Backward Design

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  • 1. Backward Design By Alison Bertoni Scanlon
  • 2. What is Backward Design?
    • To begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination. It means to know where you’re going so that you better understand where you are now so that the steps you take are always in the right direction.
    • --Stephen R. Covey
  • 3. What is Backward Design?
    • Backward design is essentially starting at the end and working backwards.
    • It encompasses deciding what your targeted goal is and then working backward to achieve success.
  • 4. Ralph Tyler described backward design about 50 years ago…
    • “ Educational objectives become the criteria by which materials are selected, content is outlined and examinations are prepared…The purpose of a statement of objectives is to indicate the kinds of changes in the student to be brought about so that instructional activities can be planned and developed in a way likely to attain these objectives.”
  • 5. Backward Design Essentials
    • The backward design approach has been noted for being useful in helping teachers to design curriculum to best meet students’ needs
    • The approach can be used across grade levels, students with disabilities, and across content areas
    • The teacher needs to ask themselves how they will get to the end result
  • 6. How to implement backward design…
    • Teachers need to be aware of the difference between student knowledge and how students best understand
    • When teachers begin this process they must plan carefully
    • Teachers need to ultimately keep the students’ needs at the heart of the curriculum design
  • 7. Teachers need to follow the following guidelines when implementing backward design…
        •  Identify Learners
        •  Identify Curricular Priorities
        •  Design Assessment Framework
        •  Create Learning Activities
  • 8. Step 1: Identify Learners
    • Identify classroom needs
      • Disabilities
      • Low-to-mid income families
      • Inclusive classroom students
    • Identify individual student needs
      • Students that best learn in small group, with repetition, hands-on, who require positive encouragement
  • 9. Step 2: Identify Curricular Priorities
    • Determine state standards
    • Create essential questions
    • Identify prerequisite skills and knowledge
  • 10. Step 3: Design Assessment Framework
    • Performance tasks or projects
    • Oral or written prompts
    • Quizzes or tests
    • Informal assessments
  • 11. Step 4: Create Learning Activities
    • Design sequence and learning activities
    • Check for integration of accommodations
      • Small group activities
      • Mini-lessons
      • Visuals
  • 12. Throughout the process teachers need to…
    • Scaffold and create a learning environment in which the students can be successful
    • Design the curriculum with the purpose that students will be able to utilize schema
    • Through the design of the curriculum find ways to best meet the needs of all students
  • 13. References
    • Childre, A., Sands, J., & Pope, S. (2009). Backward design. Teaching Exceptional Children, 41 (5), 6-14.
    • Wiggins, G. & McTighe, J. (1998). Understanding by design . Alexandria, VA: Merrill Prentice Hall.