Antarctic ozone evolution since 1898 and the International Polar years


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Antarctic ozone evolution since 1898 and the International Polar years

  1. 1. Antarctic ozone evolution since 1898 and the International Polar Years Christian Muller Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy and B.USOC IPY 2008 The ozone hole is a yearly total ozone minimum observed in Sep- 1898 tember and October in Antarc- tica, three conditions are neces- sary to start it: the Antarctic vortex which isolates the Ant- arctic atmosphere, the formation of stratospheric clouds and the presence of active chemical spe- cies (chlorine and bromine) trans- ported from lower latitudes. The Belgica wintering of 1898-1899 was the first real scientific expedi- tion to Antarctica with an international team of 7 scientists, Henryk Arctowski was the chief meteorologist. Cloud observations of Dobrowolski, these cor- Ozone hole during 7 October 2008 as measured by the Scan- respond to Polar strato- ning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Car- spheric Clouds which tography (SCIAMACHY) atmospheric sensor onboard ESA’s cause the present ozone Envisat. SCIAMACHY is a tri-national instrument (Germany, hole when activated by Netherlands and Belgium). The 2008 record ozone hole corre- chlorine. sponding to the IPY is slightly more important than the 2009 The wind roses show an ozone hole. (image produced using the assimilation tools of early Antarctic vortex. An observation of PSC’s (Polar Stratospheric Clouds KNMI) over the Australian Antarctic base Davis 4 (68° 34' 35.8" S 77° 58' 02.6" E) - 19 September 2001- Photo by M. Lambert, the latitude corresponds to the Belgica wintering. 1932 No ozone measurements are performed in Antarctica, however stratospheric ozone monitoring has systematically begun with the Dobson network and Chapman has formulated a first ozone theory. Belgium participates to the IPY through a geomagnetic station in Elisabethville. 1958 With Chapman as presi- dent, Marcel Nicolet as secretary, the CSAGI gives a priority to Ant- arctic ozone and mete- orology, again Belgium reacts by installing a Dobson instrument in Congo. A CSAGI meeting in Brussels. A CSAGI meeting in Moscow. A first Dobson in- strument is in- stalled in the Brit- ish Halley Base in Monthly averages of total ozone values for September 1957 during IGY. over the South Pole for the last 10 years using measure- ments from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrome- ter for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY) sensor aboard ESA's Envisat, the Global Ozone Monitoring Ex- Picture by Derek Ward of Halley Bay in 1958. periment (GOME) aboard ESA ERS-2 and its follow-on in- "It was clear that the winter vortex over the South Pole was maintained late into the spring strument GOME-2 aboard EUMETSAT MetOp. The vortex and that this kept the ozone values low". broke early in 2002. All three sensors have important Bel- (Dobson over the first Antarctic data). After, more stations were added including a Belgo- gian participation. (image produced by DLR) Dutch station at Base Roi Baudouin in 1965- 1967. It was the Syowa Japanese station that made in 1984 the first announcement of abnormal Octo- 1983 ber values in 1982 and 1983. The British Antarctic survey publication in NA- TURE in 1985 is however the publication which No polar year was scheduled in 1983, if one alerted the scientists over the ozone hole prob- lem. Its chemical explanation was given in 1987 would have been organised, the ozone hole after two American led campaigns in Antarctica and precipitated the signing of the Montréal would have been discovered two years ear- protocol. lier by the synergetic exploitation of polar year specific campaigns. Antarctic 1958 values of ozone compared to Spitsbergen averages.: a dissym- Figure showing the Halley Bay results together with Syowa and Roi Baudouin metry appears.