphic Design – 1960s: The competition of tv advertising combined with increased paper, ink and postage costs forces magazines to shrink size
  • 121 The Space Age • Graphic Design – Poster craze because of social activism and psychedelia • Victor Moscoso (1936) • Peter Max Finkelstein (1937) • Wes Wilson (1937)
  • 122 The Space Age • Art & Craft/ Ceramists – San Francisco school • Peter Voulkos (1924) • Robert Arneson (1930) • Viola Frey (1933) Arneson: “No Pain” (1991) Voulkos: "Firestone" (1965) “Assassination of a Famous Nut Artist” (1971)
  • 123 The Space Age • Paper collage – Romare Bearden (1911) “Blue Shade” (1972) “Patchwork Quilt” (1970)
  • 124 The Space Age • Paper collage – Jess Collins (1923, USA): homosexual art “The Mouse’s Tale” (1954)
  • 125 The Space Age • Fashion – Cristobal Balenciaga (1895) – Emilio Pucci (1914) – Pierre Cardin (1922) – Mary Quant (1934) – Yves Saint Laurent (1936)
  • 126 The Space Age • Fashion – Hubert de Givenchy (1927): the sack dress
  • 127 The Space Age • Video art – Stan VanDerBeek (1927) •Multiple floating images replacing one-dimensional film projection •Influenced by Buckminster Fuller’s spheres •Fusion of information and body "The Movie Drome" (1963), an immersive environment where the viewer is bombarded by a constant stream of moving images
  • 128 The Space Age • Video art – Nam June Paik (1932, Korea) "TV Clock" (1989), 24 manipulated color televisions "Fin de Siècle" (1989), 201 monitors "Participation TV“ (1963), an interactive video installation
  • 129 The Space Age • Video art – Allan Kaprow (1927, USA) “Hello“ (1969), an interactive video happening
  • 130 The Space Age • Video art – Scott Bartlett (1943) – John Whitney (1917) Bartlett: “OffOn” (1967) Whitney: “Permutations” (1967), computer filmmaking
  • 131 The Space Age • Computer art – John Whitney (1917) – Vera Molnar (1924) – Michael Noll (1939) Whitney (1966) Noll (1964) Molnar (1968)
  • The Space Age • Computer art – Charles Csuri (1922) (1968) “Scribbles” (2005) (1963)
  • 133 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – Juan O'Gorman (1905, Mexico): Biblioteca of the Universidad Nacional, Mexico City (1950) – Lev Rudnev (1885, Russia): Lomonosov University (1953, Moscow) – Emery Roth (1871, USA): Pan-Am building, New York (1963) – Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886, Germany): Seagram Building, New York (1954-57) – Pierluigi Nervi (1891): St Mary's Cathedral, San Francisco (1971)
  • 134 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – Juan O'Gorman – Lev Rudnev – Emery Roth – Ludwig Mies van der Rohe – Pierluigi Nervi (1891) San Francisco Mexico Moscow
  • 135 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – Alvar Aalto (1898): Finlandia Hall (1967) – Timo & Tuomo Suomalainen: Temppeliauko Church, Helsinki (1969) – Eero Saarinen (1910, Finland): TWA terminal, New York (1962) Temppeliauko TWA
  • 136 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – Hans Scharoun (1893): Philharmonie, Berlin (1956) – Arne Jacobsen (1902): Royal SAS Hotel, Copenhagen (1960) – Marcel Breuer (1902): St John’s Abbey, Minnesota (1953-63)
  • 137 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – Louis Kahn (1901, USA): • Salk Institute, La Jolla, San Diego (1959) • National Assembly, Dhaka, Bangladesh (1974)
  • 138 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – Philip Johnson (1906) Lipstick Building, New York (1986) Lever House (1951) AT&T, New York (1984) Crystal cathedral, Los Angeles (1980) Torres Puerta de Europa, Madrid (1996)
  • 139 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – Oscar Niemeyer (1907) Chapel of Sao Francisco, Pampulha (1946) Congress, Brasilia (1958) Cathedral, Brasilia (1970) Museum of Contemporary Art, Niteroi (1996)
  • 140 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – Frederick Gibberd (1908): Cathedral of Christ the King, Liverpool (1967) – Gordon Bunshaft (1909): National Commercial Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (1984) – William Pereira (1909): Transamerica Pyramid, San Francisco (1973) – William Pereira (1909): Geisel Library, San Diego (1973) – Felix Candela (1910): Church of the Miraculous Virgin, Mexico (1955)
  • 141 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture Jeddah San Francisco San Diego Mexico Liverpool
  • 142 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – John Lautner (USA, 1911): Chemosphere House, Los Angeles (1960) – Hugh Stubbins (1912) • Congress Hall, Berlin (1958) • Landmark Tower, Yokohama (1993)
  • 143 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – Bertrand Goldberg (1913) • Marina City, Chicago (1967) • Prentice Women's Hospital, Chicago (1975) – Wallace Harrison: Met Opera, New York (1966) The Met
  • 144 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – Paul Rudolph (1919, Britain): • Milam Residence (1961) • Concourse, Singapore (1994) • Lippo, Hong Kong (1987)
  • 145 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – Kenzo Tange (1913) • Stadium, Tokyo (1964) • Cathedral, Tokyo (1965) • City Hall, Tokyo (1991) • UOB1, Singapore (1992)
  • 146 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – Ieoh Ming Pei (1917, China) • NCAI, Boulder (1967) • Library Tower, Los Angeles (1990) • Fountain Place, Dallas (1986)
  • 147 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – John Portman (1924) Embarcadero Center, San Francisco (1968) Bonaventure Hotel, Los Angeles (1986) Tomorrow Square, Shangai (2003)
  • 148 The Space Age • Modernist Architecture – Moshe Safdie (1938, Canada): Habitat Housing, Montreal (1967)
  • 149 The Space Age • Visionary Architecture – Constant Nieuwenhuys (1920, Holland) • “New Babylon” (1959): architectural models, collages, drawings and texts illustrating a utopian city
  • 150 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Vittorio DeSica "Bicycle Thieves" (1948) "Miracle in Milan" (1951) "Umberto D" (1955)
  • 151 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Robert Siodmak: "Spiral Staircase" (1946) – William Wyler: "The Best Years of Our Lives" (1946) – John Huston: "The African Queen" (1951) – John Huston: "The Misfits" (1961)
  • 152 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – John Huston (1906, USA) “Treasure Of The Sierra Madre” (1947) "The African Queen" (1951) "The Misfits" (1961) “Judge Roy Bean” (1972)
  • 153 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Michael Powell “Black Narcissus” (1947) "Red Shoes" (1948) "Peeping Tom" (1960)
  • 154 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Mario Monicelli – Jacques Tati "Guards and Thieves" (1951) "Big Deal on Madonna Street" (1958) “My Uncle" (1958) "Playtime" (1967)
  • 155 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Akira Kurosawa (1910, Japan) "Rashomon" (1950) "To live" (1952) "The Seven Samurai" (1954)
  • 156 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Akira Kurosawa (1910, Japan) "Throne of Blood" (1957) "Hidden Fortress" (1958) "Yojimbo" (1961)
  • 157 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Kenji Mizoguchi (1898, Japan) "Life of Oharu" (1952) "Sansho the Bailiff" (1954)
  • 158 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Satyajit Ray: “Pather Panchali” (1955) – Ritwik Ghatak: "Cloud Capped Star“ (1960)
  • 159 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Luis Bunuel (1900, Spain) “El” (1953) "Exterminating Angel” (1962) "Viridiana” (1961)
  • 160 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Luis Bunuel "Simon of the Desert” (1966) "Belle de Jour" (1967) “The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie” (1972) “The Phantom of Liberty” (1974)
  • The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Ingmar Bergman (1918, Sweden) "Sawdust and Tinsel" (1953) "Seventh Seal" (1956)
  • 162 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Ingmar Bergman "Wild Strawberries" (1957) "Magician" (1957) 162
  • 163 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Ingmar Bergman "Persona" (1966) "Hour of the Wolf" (1967) “Cries And Whispers” (1973)
  • 164 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Elia Kazan (1909, USA) "On The Waterfront" (1954) “Baby Doll” (1956) "A Face in the Crowd" (1957)
  • 165 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Federico Fellini (1920, Italy) “La Strada" (1954) "Nights of Cabiria" (1957) "8 1/2" (1963)
  • 166 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Federico Fellini "La Dolce Vita" (1960)
  • 167 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Michelangelo Antonioni (1912, Italy) “The Adventure" (1959) “The Eclipse" (1962) "Blow-Up" (1966)
  • 168 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Robert Aldrich (1918, USA) "Hush Hush Sweet Charlotte" (1965) "Kiss Me Deadly" (1955) "Whatever Happened to Baby Jane" (1962) "Emperor of the North" (1973)
  • 169 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Robert Aldrich (1918, USA) "Emperor of the North" (1973)
  • 170 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Stanley Kubrick (1928, USA) "The Killing" (1956) "Dr. Strangelove" (1964)
  • 171 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Stanley Kubrick "2001 A Space Odyssey" (1968)
  • 172 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Stanley Kubrick/ book adaptations “Lolita" (1962) "A Clockwork Orange” (1971) “The Shining” (1980)
  • 173 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Don Siegel (1912, USA) "Invasion of the Body Snatchers" (1956) "Dirty Harry" (1971) "Charley Varrick" (1973)
  • 174 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – John Cassavetes "Faces" (1968) "A Woman Under the Influence" (1974) "The Opening Night" (1977)
  • 175 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Sam Peckinpah (1925, USA) "The Wild Bunch" (1969) "The Getaway" (1972) "Convoy" (1978)
  • 176 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Henri Clouzot: "Wages of Fear" (1953) – Jean-Pierre Melville: “Le Samour” (1967) – Robert Bresson: “Pickpocket” (1959)
  • 177 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Jean-Luc Godard (1930, France) "Alphaville” (1965) "Breathless" (1959) "Weekend” (1968) "Pierrot le Fou" (1965)
  • 178 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Francois Truffaut (1932, France) "The 400 Blows" (1959) "Jules et Jim" (1961) “The Bride Wore Black” (1968) “Story Of Adele H”. (1975)
  • 179 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Alain Resnais: "Last Year at Marienbad" (1961)
  • 180 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Georges Franju: "Eyes Without a Face" (1959) – Agnes Varda: "Cleo de 5 a` 7" (1962) – Chris Marker: "La Jetee" (1962) – Eric Rohmer: "My Night at Maud's" (1969)
  • 181 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Andrei Tarkovsky (1932, Russia) "Ivan's Childhood" (1962) "Mirror" (1974)
  • 182 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Andrei Tarkovsky "Sacrifice" (1986) "Nostalgia" (1983) “Stalker” (1979)
  • 183 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Roman Polanski (1933, Poland) "Cul de Sac" (1966) "Knife in the Water" (1962) "Repulsion" (1965)
  • 184 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Roman Polanski (1933, Poland) "Rosemary's Baby" (1968) "Chinatown" (1974) "The Tenant" (1976)
  • 185 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Sergio Leone (1929, Italy) "Fistful of Dollars" (1964) "The Good the Bad and the Ugly" (1966)
  • 186 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Sergio Leone (1929, Italy) "Once Upon a Time" (1968)
  • 187 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Blake Edwards (1922, USA) "Pink Panther" (1964) "The Great Race" (1965) "Victor/Victoria" (1982)
  • 188 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Richard Lester: "Petulia" (1968) – Ken Loach: “Kes” (1969) – Lindsey Anderson: “If” (1968) – John Schlesinger: “Midnight Cowboy” (1969)
  • 189 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – Miklos Jancso (Hungary) – Dusan Makavejev (1932, Serbia) "Sweet Movie" (1974) "Silence and Cry" (1967) “Love Affair" (1967)
  • 190 The Space Age • Cinema 1946-68 – John Frankenheimer: "The Manchurian Candidate" (1962) – George Romero: "Night of the Living Dead" (1968) – Franklin Schaffner: "Planet of the Apes" (1968) – Arthur Penn: "Bonnie And Clyde" (1967) – Mike Nichols: "The Graduate" (1967)
  • The Computer Age • Patronage of the arts – Middle Ages and Renaissance: The Church – Baroque: The Monarchy – 20th Century: The art museum, the art collector, the art gallery
  • The Computer Age • Painting – Leon Golub (1922) • Sociopolitical expressionism • Mexican murales “Napalm I” (1969) “Mercenaries I” (1976)
  • The Computer Age • Painting – Leon Golub “Vietnam II” (1973) “Interrogation III” (1981)
  • The Computer Age • Painting – Howard Hodgkin (1932, Britain) • Semi-abstract and semi-representational (a` la Matisse) “Dinner at West Hill” (1966) “Goodbye to the Bay of Naples” (1982)
  • The Computer Age • Painting – Brice Marden (1938, USA) • Minimalism + abstract expressionism “Cold Mountain #6” (1991)
  • The Computer Age • 3D Painting – Patrick Hughes (1939, Britain)
  • The Computer Age • Collage – Miriam Shapiro (1923, USA) • Feminist Art • “Femmages“: collages assembled from fabrics "Heartfelt" (1979) "Portrait of Frida Kahlo" (1988)
  • The Computer Age • Collage – Gugger Petter (1949, Denmark) • Optical illusions with collages of newspaper pages
  • The Computer Age • Quilting – Faith Ringgold (1930, USA) • Painted story quilts that combine painting, quilted fabric and storytelling "Bitter Nest #2: Harlem Renaissance Party" (1988) "The Bitter Nest, Part 1:Love in the School Yard" (1987)
  • The Computer Age • Quilting – Faith Ringgold (1930, USA) "Groovin High " (1996) "Cotton Fields, Sunflowers, Blackbirds and Quilting Bees" (1997)
  • The Computer Age • Painting – Elizabeth Murray (1940, USA) • Shaped canvas “The Hat Makes the Woman” (1985) Left to right: “Don't Be Cruel” (1986), “Beam” (1982), “More Than You Know” (1983)
  • The Computer Age • Painting/ Neo-expressionism – Georg Baselitz (1938, Germany) • Metaphorical expressionism + abstract expressionism • Inverted motifs “The Big Night Down The Drain” (1963) “Dinner in Dresden” (1982)
  • The Computer Age • Painting/ Neo-expressionism – Anselm Kiefer (1945, Germany) • Tragedies of history + Occult esoteric themes “To the Unknown Painter” (1983) “Osiris and Isis” (1987)
  • The Computer Age • Painting – Anselm Kiefer “The Milky Way” (1987) “Seraphim” (1984) “Lot’s Wife” (1989)
  • The Computer Age • Painting/ Neo-expressionism – Francesco Clemente (1952, Italy) “Midnight Sun II" (1982)
  • The Computer Age • Painting/ Neo-expressionism – Julian Schnabel (1951, USA) “Pre-history: Glory, Honor, Privilege and Poverty” (1981) “Humanity Asleep” (1982)
  • The Computer Age • Post-modernism – Charles Jencks: “The Language of Post-Modern Architecture” (1977) – Representation as reality – No art can be original – All art is quotation – Art for the age of mass media
  • The Computer Age • Post-modernism – Fernando Botero (1932, Colombia) – Sigmar Polke (1941, Germany) – Eric Fischl (1948) – David Salle (1952): soft porn – Mark Tansey (1949) – Peter Halley (1953): Neo-Geometric Conceptualism ("Neo-geo”) – Philip Taaffe (1955): neo-abstraction
  • The Computer Age • Post-modernism – Fernando Botero (1932, Colombia) "Self-portrait With Louis Xiv" (1973) "Los Musicos/ Ball In Colombia" (1980)
  • The Computer Age • Painting/ Post-modernism – Sigmar Polke (1941, Germany) • Satirical “Tree House” (1976) “New Guinea” (1976)
  • The Computer Age • Painting/ Post-modernism – Sigmar Polke (1941, Germany) • Satirical “Watchtower III” (1985)“Das Haus von Mondrian” (1994)
  • The Computer Age • Painting/ Post-modernism – Sigmar Polke (1941, Germany) • Remix of photography “Triptych” (2002)
  • The Computer Age • Post-modernism – Eric Fischl (1948, USA): suburban life “Bad Boy” (1982) “A Funeral” (1980)
  • The Computer Age • Post-modernism – Mark Tansey (1949, USA) • Art and Epistemology • Representational and even nostalgic art "Forward Retreat" (1986)
  • The Computer Age • Post-modernism – Mark Tansey (1949, USA) “Triumph of the New York School" (1984)
  • The Computer Age • Post-modernism – Peter Halley (1953) • The age of the simulacrum • Geometry filled with meaning (Neo-geo) • Abstract painting to be interpreted as a sign of contemporary society “Prison & Cell with Smokestack & Conduit" (1985) “Two Cells with Conduit and Under- Ground Chamber" (1983)
  • The Computer Age • Post-modernism – Philip Taaffe (1955) • Minimalism, Neo-geo, Op-art “Big Iris" (1986) “Four Quad Cinema" (1986)
  • The Computer Age • New Image (1980s) – Susan Rothenberg (1945) – Jonathan Borofsky (1942) – Neil Jenney (1945) – Louisa Chase (1951) – Robert Longo (1953) – Jennifer Bartlett (1941) – Sandro Chia (1946) – Robert Moskowitz (1935) – Joel Shapiro (1941) - sculptor – Donald Sultan (1951) – Pat Steir (1940)
  • The Computer Age • New Image – Robert Longo (1953): apocalyptic pop ”Men in the Cities” (1979) ”Men in the Cities” (1990)
  • The Computer Age • Photorealism – Richard Estes (1936) – Ralph Goings (1928) – Chuck Close (1940) – Charles Bell (1935) – Audrey Flack (1931) – Don Eddy (1944) – Robert Bechtle (1932) – Stone Roberts (1951)
  • The Computer Age • Photorealism – Richard Estes “Gordon’s Gin” (1968) “Telephone Booths” (1968) “Central Savings New York City” (1970)
  • The Computer Age • Photorealism – Estes “Prescriptions Filled” (1983) “Hotel Empire” (1987)
  • The Computer Age • Photorealism – Ralph Goings “Ralph's Diner” (1981) “Airstream” (1970)
  • The Computer Age • Photorealism – Chuck Close “Mark” (1979)
  • The Computer Age • Photorealism – Audrey Flack “Marilyn Vanitas” (1977)
  • The Computer Age • Photorealism – Stone Roberts “The Conversation” (1985) “Union Square Market” (2006)
  • The Computer Age • Hyper-realism – Gottfried Helnwein (1948, Austria)
  • The Computer Age • Hyper-realism – Gottfried Helnwein (1948, Austria)
  • The Computer Age • Photomontage – Gilbert Proesch (1943) & George Passmore (1942, Britain) “Death After Life” (1984), 13.7m long “Black Church Face” (1980)
  • The Computer Age • Photography – Abbas Kiarostami “Roads” (1989) “Trees in Snow” (2005)
  • The Computer Age • Photography – Barbara Kruger (1945) • Appropriation Art: found photographs + didactic texts “Your Body is a Battleground" (1989) “You are not Yourself" (1981)
  • The Computer Age • Photography/ Computational – Nancy Burson (1948, USA) – Lillian Schwartz (1927, USA) – Diane Fenster (1948, USA) Burson: “Beauty Composite II" (1982), morphing the faces of several movie stars Schwartz: “Mona Leo" (1987) Fenster: “Drowned Phoenician Sailor”
  • The Computer Age • Photography/ Photomontage – Lynn Hershman (1950, USA) “Phantom Limb" (1980-90)
  • The Computer Age • Photography – Yasumasa Morimura (1951) • Appropriation Art • A drag queen who mocks art history “Daughter of Art History" (1989) “Self-Portrait After Elizabeth Taylor 1" (1996) “Portrait" (1990)
  • The Computer Age • Photography – Yasumasa Morimura “A Requiem - Nebula Of Lev - 1932" (2007) “Exchange of Devouring" (2004) “An Inner Dialogue with Frida Kahlo" (2001)
  • The Computer Age • Photography – Sherrie Levine (1947) • Appropriation Art "After Walker Evans" (1981), photograph of a reproduction of Depression-era photographs by Walker Evans
  • The Computer Age • Photography – Louise Lawler (1947, USA) “Salon Hodler” (1993)
  • The Computer Age • Photography – Cindy Sherman (1954, USA) • Mythology of the feminine “Complete Untitled Film Stills” (1980)
  • The Computer Age • Industrial Design/ Automotive – Robert Bourke (1916, USA): Studebaker Starlight (1947) – Sergio Pininfarina (1926, Italy): Giulietta Spider (1955) – Alec Issigonis (1906, Britain): Morris Minor (1948) – Pierre-Jules Boulanger (1885, France): Citroen 2CV (1948) – Flaminio Bertoni (1903, Italy): Citroen DS (1955) – Frank Hershey (1907, USA): Ford Thunderbird (1955) – Dante Giacosa (1905, Italy): Fiat Nuova 500 (1957) – Larry Shinoda (1930, USA): Corvette Stingray (1963) – John DeLorean (1925, USA): Pontiac GTO (1964)
  • The Computer Age • Design/ Germany – 1966: Werner Nehls "The Sacred Cows of Functionalism Must Be Sacrificed“ (the rational and functionalist understanding of design is completely outdated) – 1970: International Design Center in Berlin – 1976: Documenta 6 presents the Utopian Design Richard Sapper (1932, Germany): Tizio Lamp (1972)
  • The Computer Age • Design/ Italy – Alessi's kitchenware ("form over function") Philippe Starck's lemon squeezer for Alessi (1990) Richard Sapper's kettle 9091 for Alessi (1982)
  • The Computer Age • Design – Computers – Furniture Mario Bellini (1935, Italy): Divisuma 18 for Olivetti (1973) Terry Oyama (1946): Macintosh (1984) Ron Arad (1951, Israel): Well-Tempered Chair (1986)
  • The Computer Age • Post-modernist design/ Italian Radical Movement – Superarchitettura exhibition (1966, Italy): "Superarchitettura is the architecture of superproduction, superconsumption, superinduction to consume, the supermarket, the superman, super gas" – Ettore Sottsass (1917, Italy) – Alessandro Guerriero's Studio Alchimia (1976): cheap unconventional materials, bright colors, asymmetrical shapes, ancient motives, kitsch decoration – Sottsass' Memphis collective (1981)
  • The Computer Age • Post-modernist design/ Italian Radical Movement Ettore Sottsass: Olivetti Valentine (1969) Ettore Sottsass: Carlton cabinet (1981) Andrea Branzi (1938, Italy): "Stazione Sideboard"
  • The Computer Age • Post-modernist design/ Italian Radical Movement – Matteo Thun (1952, Italy) Nefertiti ceramic piece (1981) Laurum marinus, teapot and coffeepot (1982)
  • The Computer Age • Graphic Design – Gunter Rambow (1938, Germany) • Little textual information but symbolic and thought-provoking – Takenobu Igarashi (1944, Japan) • Architectural alphabet (1976)
  • The Computer Age • Graphic Design – Lynda Benglis (1941, USA) • Magazine ads satirizing pin-up girls and movie stars (1974)
  • The Computer Age • Graphic Design – Julius Friedman (1943, USA) – Michael Vanderbyl (1947, USA) – Paula Scher (1948, USA) "Fresh Paint" (1978 "Fresh Paint" (1978 (1979) A remix of Matter’s poster (1984)
  • The Computer Age • Graphic Design – Anthon Beeke (1940, Holland) – Gert Dumbar (1940, Holland) (1995)
  • The Computer Age • Graphic Design/ Magazines – Neville Brody (1957, Britain) – Tibor Kalman (1949, USA) – David Carson (1954, USA) : deconstruction (chaotic abstract style) – Bart Nagel (1954): cyberdelic aesthetic (The Face, 1985) (Raygun, 1992) (Colors, 1991) (Mondo 2000, 1989)
  • The Computer Age • Graphic Design/ Digital Design – The Macintosh (1984): desktop publishing – Emigre (1984) first major magazine to use the Macintosh – April Greiman (1948, USA): computer-aided design (1986)
  • The Computer Age • Graphic Design/ Digital Design – Katherine McCoy (1945) – Edward Fella (1938) (1989) (1987)
  • The Computer Age • Graphic Design/ Digital Design – Naoyuki Kato (1952, Japan) – Takuro Kamiya (???, Japan) (1980) (1981)
  • The Computer Age • Graffiti – 1967: Darryl McCray, or "Cornbread", creates graffiti art in Philadelphia – 1971: Michael Tracy, or "Tracy 168", creates the "wild style" of graffiti art painting trains in the New York subway
  • The Computer Age • Graffiti-inspired – Keith Haring (1958) (1982) (1983) (1981)
  • The Computer Age • Graffiti-inspired – Jean-Michel Basquiat (1960) “Fishing” (1981) “Skull” (1981)
  • The Computer Age • Cartoon-inspired – Kenny Scharf (1958, USA) “When the Worlds Collide” (1984)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/ Hyper-realism – Duane Hanson (1925) “Tourists” (1970) “Self-Portrait with Model” (1979)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture – Arnaldo Pomodoro (1926, Italy) – Pietro Consagra (1920, Italy) "Sphere #2" (1993) “Star" (1981)
  • The Computer Age • Light & Sound (California, 1971) – Peter Alexander – Larry Bell – Robert Irwin – John McCracken – Craig Kauffman – Ron Cooper – Bruce Nauman – Maria Nordman – James Turrell – DeWain Valentine
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture – De Wain Valentine (1936, USA): glass, minimalism "Column Mauve" (1968) “Gray Column” (1976)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture – Bruce Beasley (1939, USA) "Aristus" (1982)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture – Martin Puryear (1941) “Verge” (1987)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture – Al Farrow (1943) “Bombed Mosque” (2010)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture – Robert Gober (1954) • Everyday domestic objects and body parts • Catholic symbolism (1987)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Junk – Marc di Suvero (1933) – Marisol (1930)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/ Junk – Judy Pfaff (1946, USA) • Three-dimensional abstract expressionism
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture – Judy Pfaff (1946, USA) • Collage, junk, temporary installations “NYC BQE” (1987)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/ Junk – Donald Lipski (1947, USA): Duchamp’s readymades “Starry Night” (1994) “Schram Pile” (1986)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/ Art, Craft and Mass production – Jeff Koons (1955) • Kitch, consumer society, media-saturated society • Influences: Duchamp’s readymades, Warhol’s pop art “Three Ball Total Equilibrium Tank” (1985) “Rabbit” (1986)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Site Sculpture – Magdalena Abakanowicz (1930, Poland) “Backs” (Calgary, 1980) “Katarsis” (Pistoia, 1985)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Site Sculpture – Magdalena Abakanowicz (1930) “Agora” (Chicago, 2006)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Site Sculpture – Mauro Staccioli (1937, Italy) “Staccioli Grove” (Woodside, 1991)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Site Sculpture – David Nash (1945, Britain) "Charred Forms" (1989, Woodside)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Site Sculpture – Roland Mayer (1954, Germany) "Dialog" (2004, Woodside)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Site Sculpture – John Roloff (1947) "Vanishing Ship" (1989, Woodside)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Site Sculpture – Richard Serra (1939) “Tilted Arc” (New York, 1981) “The Matter of Time” (Bilbao Guggenheim, 2005)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Site Sculpture – Isamu Noguchi (1904): "Dodge Fountain in Detroit's Hart Plaza" (1978) – Louise Nevelson (1899): "Shadows and Flags" (1978) – David Hammons (1943): “Higher Goals” (1986)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Earthwork – Robert Smithson (1938) “Spiral Jetty” (1970)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Earthwork – Walter DeMaria (1935) “Lightning Field” (1977), 400 stainless steel posts arranged in a vast grid in the desert that lights up during thunder storms
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Earthwork – Nancy Holt (1938): “Stone Enclosure” (Bellingham, 1978) – Nancy Graves (1940): “Kariatae” (1981) – Michael Heizer (1944): “Double Negative” (1970) “Kariatae” “Stone Enclosure” (Bellingham, 1978)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Site Sculpture – James Turrell (1943): projection pieces and skyspaces “Acrored” (1968) “Reatropink” (1968)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Site Sculpture – James Turrell: skyspaces “Three Gems” (2005)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture/Sound Sculpture – Tom Marioni's “Piss Piece” (1970) – Paul Kos’s “The Sound of Ice Melting” (1970)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture – Shigeo Toya (1947, Japan) • Minimal baroque (1991)“Woods” (1987)
  • The Computer Age • Sculpture – Anish Kapoor (1954, Britain) “Cloud Gate”, Chicago
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – The meaning of art lies in the artist’s intention, not in the actual artwork – Art can be made out of anything and by anybody – The real essence of art is language and ideas – The visual experience is secondary – The artist can even not know what the artwork will look like (“what will happen will happen” philosophy) – Gutai Bijutsu Kyokai (1954) and Allan Kaprov’s happenings (1958) – Very international – Peak: 1968-74
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Robert Barry – Douglas Huebler – Joseph Kosuth – Sol LeWitt (1928) – Lawrence Weiner – Mel Bochner – Edward Ruscha (1937)
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Hans Haacke (1936) • Politically aware art “Shapolsky et al. Manhattan Real Estate Holdings, A Real Time Social System” (1971)
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Judy Chicago (1939) • Feminist art “The Dinner Party” (1979, Brooklyn Museum) Each place setting is dedicated to one of 39 famous women. The tile floor is inscribed with the names of 999 notable women.
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Christo Javachef (1935) • 1958: Wrapping objects • 1962: Oil drums block traffic in Paris • 1964: First proposal to wrap New York skyscrapers • 1968: Wrapping of the Kunsthalle in Bern • 1969: Wrapping of a mile of coastline in Australia • 1976: Running Fence (40 km fence in California) • 1983: Wrapping of Florida islands • 1995: Wrapping of the Reichstag in Berlin
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Christo
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Ilya Kabakov (1933, Russia) • Albums of everyday life • Fictitious biographies “The Man Who Flew Into Space From His Apartment” (1984): the room from which an astronaut took off
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Krzysztof Wodiczko (1943, Poland) • Public projections "Homeless Projections" (1987)
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Cildo Meireles (1948, Brazil) "Mission/Missions - How to Build Cathedrals” (1987) for communion wafers, 600000 coins and large illuminated hanging animal bones
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Cildo Meireles (1948, Brazil) “Fontes” (1992) for 6000 measuring rulers, 1000 clocks, and 500000 vinyl numbers
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Jenny Holzer (1950) • Large-scale public installations • Visible media such as street posters and LED signs “Truism” (1979)
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Ann Hamilton (1956) “Indigo Blue” (1991): thousands of neatly folded work clothes and a live female attendant who erases text from history books (a tribute to both the men who worked in those clothes and to the women who washed them and folded them)
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Damien Hirst (1965, Britain) • Death “A Thousand Years” (1990), with cow’s head, blood, flies, maggots “Mother and Child Divided” (1993), a cow and body parts of a calf
  • 300 The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Huang Yong Ping (1954, China) • Dadaism + Buddhism + Taoism “Four Paintings Created according to Random Instructions” (1985): a set of roulette wheels marked with I Ching diagrams and other instructions generate direct the actions of the artist. “Reptiles” (1989): washing machines and shredded communist newspapers
  • 301 The Computer Age • Conceptual Art – Huang Yong Ping (1954, China) “Very Hungry God” (1989)“Tower Snake” (2009)
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art/ Body Art – Marina Abramovic (1946, Yugoslavia) “Rhythm 0” (1974): “There are 72 objects on the table that one can use on me as desired. I am the object. During this period I take full responsibility’” “Rhythm 10” (1973) “Imponderabilia” (1977)
  • The Computer Age • Conceptual Art/ Body Art – Vito Acconci (1940): “Seedbed” (1972) in which the artist masturbates while fantasizing about the audience and the audience can hear him – Chris Burden (1946): “Shoot” (1971) in which the artist has himself shot in the arm
  • The Computer Age • Body Art – Ana Mandieta (1948) "Tree of Life" series (1977)
  • The Computer Age • Body Art – Rebecca Horn (1944, Germany) “Einhorn” (1972)
  • The Computer Age • Body Art – Karen Finley (1956) "We Keep Our Victims Ready” (1989): The artist covers her naked body with chocolate, candy hearts, bean sprouts and tinsel, all symbolizing a way that women are treated by society.
  • The Computer Age • Interactive Art – Myron Krueger (1942, USA) “Videoplace” (1975): Audience members can remotely interact with the video video projections of others (full- body participation, tele-participation, virtual reality but no computer yet)
  • The Computer Age • Video and Computer Art – Lillian Schwartz (1927, USA) Schwarz: “Pixillation” (1970)
  • The Computer Age • Video Art – Peter Campus (1937) – Gerry Schum (1938, Germany) – David Hall (1937, Britain) Hall: “TV Interruptions" (1971) Schum: “Identifications” (1970) Campus: “Three Transitions" (1973)
  • The Computer Age • Video Art – Dan Graham (1942) – Joan Jonas (1936) – Terry Fox (1943): “Children's Tapes” (1974) Jonas: “Vertical Roll" (1972) Graham: “Present Continuous Past(s)" (1974)
  • The Computer Age • Video Art – Paul McCarthy (1945) – Dara Birnbaum (1946) Birnbaum: “Technology/Transformation: Wonder Woman" (1979) “Black and White Tapes” (1972)
  • The Computer Age • Video Art – Gary Hill (1951. USA) "Incidence of Catastrophe" (1988) Hill: “Soundings” (1979) “HanD HearD” (1996)
  • The Computer Age • Video Art – Bill Viola (1951) “The Veiling” (1995) “Pneuma" (1994) “Chott-el-Djerid" (1979)
  • The Computer Age • Video Art – Bill Viola (1951) “The Crossing” (1996) “Five Angels For The New Millennium" (2001) “Passions" (2003)
  • The Computer Age • Video Art – Ana Mandieta (1948, USA) Blood and Feathers #2 (1974): The artist pours animal blood over herself, rolls onto white chicken feathers, then stands with arms outstretched like wings, on the riverbank.
  • The Computer Age • Video Art – Grahame Weinbren (1947, South Africa) “Sonata” (1991), interactive narrative video that blends two stories set in different ages
  • The Computer Age • Computer Art – The cultural debate • Vannevar Bush: “As We May” (1945) • George Orwell: Big Brother (1948) • Norbert Wiener: “Cybernetics” (1948) • John von Neumann: "The general and logical theory of automata" (1948) • Alan Turing: “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” (1950) • John McCarthy: artificial intelligence (1956) • J.C.R. Licklider: "Man-Computer Symbiosis” (1960) • Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline: “Cyborgs and Space” (1960) • Morton Heilig: the Sensorama (1962) • Roy Ascott: "Behaviourist Art and the Cybernetic Vision“ (1964) • SRI Intl: Shakey the Robot (1966) • Benoît Mandelbrot: “How Long Is the Coast of Britain? Statistical Self-Similarity and Fractional Dimension” (1967) • Douglas Engelbart: The mother of all demos (1968)
  • The Computer Age • Computer Art – The cultural debate • Licklider & Robert Taylor: “The Computer as a Communication Device” (1968) • Phillip Dick: "Do Androids Dream of Electronic Sheep" (1968) • Stanley Kubrick: "2001 A Space Odyssey" (1968) • Dennis Ritchie and Keith Thompson: UNIX (1968) • DARPA: The Arpanet (1969) • Nicholas Negroponte: “The Architecture Machine” (1970) • John Conway: The Game of Life (1970) • Edward Lorenz: "Does The Flap Of A Butterfly's Wings In Brazil Set Off A Tornado In Texas?” (1972) • Ray Tomlinson: Email (1972) • Rainer Fassbinder: "World on a Wire" movie (1973) • Xerox: the Alto (1973) • Richard Dawkins: the meme (1976) • Ars Electronics (1979)
  • The Computer Age • Computer Art – The cultural debate • The Usenet (1980) • William Gibson: the cyberspace (1982) • John Badham: "War Games" movie (1983) • Bruce Bethke: "Cyberpunk" (1983) • Apple: the Macintosh (1984) • Steven Levy: “Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution” (1984) • Sherry Turkle: “The Second Self” (1984) • NASA: Virtual Planetary Exploration Workstation (1984) • MIT Media Lab (1985) • Toshiba T1100, the first mass-market laptop (1985) • Lucasfilm: online game “Habitat” (1985) and “avatars” • Per Bak: "Self-organized criticality” (1987) • Chris Langton: “Artificial Life” (1987)
  • The Computer Age • Computer Art – The cultural debate • Robert Morris: first computer virus on the Arpanet (1988) • Vernor Vinge: the singularity (1988) • Mondo 2000 magazine (1989) • Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie Karlsruhe - ZKM (1989) • Adobe Photoshop (1990) • Thomas Ray: "Evolution and optimization of digital organisms“ (1991) • Linus Thorvald: Linux open-source operating system (1991) • Neal Stephenson: the metaverse (1992) • Wired magazine (1993) • Jaron Lanier: "Agents of Alienation" (1995)
  • The Computer Age • Computer Art – The cultural debate • SixDegrees social network (1997) • Napster (1999) • Philip Rosedale: Second Life (2003) • Nintendo Wii (2006) that transforms the player’s physical movements into movements in the game • Apple iPhone (2007)
  • The Computer Age • Computer Art – Prehistory • Ben Laposky (1914, USA) • Herbert Franke (1927, Germany) “Lichtformen” (1955) “Oscillons” (1956)
  • The Computer Age • Computer Art – Two main centers of computer art activities: Bell Labs and Technische Universitat Stuttgart, – 1960: Desmond Paul Henry’s Drawing Machine – 1963: First public showing of computer art: San Jose State University – 1965: Generative Computergrafik exhibition at the Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart – 1965: Computer-Generated Pictures exhibition at the Howard Wise Gallery in New York – 1965: Computer-Generated Pictures exhibition at the Howard Wise Gallery in New York – 1966: Billy Kluver’s interdisciplinary program Experiments in Art & Technology – 1968: Cybernetic Serendipity exhibition in London
  • The Computer Age • Computer Art – Sonya Rapoport (1923, USA) Brown (1975) “Shoe Field” (1986)
  • The Computer Age • Computer Art – Harold Cohen (1928) Images created by the program AARON (1979)
  • The Computer Age • Computer Art – Paul Brown (1947) – Robert Edgar (1951) “Memory Theater” (1985), computer implementation of a memory theatre, designed like a three-dimensional adventure videogame in which the "user" is able to move from room to room to "interact" with the artist's network of images and texts
  • The Computer Age • Computer Art – David Em (1952): computer graphics “Nora” (1979) “Aku” (1977), a navigable computer world “Transjovian Pipeline” (1979)
  • The Computer Age • Digital Media Art – Joseph Nechvatal (NY, computer viruses) – Jeffrey Shaw (Australia, virtual reality) – Ken Feingold (NY, artificial intelligence) – Lynn Hershman (California, virtual reality) – George Legrady (California, dataverse)
  • The Computer Age • Digital Media Art – Jeffrey Shaw (1944, Australia) “Legible City” (1989) “conFiguring the CAVE” (1997)
  • The Computer Age • Digital Media Art – Lynn Hershman (1950, USA) “Deep Contact” (1989), a navigable dataverse “Lorna” (1979), interactive video
  • The Computer Age • Digital Media Art – Lynn Hershman (1950, USA) “Agent Ruby” (2000), an A.I. whose behavior is shaped by users “Tillie” (1995), a telerobotic doll
  • The Computer Age • Digital Media Art – George Legrady (1950, Hungary) “An Anecdoted Archive From the Cold War” (1994), a database of personal and historical documents that contrasts the iconography of capitalist Western Europe with the iconography of communist Eastern Europe “Pockets Full of Memories” (2001)
  • The Computer Age • Digital Media Art – Ken Feingold (1952, USA) “You” (2004), two identical heads— one with a male voice and the other with a female voice — that engage in a circular argument “Where I can see my house from here so we are” (1993), three small robot- puppets “If/then” (2001), two identical heads that engage in a philosophical conversation “Self Portrait as the Center of the Universe” (1998)
  • The Computer Age • Digital Media Art – Joseph Nechvatal (1951, USA): viral art “Viractual” (2001) “Bohemian Grove” (2006) “Hyper-Body II” (1988)
  • The Computer Age • Digital Media Art – David Rokeby (1960, Canada): machine intelligence “Giver of Names” (1991) “Very Nervous System” (1983), movements of the audience turned into music
  • The Computer Age • Digital Media Art – Steve Mann (1962, Canada): wearable computing “Wireless Wearable Webcam” (1980) “DECONcert: Concerto for Electroencephalographs” (2003)
  • The Computer Age • Architecture – Robert Venturi’s “Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture” (1966): manifesto of post- modernism – Denise Scott Brown’s “Learning from Las Vegas” (1972): emphasis on vernacular architecture – Rem Koolhaas’ “Delirious New York” (1978): urban pop culture
  • The Computer Age • Architecture – Paolo Soleri (1919, Italy) • Arcosanti, Arizona (1972) – Jorn Utzon (1918, Denmark) • Sydney Opera House (1972)
  • The Computer Age • Architecture – Edgar de Fonseca (19??, Brazil) • Catedral Metropolitana, Rio de Janeiro (1979) – Roberto Luis Gandolfi (19??, Brazil) • Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (1972)
  • The Computer Age • Architecture – Johann Otto von Spreckelsen (1929) • La Grande Arche, Paris (1990) – Renzo Piano (1937) • Centre Pompidou, Paris (1977) • Cultural Center Tjibaou, New Caledonia (1998) – Ricardo Bofill (1939) • Espaces de Abraxas, Marne-la- Vallee (1978)
  • The Computer Age • Architecture – Richard Rogers (1933): Lloyds Building, London (1978) – Anca Petrescu (1949, Romania): Casa Poporului, Bucharest, Romania (1989)
  • The Computer Age • Skyscrapers – Bruce Graham (1925): Sears Towers, Chicago (1974) – Minoru Yamasaki (1912): World Trade Center New York (1973) – Edward Durell Stone: AON Building (1972) – John Hancock Center Chicago (1969)
  • The Computer Age • Architecture – Stephen Wright: Two Prudential Plaza, Chicago (1990) – John Burgee (1933): AT&T/ Sony, New York (1984) – Michael Graves (1934) • Public Services Building, Portland (1980) • Humana Building, Louisville (1982)
  • The Computer Age • Architecture – Uchida Shozo: Sompo Building, Tokyo (1976) – Yang Cho-cheng (1914): Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Taipei (1980) – Kazuo Shinohara (1925): Tokyo Institute of Technology's Centennial Hall (1987)
  • The Computer Age • Architecture – Hijjas Kasturi (1936, Singapore) Menara Telekom (2000, Kuala Lumpur) Tabung Haji (1984, Kuala Lumpur)
  • The Computer Age • Architecture – Norman Foster (1935, Britain): • Hong Kong Shangai Banking Building, HK (1979) • Swiss Re, London (2003) • Al Faisaliah Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2000)
  • The Computer Age • Architecture – Cesar Pelli (1926, Argentina): • Pacific Design Center ("Blue Whale"), Los Angeles (1976) • Bank of America, Charlotte (1992) • Sea Hawk Hotel, Fukuoka, Japan (1995) • Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (1998) • Two International Finance Centre (2003, Hong Kong) see next page…
  • The Computer Age • Architecture – Cesar Pelli
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Werner Herzog (1942, Germany) “Even Dwarfs Started Small" (1970) "Aguirre" (1972) "Fitzcarraldo" (1982)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Rainer Fassbinder (1945, Germany) "The Bitter Tears of Petra von Kant" (1972) "World on a Wire" (1973) "The Marriage of Maria Braun" (1978)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Wim Wenders (1945, Germany) "Alice in the Cities" (1973) “The American Friend" (1977) "Paris Texas" (1983) "Wings of Desire" (1988)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Robert Altman (1925, USA) "Brewster McCloud" (1970) “McCabe & Mrs. Miller” (1971) "Nashville" (1975)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Manuel de Oliveira (1908, Portugal) "Francisca" (1981) “The Cannibals" (1988) “The Past and the Present" (1971) "Benilde" (1974) “Journey to the Beginning of the World” (1997)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Woody Allen (1935, USA) "Sleeper" (1973) "Annie Hall" (1977) "Manhattan" (1979) "Zelig" (1983)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Steven Spielberg (1946, USA) "Duel" (1971) "E.T" (1982) "Raiders of the Lost Ark" (1981) "Close Encounters of the Third Kind" (1977) “Minority Report” (2002)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Bernardo Bertolucci: "Last Tango in Paris" (1972) – Ettore Scola: "Down And Dirty" (1976) – Ermanno Olmi: "The Tree of Wooden Clogs" (1978)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Francis Ford Coppola (1939, USA) Apocalypse Now" (1979) "The Godfather" (1972) "The Godfather Part II" (1974) "The Conversation" (1974)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Martin Scorsese (1942, USA) "Mean Streets" (1973) "Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore" (1974) "Taxi Driver" (1976) "The King of Comedy" (1982)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema – Theo Angelopulos (1935, Greece) "Traveling Players" (1975) "The beekeeper" (1986) "Landscape In The Mist" “Suspended Step of the Stork” (1991) "Landscape In The Mist" (1988)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Theo Angelopoulos (1935, Greece) ”Ulysses' Gaze” (1995) “Eternity and a Day” (1998) “The Weeping Meadow” (2004)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Raul Ruiz (1941, Chile) "Hypothesis of the Stolen Painting" (1978) "Three Crowns of the Sailor" (1983) “Mysteries of Lisbon” (2011)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Aki Kaurismaki (1957, Finland) "Calamari Union" (1984) "Leningrad Cowboys go to America" (1989) "Drifting Clouds" (1996)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Wojciech Has (Czech): “The Hour-Glass Sanatorium” (1973) – Istvan Szabo (Hungary): "Mephisto" (1981)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Bela Tarr (1955, Hungary) "Damnation" (1989) “Satan's Tango” (1994) "Werckmeister Harmonies" (2000) "The Turin Horse" (2011)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Emil Kusturica (1954, Serbia) "Time of the Gypsies" (1989) "Underground" (1995) "Black Cat White Cat" (1998)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Krzysztof Kieslowski (1941, Poland) "The Double Life of Veronica" (1991) "Blue" (1993) “Rouge” (1994)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Pedro Almodovar (1949, Spain) "Law of Desire" (1986) “Matador” (1986) "Women on the Verge of Nervous Breakdown" (1988) - “All About My Mother” (1999)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Michael Haneke (1941, Austria) "The Seventh Continent" (1989) "Funny Games" (1997) “Code Unknown” (2001) "Cache`" (2005)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Hayao Miyazaki (1941, Japan) "Nausicaa" (1983) "Princess Mononoke" (1997)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Hou Hsiao-Hsien (1947, Taiwan) "A Time To Live A Time To Die" (1985) "City of Sadness" (1989) "The Puppet Master" (1993) "Good Men Good Women" (1995) “Millennium Mambo” (2001)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Edward Yang (1947, Taiwan) "A Brighter Summer Day" (1991) "A Confucian Confusion" (1995) "Mahjong" (1996)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – John Woo (1946, China) “The Killer” (1989) "Hard Boiled" (1992) "Face/Off" (1997)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Tsui Hark (1950, China) "Shangai Blues" (1984) "Peking Opera Blues" (1986) "Once Upon a Time in China" (1991)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Chen Kaige (1952, China) "Yellow Earth" (1984) “The Emperor and the Assassin” (1989) “Farewell my Concubine” (1993)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Zhang Yimou (1951, China) "Red Sorghum" (1987) "Raise of the Red Lantern" (1991) "Shanghai Triad" (1995) "The Story of Qiu Ju” (1992)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Zhang Yimou (1951, China) "Curse Of The Golden Flower” (2006) "House Of Flying Daggers” (2004) "Hero" (2002)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Abbas Kiarostami (1940, Iran) "Where is my Friend's House" (1987) "Close-Up" (1989) “A Taste of Cherry” (1997)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Terrence Malick (1943, USA) "Badlands" (1973) "Days of Heaven" (1978) “The Tree of Life” (2011)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – George Lucas: “Star Wars” (1977) – Michael Cimino: “The Deer Hunter” (1978) – Sydney Pollack: "They Shoot Horses Don't They?” (1969)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – David Cronenberg (1943, USA) “Videodrome” (1983) “Naked Lunch” (1991) “Existenz” (1999)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – David Lynch (1946, USA) "Erasehead" (1978) "Blue Velvet" (1986) “Lost Highway” (1997) “Mulholland Drive” (2001)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Brian DePalma (1940, USA) "Dressed to Kill" (1980) "Blow Out" (1981) "Body Double" (1984)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Peter Weir (1944, Australia) "Picnic at Hanging Rock" (1975) "Dead Poets Society" (1989) "The Truman Show" (1998)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema/ Britain – John Boorman: "Zardoz" (1973) – Terry Gilliam: "Brazil" (1985)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema/ Britain – Ridley Scott “Alien” (1979) "Blade Runner" (1982)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – Peter Greenway (1942, Britain) "The Draughtsman's Contract" (1982) "Belly of An Architect" (1987) "The Cook The Thief His Wife And Her Lover" (1990)
  • The Computer Age • Cinema 1969-99 – John Sayles: "Matewan" (1987) – Tim Burton: "Edward Scissorhands" (1990) – Gus Van Sant: "Drugstore Cowboy" (1989)