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Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
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Visitors Center
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Visitors Center
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Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
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Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
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Visitors Center
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Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
Visitors Center
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Visitors Center
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Final Documentation

Final Documentation

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  • 1. WILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 2. PROGRAM ANALYSIS project description 4 existing building areas 5 public space inventory 6 visitors staff rangers 7 proposed assembly 8 assembly explanation 8 proposed business 9 business explanation 9SITE ANALYSIS site area images 10 topographic analysis 12 site diagram 14 site sections 15 design intent 17CODE ANALYSIS international building code 18LEED CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST sustainable sites 20 water efficiency 24 energy and atmosphere 26 materials and resources 30 environmental quality 32PRECEDENT ANALYSIS mont-cenis training center 42 robert rhodes 44 herbert enns 45SCHEMATIC DESIGN 44DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 50CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 64 TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • 3. The William M. Colmer Visitors Center and Park Headquarters, located just east of Ocean Springs, MS, is a center for rec- reation, learning, and work. It is the only land-accessible park in the Davis Bayou Ecosystem, and it offers fishing, hiking, biking, bird-watching, picnicking, and ranger-led programs. Utilizing local artists work, including the work of Walter Anderson, the Learning center features exhibitions on different ecosystems, local plants, and wildlife. It also shows the film “Tides, Winds, and Waves” daily in the audito- rium. The center is an office for the National Park Service Park Rangers and houses the Eastern National Bookstore. Since August 29, 2005, when hurricane Katrina ravaged the gulf coast, the center has been in remission due to extensive damage to the building and property. The building was flooded with ~5’ of water, and many of the surrounding decks were washed away. Previous to the storm, the National Park Service was considering re-building this center due to its inefficient floor plan and inadequate size. Rather than renovating the existing building, the NPS plans to completely re-design the Park Headquarters to the new NPS standards. These include: I. Building Pathways to Learning II. Bringing America’s History Alive III. Protecting Nature, Protecting Ourselves IV. Pursuing and Teaching Sustainability V. Nurturing Living Cultures and Communities VI. Promoting Outdoor Recreation VII. Shaping the Future National Park System VIII. Ensuring Institutional Capacity project description ] For more information, visit www.nps.gov/policy/report.htm for access to the article “Rethinking the National Parks for the 21st Century.”WILLIAM M. COLMER 3visitors center and park headquarters
  • 4. Public/Assembly Spaces Lobby 1130 sq ft Visitor Information 230 sq ft Public Restrooms (Male) 200 sq ft Public Restrooms (Female) 200 sq ft Walter Anderson Gallery 560 sq ft Exhibition space for seasonal events (temporary) 1,100 sq ft Auditorium (45 seats) 1,300 sq ft Gift space 120 sq ft TOTAL ASSEMBLY 4,840 sq ftBusiness Spaces Biologist 200 sq ft Resource Management 200 sq ft District Interpretation 170 sq ftDistrict Ranger Law Enforcement Ranger 270 sq ft Program Clerk 270 sq ft Program Assistant 160 sq ft Superintendent Dept. 360 sq ft Artifacts 170 sq ft Security 100 sq ft Law Enforcement Room 50 sq ft Conference 270 sq ft Library 150 sq ft Interpretation 200 sq ft Interpretation 100 sq ft Interpretation 140 sq ft Kitchen 130 sq ft Restroom (male) 120 sq ft Restroom (female) 120 sq ft Eastern National Books 150 sq ft Eastern National Books 150 sq ft Electrical 80 sq ft Mechanical 180 sq ft Circulation 1,790 sq ft existing building areasTOTAL BUSINESS 5,660 sq ftTOTAL SQ FT OF EXISTING BUILDING: 10,500 sq ft PROGRAM ANALYSIS 3
  • 5. The previous Visitors Center contained a series of displays in which the new center will implement. These include: •Photos of Workers (front desk) •Display case with Skulls (Dolphin, Raccoon, Nutria, Boar, Coyote, Heron) •Osprey Nest •Donations Box •Pamphlet Rack •Events Board •Table with turtle skull and preserved sea turtle •Sea Turtle Photo Essay •Space Image of Gulf Coast •Photos of “Scenes of Gulf Coast” •Photos of Ship Island Lighthouse •Photos on walls of every hallway •Wall dedicated to work of local artists •Trash/Litter Exhibit •Historical Timeline of Ship Island (Poster) •Another display table with skulls •Laminated educational posters of various paw prints, indigenous species, etc. •gift area open to hallway •Antique Sign for “War Dogs” – a military group from the area that participated in Pacific Theatre in World War II •Walter Anderson Gallery (13 wooden animal sculptures and 30 Walter Anderson Paintings) The new Center will also implement additional spaces/spatial arrangements by request of the Center staff. These include: •Shower facility: for park rangers and interpreters to use before and after their respective duties. •Private Laboratory: necessary for research. •Efficient Traffic Flow: conducive to learning and smooth tour guidance. •Duplicate Audio-Visual Room: for split tour groups. •Outdoor tour/classroom space: for more efficient movement of multiple tour groups. •Food Concept: availability of a food source managed and maintained as a separate entity to the Park Service. Proceeds could be donated to the enhancement of the park. •Information Desk Location: should be in the line of sight of the visitors. •More Storage •Classrooms: one room with the sole purpose of education. Should be a “work-station” type arrangement.public space inventoryWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 6. Visitors: in the busiest time of year (summer), there are~00 visitors a day. In addition, a group of up to 00 chil-dren (from school, boy/girl scouts, camp, etc.) may visit thebuilding during the week. Total number of visitors, 2005 4,910,387The people visiting this building will consist of a diversesampling of the population and varying interests including but not limited to: •Adults and children of all ages •Various clubs and organizations •Students •Cyclists •Fisherman •Nature activists •Local Community •ArtistsStaff: There are currently approximately 15 to 16 full timestaff members that occupy the building. The job titles ofthe full time staff include: •Boat Operator •Course Maintenance •Facility Manager •Law Enforcement Rangers (rough equivalent of police) •Interpreter Rangers (rough equivalent of tour guides) •Biologist •Resource Manager •Superintendent •Administrative Assistant •Office Clerk •District Ranger •Fee Collector •Volunteers/outdoor staff members visitors staff rangers PROGRAM ANALYSIS 5
  • 7. Public/Assembly Spaces Lobby/Security/Visitor Information 770 sq ft Gift Shop/Bookstore 770 sq ft Public Restrooms (Male: 2 toilet, 2 urinal, 2 lav.) 2-250 sq ft Public Restrooms (Female: 4 toilet, 2 lav) 2-250 sq ft Water Fountains 36 sq ft Exhibition Space for local history and art (permanent) 1500 sq ft Exhibition space for seasonal events (temporary) 1030 sq ft Auditorium (50 seats) 900 sq ft Indoor Workshop Classroom 650 sq ft •Lobby: Entrance area; initial exterior AND interior meeting space; should have view to information desk. •Visitor Information: Front desk where visitors get information. •Eastern National Books: usually at exit of facility.proposed assembly •Public Restrooms: Male: 2 toilet, 2 urinal, 2 lav. Female: 4 toilet, 2 lav) •Permanent Exhibition Space: for local history and art; Walter Anderson art. •Temporary Exhibition space: for seasonal events. •Interactive Showcase for Sustainable Design: Center for educating the public on alternative energy sources, environmentally friendly building materials, and a display showing “green Design.” •2 Auditorium spaces: 50 seats each; 100 seats total. To feature the 12 minute film “Tides, Winds, and Waves.” Includes 2 Audio/Video technician areas for large crowds. •2 Indoor Workshop Classrooms: to hold educational activities outside the auditorium. Classroom should be set up in “stations,” not rows and aisles. Total Assembly 6,656 sq. ft.assembly explanationWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 8. Business Spaces Biologist/Biology Lab 220 sq ft Resource Management 220 sq ft DistrictInterpretation/Interp. Sto. Volunteer 220 sq ft District Ranger 220 sq ft Law Enforcement Ranger 220 sq ft Program Clerk 220 sq ft Program Assistant 220 sq ft Superintendent Dept. 400 sq ft Artifacts (Storage) 245 sq ft Conference/Library 480 sq ft Kitchen/Lounge 240 sq ft Restroom (Co-ed) 42 sq ft Electrical 90 sq ft Mechanical/Cooling 200 sq ft Outside Chiller 300 sq ft Circulation Space 560 sq ft•Biologist Office, Biology Lab, Resource Management: Offices for research biologists, and college students/graduate students.•Superintendent Department: Office for the individual who oversees both the Florida and Mississippi Parks. •Artifacts Storage: Storage for museum items not being displayed. proposed business•Security: separate from Law Enforcement office. Will contain surveillance equipment. •Conference: Gathering space for staff meetings, etc.•Library: Private resource center for staff.•Kitchen/LoungeBreak area for staff: cooking equipment for those with long shifts. •Restroom: Male: 1 toilet,1 lav Female: 1 toilet, I lav) •Shower/Locker Room: 1 male, 1 female for staff who are outdoors frequently and need shower facilities to clean off. •Outside Chiller: because of the facility size. Total Business 4,097 sq ftTotal sq. ft. of New Building (A/C space) 10,753 sq ft business explanation PROGRAM ANALYSIS 7
  • 9. The Davis Bayou is located just east of Ocean Springs, MS and just north of Ship and Horn Island. The Building site for the new visitors center is located at the hilltop, overlooking extensive marshland. WILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 10. SITE ANALYSIS 9
  • 11. water existing building marsh existing parking/roads i t e d i a g r a mWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 12. a.b. c. s i t e s e c t i o n s a. b. c. SITE ANALYSIS 11
  • 13. The natural vegetation and wildlife existing in this habitat is described on the Gulf Islands National Seashore Mississippi website: The steep, alluvial Mississippi coast, or ‘terraced Deltaic Plain,’ in combination with the small drainage areas result in narrow marsh areas. The topography of the Davis Bayou area is mostly level, where the highest elevation is 20’along the northern section sloping down to the bayou. Considerable marsh land is contained within this area. Relatively heavy vegetation and gentle slopes retard the rate of erosion on Davis Bayou. Only the beech/magnolia community and the tidal marshlands are subject to much erosion. The sandy and clay-like soils of the steep ridges, which support the beech/magnolia community, are subject to erosion because the high clay content of the soil permits excessive runoff. The tidal marshes and the Davis Bayou shoreline are subject to erosion because of boat wakes hitting the shoreline. Marine Grass Bed Ecosystem The marine grass bed ecosystem grows throughout protected seashore waters. Sandy bottoms, shell fragments and calm waters The sea grasses occur in isolated patches usually less than several hundred acres in size. In the turbid Mississippi Sound waters, the sea grasses are rarely found in water deeper than 6 feet. These communities provide food for the marine ecosystem. In addition, they provide cover for many young fish. Although the grass beds make up only a small percentage of the total submerged lands around the Seashore islands, the fauna observed in association with them, especially the invertebrates, appears far greater than the more extensive sandy areas. The sea grass community is very fragile and easily disturbed by human activity, such as propeller scarring and turbidity increases caused by dredging. Storm activity, especially hurricanes, can also lead to extensive grass bed destruction. Prior to 1969, an estimated 20,000 acres of grass beds existed in the Mississippi Sound; however, much of this acreage was destroyed by hurricane Camille and the grass beds have not yet completely reestablished. Submerged grass beds within the Davis Bayou area are restricted to small isolated bayous. Pine/Palmetto Flatwoods Community Longleaf and slash pines comprise the canopy community, and the understory contains saw palmetto and various grasses. This community is highly fire resistant and dependent upon frequent low- intensity fires to prevent invasion by hardwood species. Mixed Pine/Hardwood Community This community occurs in upland pine/palmetto flatwood areas where fires have been prevented for extended periods, permitting the invasion of hardwood trees into the community. In addition to the presence of pine in the canopy, live oak and sweet gum are also found in this community.davis bayou ecosystem http://www.nps.gov/archive/guis/extended/MIS/indexMS.htmWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 14. Lowland Hardwood Community The lowland hardwood community is found in landlockeddepressions or swamps in tidal estuaries. These sites are subject toconsiderable local changes in water level during the growing season. Frequent flooding by water with accumulated organic matter occurs inthese areas. The dominant trees include ash, bay, maple, sweet gumand cypress. Organic matter from the Tidal Marsh community is washed bytides into bays and estuaries. The extensive tidal marshes locatedin most sections of Davis Bayou are highly productive; however, very little of the organic matter and nutrients produced in the marsh are actually utilized by marsh inhabitants. Rather the organic matter iswashed by tides into bays and estuaries, where it provides food for many marine animals. These organisms are the basis of the food chainin the productive estuaries. The marsh region of Davis Bayou is composed of two majorspecies: saltmarsh cordgrass, which occurs in pure strands in thelower or most saline portions of the marsh, and black rush, which borders the former. The upper area of the saline marsh showsreduction in the saltmarsh cordgrass habitat through a decrease in density and an increase in height of black rush. Brackish water plant species, such as saltmarsh grass and bullrush are found intermixed with the black rush. SITE ANALYSIS 13
  • 15. WILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 16. Because the visitors center is a place that works to connect the human with his environment, it must not only be an ef-ficient source for learning about the environment, but mustalso maintain the environments integrity. Through the use ofspatial phenomena and indiginous materials, the structure will intertwine the interior and exterior environments. Thismeans that the two will co-exist as a phenomenally connected idea, but a physically disconnected object. The ventila-tion/energy systems will be designed in order to efficientlyachieve maximum human comfort and minimum energy expenditure throughout all months of the year. DESIGN INTENT 15
  • 17. Chapter 3. Occupancy Classification. 303.1 Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for the gathering together of persons for purposes such as civic, social, or religious functions, recreation, food or drink consumption or awaiting transportation. A room or space used for assembly purposes by less than 50 persons and accessory to another occupancy shall be included as a part of that occu- pancy. Chapter 5. General Building Heights and Areas. 503.1 General. The height and area for buildings of different construction types shall be governed by the intended use of the building and shall not exceed the limits in Table 503 except as modified hereafter. Each part of a building included within the exterior wall or the exterior walls and firewalls where provided shall be permitted to be a separate building. TABLE 503. Allowable height and building areas. maximum height. 44’ maximum number of stories. 3 allowable area per floor. 14,000 sq. ft Chapter 6. Types of Construction. 602.1 General. Buildings and structures erected or to be erected, altered or extended in height or area shall be classified in one of the five construction types defied in Sections 602.2 through 602.5. The building elements shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that specified in Table 601 and exterior walls shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that specifired in Table 602. 602.3 Type III. Type III construction is that type of construction in which the exterior walls are of noncombustible materials and the interior building elements are of any material permitted by this code. TABLE 601. Fire-resistance rating requirements for building elements. [hours] Structural frame. including columns, girders, and trusses Bearing Walls. exterior interior Nonbearing Walls and Partitions. Interior Floor Construction. Including supporting beams and joists. Roof Construction. Including supporting beams and joists. Chapter 10: Means of Egress. 1003.2 Ceiling Height. The means of egress shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet. inter national building code 2003WILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 18. 1003.6 Means of Egress Continuity. The path of egress travel along a means ofegress shall not be interrupted by any building element other than a means of egress component as specified in this chapter. Obstructions shall not beplaced in the required width of a means of egress except projectionspermitted by this chapter. The required capacity of a means of egresssystem shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel. 1004.1 Design Occupant Load. In determining means of egress requirements,the number of occupants for whom means of egress facilities shall be provided shall be established by the largest number computed in accordance with sections 1004.1.1 through 1004.1.3.1004.1.2. Number by Table 1004.1.2. The number of occupants computed at therate of one occupant per unit of area as prescribed in Table 1004.1.2.Table 1004.1.2. Maximum Floor area allowances per occupantAssembly without fixed seats. concentrated 7 sq. ft. [net]1005.1 Minimum required egress width. The means of egress width shall not beless than required by this section. The total width of means of egress ininches shall not be less than the total occupant load served by the means of egress mutliplied by the factors in Table 1005.1 and not less thanspecified elsewhere in this code. Multiple means of egress shall be sized suchthat the loss of any one means of egress shall not reduce the available capacity to less than 50 percent of the required capacity. Themaximum capacity required from any story of a building shall be maintainedto the temrination of the means of egress. Table 1005.1. Egress width per occupant served 0.2”1015.1 Travel Distance Limitations. Exits shall be so located on each story such that the maximum length of exit access travel, measured from the most remote point within a story to the entrance to an exit along the natural and unobstructed path of egress travel, shall not exced the distances given in Table 1015.1.Table 1015.1. Exit access travel distance. Occupancy A with sprinkler system 250’1016.1. Construction. Corridors shall be fire-resistance rated in accordancewith table 06.. Table 1016.1. Corridor fire-resistance rating [hours]Occupancy A with sprinkler system 01016.2 Corridor Width. The minimum corridor width shall be determined inSection 1005.1, but not less than 44”.1018.1 Minimum number of exits. All rooms and spaces within each story shall be provided with and have access to the minimum number of approved independent exits as required by Table 1018.1 based on the occupant load.Table 1018.1. Minimum number of exits Occupant load of -500 21019.1 Enclosures required. Interior exit stairways and interior exit ramps shall be enclosed with fire barriers. Exit enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than hour where connecting less than four stories. An exit enclosure shall not be used for any purpose other than means of egress. CODE ANALYSIS 17
  • 19. SS PREREQUISITE 1: Required. Construction Activity pollution Prevention Intent: Control erosion to reduce negative impacts on water and air quality. Requirements: Design a sediment and erosion control plan, specific to the site, that conforms to United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Document No. EPA 832/R-92-005 (September 1992), Storm Water Management for Construction Activities, Chapter 3, OR local erosion and sedimentation control standards and codes, whichever is more stringent. The plan shall meet the following objectives: •Prevent loss of soil during construction by stormwater runoff and/or wind erosion, including protecting topsoil by stockpiling for reuse. •Prevent sedimentation of storm sewer or receiving streams. •Prevent polluting the air with dust and particulate matter. Potential Technologies Strategies: Adopt an erosion and sediment control plan for the project site during construction. Consider employing strategies such as temporary and permanent seeding, mulching, earth dikes, silt fencing, sediment traps and sediment basins. SS CREDIT 4.2: +1 Point Alternative Transportation: Bicycle Storage Changing Rooms Intent: Reduce pollution and land development impacts from automobile use. Requirements: For commercial or institutional buildings, provide secure bicycle storage with convenient changing/shower facilities (within 200 yards of the building) for 5% or more of regular building occupants. Potential Technologies Strategies: Design the building with transportation amenities such as bicycle racks and showering/changing facilities. SS CREDIT 4.3: +1 Point Alternative Transportation: Low Emitting Fuel Efficient Vehicles Intent: Reduce pollution and land development impacts from automobile use. Requirements: OPTION 1 - Provide alternative fuel vehicles for 3% of building occupants AND provide preferred parking for these vehicles. OPTION 2 - Provide preferred parking for low-emitting and fuel efficient vehicles for 5% of the total vehicle parking capacity of the site. OPTION 3 - Install alternative-fuel refueling stations for 3% of the total vehicle parking capacity of the site. Liquid or gaseous fueling facilities must be separately ventilated or located outdoors. Potential Technologies Strategies: Provide transportation amenities such as alternative fuel refueling stations and carpool/vanpool programs. Consider sharing the costs and benefits of refueling stations with neighbors.sustainable sitesWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 20. SS CREDIT 5.1: +1 PointSite Disturbance: Protect or Restore Open SpaceIntent: Conserve existing natural areas and restore damaged areas toprovide habitat and promote biodiversity.Requirements:OPTION 1 - On greenfield sites, limit site disturbance including earthworkand clearing of vegetation to 40 feet beyond the building perimeter, 5 feetbeyond primary roadway curbs, walkways and main utility branch trenches, and 25 feet beyond constructed areas with permeable surfaces (such as perviouspaving areas, storm water detention facilities and playing fields) thatrequire additional staging areas in order to limit compaction in theconstructed area; OPTION 2 - On previously developed sites, restore a minimum of 50% of thesite area (excluding the building footprint) by replacing impervioussurfaces with native or adapted vegetation.Potential Technologies Strategies: On greenfield sites, perform a sitesurvey to identify site elements and adopt a master plan for development of the project site. Carefully site the building to minimize disruption toexisting ecosystems and design the building to minimize its footprint. Strategies include staking the building program, tuck-under parking and sharing facilities with neighbors. Establish clearly marked construction boundaries to minimize disturbance of the existing site and restore previously degraded areas to their natural state. For previously developed sites utilize local and regional governmental agencies, consultants, educational, facilities, and native plant societies as resources for selection of appropriate native or adapted plant materials. Prohibit plantmaterials listed as invasive or noxious weed species.SS CREDIT 5.2: +1 PointSite Development: Maximize Open SpaceIntent: Provide a high ratio of open space to development footprint topromote biodiversity.Requirements:OPTION 1 - Reduce the development footprint (defined as the total area of thebuilding footprint, hardscape, access roads and parking) and/or providevegetated open space within the project boundary to exceed the local zoning’sopen space requirement for the site by 25%.OPTION 2 - For areas with no local zoning requirements (e.g., someuniversity campuses, military bases), provide vegetated open space areaadjacent to the building that is equal to the building footprint.OPTION 3 - Where a zoning ordinance exists, but there is no requirement foropen space (zero), provide vegetated open space equal to 20% of the project’ssite area. LEED CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST 19
  • 21. ALL OPTIONS: • For projects located in urban areas that earn SS Credit 2, vegetated roof areas can contribute to credit compliance. • For projects located in urban areas that earn SS Credit 2, pedestrian oriented hardscape areas can contribute to credit compliance. For such projects, a minimum of 25% of the open space counted must be vegetated. • Wetlands or naturally designed ponds may count as open space if the side slope gradients average 1:4 (vertical: horizontal) or less and are vegetated. Potential Technologies Strategies: Perform a site survey to identify site elements and adopt a master plan for development of the project site. Select a suitable building location and design the building with a minimal footprint to minimize site disruption. Strategies include stacking the building program, tuck-under parking and sharing facilities with neighbors to maximize open space on the site. SS CREDIT 6.1: +1 Point Storm water Management: Treatment Intent: Limit disruption of natural water flows by eliminating storm water runoff, increasing on-site infiltration and eliminating contaminants. Requirements: CASE 1 — EXISTING IMPERVIOUSNESS IS LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 50% Implement a storm water management plan that prevents the post- development peak discharge rate and quantity from exceeding the pre- development peak discharge rate and quantity for the one and two year 24 hour design storms. Implement a storm water management plan that protects receiving stream channels from excessive erosion by implementing a stream channel protection strategy and quantity control strategies. CASE 2 — EXISTING IMPERVIOUSNESS IS GREATER THAN 50% Implement a storm water management plan that results in a 25% decrease in the volume of storm water runoff from the two-year 24-hour design storm. Potential Technologies Strategies: Design mechanical or natural treatment systems such as constructed wetlands, vegetated filter strips and bio-swales to treat the site’s storm water. SS CREDIT 7.2: +1 Point Light Pollution Reduction Intent: Eliminate light trespass from the building and site, improve night sky access and reduce development impact on nocturnal environments. Requirements: OPTION 1 - Use roofing materials having a Solar Reflectance Index (SRI)3 equal to or greater than the values in the table below for a minimum of 75% of the roof surface. OPTION 2 - Install a vegetated roof for at least 50% of the roof area. OPTION 3 - Install high albedo and vegetated roof surfaces that, in combination, meet the following criteria: (Area of SRI Roof / 0.75) + (Area of vegetated roof / 0.5) = Total Roof Areasustainable sitesWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 22. Roof Type Slope SRI Low-Sloped Roof ≤ 2:12 78 Steep-sloped Roof 2:12 29Potential Technologies Strategies: Adopt site lighting criteria toztmaintain safe light levels while avoiding off-site lighting and night sky pollution. Minimize site lighting where possible and model the site lighting using a computer model. Technologies to reduce light pollutioninclude full cutoff luminaries, low-reflectance surfaces and low-anglespotlights.3 The Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) is a measure of the constructedsurface’s ability to reflect solar heat, as shown by a small temperature rise.It is defined so that a standard black (reflectance 0.05, emittance 0.90) is 0and a standard white (reflectance 0.80, emittance 0.90) is 100. To calculatethe SRI for a given material, obtain the reflectance value andemittance value for the material. SRI is calculated according to ASTM E 1980.Reflectance is measured according to ASTM E 903, ASTM E 1918, or ASTM C 1549.Emittance is measured according to ASTM E 408 or ASTM C 1371.SS CREDIT 8: +1 PointLight Pollution ReductionIntent: Minimize light trespass from the building and site, reduce sky-glowto increase night sky access, improve nighttime visibility through glare reduction, and reduce development impact on nocturnal environments.Requirements:FOR INTERIOR LIGHTING - The angle of maximum candela from each interiorluminaire as located in the building shall intersect opaque buildinginterior surfaces and not exit out through the windows.ORAll non-emergency interior lighting shall be automatically controlled to turn off during non-business hours. Provide manual override capability forafter hours use.ANDFOR EXTERIOR LIGHTING - Only light areas as required for safety and comfort.Do not exceed 80% of the lighting power densities for exterior areas and 50%for building facades and landscape features as defined in ASHRAE/IESNA Stan-dard 90.1-2004, Exterior Lighting Section, without amendments. All projectsshall be classified under one of the following zones, as defined in IESNA RP-33, and shall follow all of the requirements for that specific zone:LZ1 — Dark (Park and Rural Settings): Design exterior lighting so that allsite and building mounted luminaires produce a maximum initial illuminance value no greater than 0.0 horizontal and vertical footcandles at the site boundary and beyond. Document that 0% of the total initial designed fixturelumens are emitted at an angle of 90 degrees or higher from nadir (straightdown).Potential Technologies Strategies: Adopt site lighting criteria tomaintain safe light levels while avoiding off-site lighting and night sky pollution. Minimize site lighting where possible and model the site lighting using a computer model. Technologies to reduce light pollutioninclude full cutoff luminaires, low-reflectance surfaces and low-anglespotlights. LEED CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST 21
  • 23. WE CREDIT 1.1: +1 Point Water Efficient Landscaping: Reduce by 50% Intent: Limit or eliminate the use of potable water, or other natural surface or subsurface water resources available on or near the project site, for landscape irrigation. Requirements: Reduce potable water consumption for irrigation by 50% from a calculated mid-summer baseline case. Reductions shall be attributed to any combination of the following items: • Plant species factor • Irrigation efficiency • Use of captured rainwater • Use of recycled wastewater • Use of water treated and conveyed by a public agency specifically for non-potable uses Potential Technologies Strategies: Perform a soil/climate analysis to determine appropriate landscape types and design the landscape with indigenous plants to reduce or eliminate irrigation requirements. Use high- efficiency irrigation systems and consider using stormwater and/or greywater for irrigation. WE CREDIT 1.2: +1 Pointin addition to WE Credit 1.1 Water Efficient Landscaping: No Potable Water use or No Irrigation Intent: Eliminate the use of potable water, or other natural surface or sub- surface water resources available on or near the project site, for landscape irrigation. Requirements: Achieve WE Credit 1.1.and use only captured rainwater, recycled wastewater, recycled grey water, or water treated and conveyed by a public agency specifically for non-potable uses for irrigation. OR Install landscaping that does not require permanent irrigation systems. Temporary irrigation systems used for plant establishment are allowed only if removed within one year of installation. Potential Technologies Strategies: Perform a soil/climate analysis to determine appropriate landscape types and design the landscape with indigenous plants to reduce or eliminate irrigation requirements. Consider using storm water, grey water, and/or condensate water for irrigation. WE CREDIT 2: +1 Point Innovative Wastewater Technologies Intent: Reduce generation of wastewater and potable water demand, while increasing the local aquifer recharge. Requirements: OPTION 1 - Reduce potable water use for building sewage conveyance by 50% through the use of water conserving fixtures (water closets, urinals) or non- potable water (captured rainwater, recycled grey water, and on-site or municipally treated wastewater). OPTION 2 - Treat 50% of wastewater on-site to tertiary standards. Treated water must be infiltrated or used on-site.water efficiencyWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 24. Potential Technologies Strategies: Specify high-efficiency fixtures and dryfixtures such as composting toilet systems and non-water using urinals toreduce wastewater volumes. Consider reusing storm water or grey water forsewage conveyance or on-site wastewater treatment systems (mechanical and/ornatural). Options for on-site wastewater treatment include packagedbiological nutrient removal systems, constructed wetlands, and high-efficiency filtration systems.WE CREDIT 3.2: +1 Point in addition to WE Credit 3.1Water Use Reduction: 30% ReductionIntent: Maximize water efficiency within buildings to reduce the burden onmunicipal water supply and wastewater systems. Requirements: Employ strategies that in aggregate use 30% less water than thewater use baseline calculated for the building (not includingirrigation) after meeting the Energy Policy Act of 1992 fixture performancerequirements. Calculations are based on estimated occupant usage and shallinclude only the following fixtures (as applicable to the building): waterclosets, urinals, lavatory faucets, showers and kitchen sinks.Potential Technologies Strategies: Use high-efficiency fixtures, dryfixtures such as composting toilets and terless urinals, and occupantsensors to reduce the potable water demand. Consider reuse of storm water andgrey water for non-potable applications such as toilet and urinal flushing, mechanical systems and custodial uses. LEED CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST 23
  • 25. EA PREREQUISITE 2: Required Minimum Energy Performance Intent: Establish the minimum level of energy efficiency for the proposed building and systems. Requirements: Design the building project to comply with both— • the mandatory provisions (Sections 5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4, 9.4 and 10.4) of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 (without amendments); and • the prescriptive requirements (Sections 5.5, 6.5, 7.5 and 9.5) or performance requirements (Section 11) of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 (without amendments). Potential Technologies Strategies: Design the building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and other systems to maximize energy performance. The ASHRAE 90.1- 2004 User’s Manual contains worksheets that can be used to document compliance with this prerequisite. For projects pursuing points under EA Credit 1, the computer simulation model may be used to confirm satisfaction of this prerequisite. If a local code has demonstrated quantitative and textual equivalence following, at a minimum, the U.S. Department of Energy standard process for commercial energy code determination, then it may be used to satisfy this prerequisite in lieu of ASHRAE 90.1-2004. Details on the DOE process for commercial energy code determination can be found at www.energycodes.gov/implement/determinations_com.stm. EA CREDIT 1: +1–10 Points Optimize Energy Performance Intent: Achieve increasing levels of energy performance above the baseline in the prerequisite standard to reduce environmental and economic impacts associated with excessive energy use. Requirements: Select one of the three compliance path options described below. Project teams documenting achievement using any of the three options are assumed to be in compliance with EA Prerequisite 2. OPTION 1 — WHOLE BUILDING ENERGY SIMULATION (1–10 Points) Demonstrate a percentage improvement in the proposed building performance rating compared to the baseline building performance rating per ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 (without amendments) by a whole building project simulation using the Building Performance Rating Method in Appendix G of the Standard. The minimum energy cost savings percentage for each point threshold is as follows: New Buildings Existing Building Renovations Points 10.5% 3.5% 14% 7% 2 17.5% 10.5% 3 21% 14% 4 24.5% 17.5% 5 28% 21% 6 31.5% 24.5% 7 35% 28% 8 38.5% 31.5% 9energy and atmosphereWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 26. Appendix G of Standard 90.1-2004 requires that the energy analysis donefor the Building Performance Rating Method include ALL of the energy costswithin and associated with the building project. To achieve points using thiscredit, the proposed design—• must comply with the mandatory provisions (Sections 5.4, 6.4,7.4, 8.4, 9.4 and 10.4) in Standard 90.1-2004 (without amendments);• must include all the energy costs within and associated with the building project; and• must be compared against a baseline building that complies with Appendix G to Standard 90.1-2004 (without amendments). The default process energy costis 25% of the total energy cost for the baseline building. Forbuildings where the process energy cost is less than 25% of the baselinebuilding energy cost, the LEED submittal must include supporting documentation substantiating that process energy inputs are appropriate. For the purpose of this analysis, process energy is considered to include, but is not limited to, office and general miscellaneous equipment,computers, elevators and escalators, kitchen cooking and refrigeration, laundry washing and drying, lighting exempt from the lighting power allowance (e.g. lighting integral to medical equipment) and other (e.g.waterfall pumps). Regulated (non process) energy includes lighting (suchas for the interior, parking garage, surface parking, façade, or building grounds, except as noted above), HVAC (such as for space heating, space cool-ing, fans, pumps, toilet exhaust, parking garage ventilation, kitchen hood exhaust, etc.), and service water heating for domestic or spaceheating purposes. For EA Credit 1, process loads shall be identical for boththe baseline building performance rating and for the proposed building performance rating. However, project teams may follow theExceptional Calculation Method (ASHRAE 90.1-2004 G2.5) to document measuresthat reduce process loads. Documentation of process load energy savings shall include a list of the assumptions made for both the base and proposed design, and theoretical or empirical information supporting these assumptions.OPTION 2 — PRESCRIPTIVE COMPLIANCE PATH (4 Points)Comply with the prescriptive measures of the ASHRAE Advanced Energy DesignGuide for Small Office Buildings 2004. The following restrictions apply:• Buildings must be under 20,000 square feet• Buildings must be office occupancy• Project teams must fully comply with all applicable criteria asestablished in the Advanced Energy Design Guide for the climate zone in which the building is locatedOPTION 3 — PRESCRIPTIVE COMPLIANCE PATH (1 Point)Comply with the Basic Criteria and Prescriptive Measures of the AdvancedBuildings Benchmark™ Version . with the exception of the following sections: 1.7 Monitoring and Trend-logging, 1.11 Indoor Air Quality, and1.14 Networked Computer Monitor Control. The following restrictions apply:• Project teams must fully comply with all applicable criteria asestablished in Advanced Buildings Benchmark for the climate zone in which the building is located.Potential Technologies Strategies: Design the building envelope and systems to maximize energy performance. Use a computer simulation model to assess the energy performance and identify the most cost-effective energy efficiencymeasures. Quantify energy performance as compared to a baseline building. Ifa local code has demonstrated quantitative and textual equivalencefollowing, at a minimum, the U.S. Department of Energy standard process for commercial energy code determination, then the results of that analysis may be used to correlate local code performance with ASHRAE 90.1- 2004. Detailson the DOE process for commercial energy code determination can be found at:www.energycodes.gov/implement/determinations_com.stm. LEED CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST 25
  • 27. EA CREDIT 2: +1–3 Points On-Site Renewable Energy Intent: Encourage and recognize increasing levels of on-site renewable energy self-supply in order to reduce environmental and economic impacts associated with fossil fuel energy use. Requirements: Use on-site renewable energy systems to offset building energy cost. Calculate project performance by expressing the energy produced by the renewable systems as a percentage of the building annual energy cost and using the table below to determine the number of points achieved. Use the building annual energy cost calculated in EA Credit 1 or use the Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) database to determine the estimated electricity use. (Table of use for different building types is provided in the Reference Guide.) % Renewable Energy Points 2.5% 7.5% 2 12.5% 3 Potential Technologies Strategies: Assess the project for non-polluting and renewable energy potential including solar, wind, geothermal, low-impact hydro, biomass and bio-gas strategies. When applying these strategies, take advantage of net metering with the local utility. EA Credit 4: +1 Point Enhanced Refrigerant Management Intent: Reduce ozone depletion and support early compliance with the Montreal Protocol while minimizing direct contributions to global warming. Requirements: OPTION 1 - Do not use refrigerants. OPTION 2 - Select refrigerants and HVACR that minimize or eliminate the emission of compounds that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. The base building HVACR equipment shall comply with the following formula, which sets a maximum threshold for the combined contributions to ozone depletion and global warming potential: LCGWP + LCODP x 105 ≤ 100 Where: LCODP = [ODPr x (Lr x Life +Mr) x Rc]/Life LCGWP = [GWPr x (Lr x Life +Mr) x Rc]/Life LCODP: Lifecycle Ozone Depletion Potential (lbCFC11/Ton-Year) LCGWP: Lifecycle Direct Global Warming Potential (lbCO2/Ton-Year) GWPr: Global Warming Potential of Refrigerant (0 to 12,000 lbCO2/lbr) ODPr: Ozone Depletion Potential of Refrigerant (0 to 0.2 lbCFC11/lbr) Lr: Refrigerant Leakage Rate (0.5% to 2.0%; default of 2% unless otherwise demonstrated) Mr: End-of-life Refrigerant Loss (2% to 10%; default of 10% unless otherwise demonstrated) Rc: Refrigerant Charge (0.5 to 5.0 lbs of refrigerant per ton of cooling capacity)energy and atmosphereWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 28. Life: Equipment Life (10 years; default based on equipment type, unlessotherwise demonstrated)For multiple types of equipment, a weighted average of all base buildinglevel HVACR equipment shall be applied using the following formula:[ ∑ (LCGWP + LCODP x 105) x Qunit ] / Qtotal ≤ 100Where:Qunit = Cooling capacity of an individual HVAC or refrigeration unit (Tons)Qtotal = Total cooling capacity of all HVAC or refrigerationSmall HVAC units (defined as containing less than 0.5 lbs of refrigerant), andother equipment such as standard refrigerators, small water coolers, and anyother cooling equipment that contains less than 0.5 lbs of refrigerant, arenot considered part of the “base building” system and are not subject to therequirements of this credit. AND Do not install fire suppression systems thatcontain ozone-depleting substances (CFCs, HCFCs or Halons).Potential Technologies Strategies: Design and operate the facility without mechanical cooling and refrigeration equipment. Where mechanical cooling isused, utilize base building HVAC and refrigeration systems for the refrig-eration cycle that minimize direct impact on ozone depletion and global warm-ing. Select HVACR equipment with reduced refrigerant charge and increasedequipment life. Maintain equipment to prevent leakage of refrigerant to theatmosphere. Utilize fire suppression systems that do not contain HCFCs orHalons. LEED CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST 27
  • 29. MR PREREQUISITE 1: Required Storage Collection of Recyclables Intent: Facilitate the reduction of waste generated by building occupants that is hauled to and disposed of in landfills. Requirements: Provide an easily accessible area that serves the entire building and is dedicated to the collection and storage of non-hazardous materials for recycling, including (at a minimum) paper, corrugated card- board, glass, plastics and metals. Potential Technologies Strategies: Coordinate the size and functionality of the recycling areas with the anticipated collection services for glass, plastic, office paper, newspaper, cardboard and organic wastes to maximize the effectiveness of the dedicated areas. Consider employing cardboard balers, aluminum can crushers, recycling chutes and collection bins at individual workstations to further enhance the recycling program. MR CREDIT 2.1: +1 Point Construction Waste Management: Divert 50% From Disposal Intent: Divert construction, demolition and land-clearing debris from disposal in landfills and incinerators. Redirect recyclable recovered resources back to the manufacturing process. Redirect reusable materials to appropriate sites. Requirements: Recycle and/or salvage at least 50% of non-hazardous construction and demolition debris. Develop and implement a construction waste management plan that, at a minimum, identifies the materials to be diverted from disposal and whether the materials will be sorted on-site or co-mingled. Excavated soil and land-clearing debris do not contribute to this credit. Calculations can be done by weight or volume, but must be consistent throughout. Potential Technologies Strategies: Establish goals for diversion from disposal in landfills and incinerators and adopt a construction waste management plan to achieve these goals. Consider recycling cardboard, metal, brick, acoustical tile, concrete, plastic, clean wood, glass, gypsum wall- board, carpet and insulation. Designate a specific area(s) on the construction site for segregated or co-mingled collection of recyclable materials, and track recycling efforts throughout the construction process. Identify construction haulers and recyclers to handle the designated materials. Note that diversion may include donation of materials to charitable organizations and salvage of materials on-site. MR CREDIT 2.2: +1 Point in addition to MR Credit 2.1 Construction Waste Management: Divert 75% From Disposal Intent: Divert construction and demolition debris from disposal in landfills and incinerators. Redirect recyclable recovered resources back to the manufacturing process. Redirect reusable materials to appropriate sites. Requirements: Recycle and/or salvage an additional 25% beyond MR Credit 2.1 (75% total) of non-hazardous construction and demolition debris. Excavated soil and land-clearing debris do not contribute to this credit. Calculations can be done by weight or volume, but must be consistent through- out.materials and resourcesWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 30. Potential Technologies Strategies: Establish goals for diversion fromdisposal in landfills and incinerators and adopt a construction wastemanagement plan to achieve these goals. Consider recycling cardboard,metal, brick, acoustical tile, concrete, plastic, clean wood, glass, gypsum wallboard, carpet and insulation. Designate a specific area(s) on theconstruction site for segregated or commingled collection of recyclable materials, and track recycling efforts throughout the construction process. Identify construction haulers and recyclers to handle the designated materials. Note that diversion may include donation of materials tocharitable organizations and salvage of materials on-site.MR CREDIT 5.1: +1 PointRegional Materials: 10% Extracted, Processed Manufactured RegionallyIntent: Increase demand for building materials and products that are extracted and manufactured within the region, thereby supporting the use of indigenous resources and reducing the environmental impacts resulting from transportation.Requirements: Use building materials or products that have been extracted, harvested or recovered, as well as manufactured, within 500 miles of the project site for a minimum of 10% (based on cost) of the total materialsvalue. If only a fraction of a product or material is extracted/harvested/recovered and manufactured locally, then only that percentage (by weight)shall contribute to the regional value. Mechanical, electrical and plumbing components and specialty items such as elevators and equipment shall not beincluded in this calculation. Only include materials permanently installed in the project. Furniture may be included, providing it is included consistently in MR Credits 3–7.Potential Technologies Strategies: Establish a project goal for locally sourced materials, and identify materials and material suppliers that can achieve this goal. During construction, ensure that the specified localmaterials are installed and quantify the total percentage of localmaterials installed. Consider a range of environmental, economic andperformance attributes when selecting products and materials.MR CREDIT 5.2: +1 Point in addition to MR Credit 5.1Regional Materials: 20% Extracted, Processed Manufactured RegionallyIntent: Increase demand for building materials and products that areextracted and manufactured within the region, thereby supporting the use of indigenous resources and reducing the environmental impacts resulting from transportation.Requirements: Use building materials or products that have been extracted, harvested or recovered, as well as manufactured, within 500 miles of the project site for an additional 10% beyond MR Credit 5.1 (total of 20%, basedon cost) of the total materials value. If only a fraction of thematerial is extracted/harvested/recovered and manufactured locally, then only that percentage (by weight) shall contribute to the regional value.Potential Technologies Strategies: Establish a project goal for locallysourced materials and identify materials and material suppliers that can achieve this goal. During construction, ensure that the specified localmaterials are installed. Consider a range of environmental, economic andperformance attributes. LEED CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST 29
  • 31. MR CREDIT 6: +1 Point Rapidly Renewable Materials Intent: Reduce the use and depletion of finite raw materials and long-cycle renewable materials by replacing them with rapidly renewable materials. Requirements: Use rapidly renewable building materials and products (made from plants that are typically harvested within a ten-year cycle or shorter) for 2.5% of the total value of all building materials and products used in the project, based on cost. Potential Technologies Strategies: Establish a project goal for rapidly renewable materials and identify products and suppliers that can support achievement of this goal. Consider materials such as bamboo, wool, cotton insulation, agrifiber, linoleum, wheatboard, strawboard and cork. During construction, ensure that the specified renewable materials are installed. MR CREDIT 7: +1 Point Certified Wood Intent: Encourage environmentally responsible forest management. Requirements: Use a minimum of 50% of wood-based materials and products, which are certified in accordance with the Forest Stewardship Council’s (FSC) Principles and Criteria, for wood building components. These components include, but are not limited to, structural framing and general dimensional framing, flooring, sub-flooring, wood doors and finishes. Only include materials permanently installed in the project. Furniture may be included, providing it is included consistently in MR Credits 3–7. Potential Technologies Strategies: Establish a project goal for FSC-certified wood products and identify suppliers that can achieve this goal. During construction, ensure that the FSC-certified wood products are installed and quantify the total percentage of FSC-certified wood products installed.materials and resourcesenvironmental qualityWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 32. EQ PREREQUISITE 1: RequiredMinimum IAQ PerformanceIntent: Establish minimum indoor air quality (IAQ) performance to enhanceindoor air quality in buildings, thus contributing to the comfort andwell-being of the occupants.Requirements: Meet the minimum requirements of Sections 4 through 7 of ASHRAE62.1-2004, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Mechanicalventilation systems shall be designed using the Ventilation Rate Procedureor the applicable local code, whichever is more stringent. Naturallyventilated buildings shall comply with ASHRAE 62.1-2004, paragraph 5.1.Potential Technologies Strategies: Design ventilation systems to meet or exceed the minimum outdoor air ventilation rates as described in the ASHRAEstandard. Balance the impacts of ventilation rates on energy use and indoor air quality to optimize for energy efficiency and occupant health. Use theASHRAE 62 Users Manual for detailed guidance on meeting the referencedrequirements.EQ PREREQUISITE 2: RequiredEnvironmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) ControlIntent: Minimize exposure of building occupants, indoor surfaces, and ventilation air distribution systems to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS).Requirements:OPTION 1 -• Prohibit smoking in the building.• Locate any exterior designated smoking areas at least 25 feet away from entries, outdoor air intakes and operable windows.OPTION 2 -• Prohibit smoking in the building except in designated smoking areas.• Locate any exterior designated smoking areas at least 25 feet away from entries, outdoor air intakes and operable windows.• Locate designated smoking rooms to effectively contain, capture and remove ETS from the building. At a minimum, the smoking room must be directlyexhausted to the outdoors with no re-circulation of ETS-containing air tothe non-smoking area of the building, and enclosed with impermeable deck-to-deck partitions. With the doors to the smoking room closed, operate exhaust sufficient to create a negative pressure with respect to the adjacent spacesof at least an average of 5 Pa (0.02 inches of water gauge) and with aminimum of 1 Pa (0.004 inches of water gauge).• Performance of the smoking room differential air pressures shall beverified by conducting 15 minutes of measurement, with a minimum of onemeasurement every 0 seconds, of the differential pressure in the smoking room with respect to each adjacent area and in each adjacent vertical chase with the doors to the smoking room closed. The testing will be conducted witheach space configured for worst case conditions of transport of air from thesmoking rooms to adjacent spaces with the smoking rooms’ doors closed to theadjacent spaces. LEED CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST 31
  • 33. OPTION 3 (For residential buildings only) • Prohibit smoking in all common areas of the building. • Locate any exterior designated smoking areas at least 25 feet away from entries, outdoor air intakes and operable windows opening to common areas. • Minimize uncontrolled pathways for ETS transfer between individual residential units by sealing penetrations in walls, ceilings and floors in the residential units, and by sealing vertical chases adjacent to the units. • All doors in the residential units leading to common hallways shall be weather-stripped to minimize air leakage into the hallway. • If the common hallways are pressurized with respect to the residential units then doors in the residential units leading to the common hallways need not be weather-stripped provided that the positive differential pressure is demonstrated as in Option 2 above, considering the residential unit as the smoking room. Acceptable sealing of residential units shall be demonstrated by a blower door test conducted in accordance with ANSI/ASTM- E779-03, Standard Test Method for Determining Air Leakage Rate By Fan Pressurization, AND use the progressive sampling methodology defined in Chapter 4 (Compliance Through Quality Construction) of the Residential Manual for Compliance with California’s 2001 Energy Efficiency Standards (www.energy.ca.gov/title24/residential_manual). Residential units must demonstrate less than 1.25 square inches leakage area per 100 square feet of enclosure area (i.e. sum of allwall, ceiling and floor areas). Potential Technologies Strategies: Prohibit smoking in commercial buildings or effectively control the ventilation air in smoking rooms. For residential buildings, prohibit smoking in common areas, design building envelope and systems to minimize ETS transfer among dwelling units. EQ CREDIT 1: +1 Point Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring Intent: Provide capacity for ventilation system monitoring to help sustain occupant comfort and wellbeing. Requirements: Install permanent monitoring systems that provide feedback on ventilation system performance to ensure that ventilation systems maintain design minimum ventilation requirements. Configure all monitoring equipment to generate an alarm when the conditions vary by 10% or more from setpoint, via either a building automation system alarm to the building operator or via a visual or audible alert to the building occupants. FOR MECHANICALLY VENTILATED SPACES • Monitor carbon dioxide concentrations within all densely occupied spaces (those with a design occupant density greater than or equal to 25 people per 1000 sq.ft.). CO2 monitoring locations shall be between 3 feet and 6 feet above the floor. • For each mechanical ventilation system serving non-densely occupied spaces, provide a direct outdoor airflow measurement device capable of measuring the minimum outdoor airflow rate with an accuracy of plus or minus 15% of the design minimum outdoor air rate, as defined by ASHRAE 62.1-2004. FOR NATURALLY VENTILATED SPACES Monitor CO2 concentrations within all naturally ventilated spaces. CO2 monitoring shall be located within the room between 3 feet and 6 feet above the floor. One CO2 sensor may be used to represent multiple spaces if the natural ventilation design uses passive stack(s) or other means to induce airflow through those spaces equally and simultaneously without intervention by building occupants.environmental qualityWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 34. Potential Technologies Strategies: Install carbon dioxide and airflowmeasurement equipment and feed the information to the HVAC system and/orBuilding Automation System (BAS) to trigger corrective action, ifapplicable. If such automatic controls are not feasible with the building systems, use the measurement equipment to trigger alarms that informbuilding operators or occupants of a possible deficiency in outdoor airdelivery.EQ CREDIT 2: +1 PointIncreased VentilationIntent: Provide additional outdoor air ventilation to improve indoor airquality for improved occupant comfort, well-being and productivity.Requirements:FOR MECHANICALLY VENTILATED SPACES• Increase breathing zone outdoor air ventilation rates to all occupied spaces by at least 30% above the minimum rates required by ASHRAE Standard62.1-2004 as determined by EQ Prerequisite 1.FOR NATURALLY VENTILATED SPACESDesign natural ventilation systems for occupied spaces to meet the recommendations set forth in the Carbon Trust “Good Practice Guide 237”[1998]. Determine that natural ventilation is an effective strategy for theproject by following the flow diagram process shown in Figure 1.18 of theChartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) ApplicationsManual 10: 2005, Natural ventilation in non-domestic buildings. AND• Use diagrams and calculations to show that the design of the natural ventilation systems meets the recommendations set forth in the CIBSEApplications Manual 10: 2005, Natural ventilation in non-domesticbuildings.OR• Use a macroscopic, multi-zone, analytic model to predict that room-by-room airflows will effectively naturally ventilate, defined as providing theminimum ventilation rates required by ASHRAE 62.1-2004 Chapter 6, for atleast 90% of occupied spaces.Potential Technologies Strategies: For Mechanically ventilated Spaces: Useheat recovery, where appropriate, to minimize the additional energy consumption associated with higher ventilation rates.FOR NATURALLY VENTILATED SPACES - Follow the eight design steps described inthe Carbon Trust Good Practice Guide 237 – 1) Develop designrequirements, 2) Plan airflow paths, 3) Identify building uses and featuresthat might require special attention, 4) Determine ventilationrequirements, 5) Estimate external driving pressures, 6) Select types ofventilation devices, 7) Size ventilation devices, 8) Analyze the design. Usepublic domain software such as NIST’s CONTAM, Multizone ModelingSoftware, along with LoopDA, Natural Ventilation Sizing Tool, toanalytically predict room-by-room airflows.EQ CREDIT 3.1: +1 PointConstruction IAQ Management Plan: During ConstructionIntent: Reduce indoor air quality problems resulting from the construction/renovation process in order to help sustain the comfort and well-being of construction workers and building occupants. LEED CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST 33
  • 35. Requirements: Develop and implement an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Management Plan for the construction and pre-occupancy phases of the building as follows: • During construction meet or exceed the recommended Control Measures of the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning National Contractors Association (SMACNA) IAQ Guidelines for Occupied Buildings under Construction, 1995, Chapter 3. • Protect stored on-site or installed absorptive materials from moisture damage. • If permanently installed air handlers are used during construction, filtration media with a Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) of 8 shall be used at each return air grille, as determined by ASHRAE 52.2-1999. Replace all filtration media immediately prior to occupancy. Potential Technologies Strategies: Adopt an IAQ management plan to protect the HVAC system during construction, control pollutant sources and interrupt contamination pathways. Sequence the installation of materials to avoid contamination of absorptive materials such as insulation, carpeting, ceiling tile and gypsum wallboard. Coordinate with Indoor Environmental Quality Credits 3.2 and 5 to determine the appropriate specifications and schedules for filtration media. If possible, avoid using permanently installed air handlers for temporary heating/cooling during construction. Consult the LEED-NC v2.2 Reference Guide for more detailed information on how to ensure the well-being of construction workers and building occupants if permanently installed air handlers must be used during construction. EQ Credit 4.4: +1 Point Low-Emitting Materials: Composite Wood Agrifiber Products Intent: Reduce the quantity of indoor air contaminants that are odorous, irritating and/or harmful to the comfort and well-being of installers and occupants. Requirements: Composite wood and agrifiber products used on the interior of the building (defined as inside of the weatherproofing system) shall contain no added urea-formaldehyde resins. Laminating adhesives used to fabricate on-site and shop-applied composite wood and agrifiber assemblies shall contain no added urea-formaldehyde resins. Composite wood and agrifiber products are defined as: particleboard, medium density fiberboard (MDF), plywood, wheatboard, strawboard, panel substrates and door cores. Materials considered fit-out, furniture, and equipment (FFE) are not considered base building elements and are not included. Potential Technologies Strategies: Specify wood and agrifiber products that contain no added urea-formaldehyde resins. Specify laminating adhesives for field and shop applied assemblies that contain no added ureaformaldehyde resins. EQ CREDIT 6.1: +1 Point Controllability of Systems: Lighting Intent: Provide a high level of lighting system control by individual occupants or by specific groups in multi-occupant spaces (i.e. classrooms or conference areas) to promote the productivity, comfort and well-being of building occupants.environmental qualityWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 36. Requirements: Provide individual lighting controls for 90% (minimum) of thebuilding occupants to enable adjustments to suit individual task needs and preferences.ANDProvide lighting system controllability for all shared multi-occupantspaces to enable lighting adjustment that meets group needs and preferences.Potential Technologies Strategies: Design the building with occupantcontrols for lighting. Strategies to consider include lighting controls and task lighting. Integrate lighting systems controllability into the overall lighting design, providing ambient and task lighting while managing the overall energy use of the building. EQ CREDIT 6.2: +1 PointControllability of Systems: Thermal ComfortIntent: Provide a high level of thermal comfort system control byindividual occupants or by specific groups in multi-occupant spaces (i.e.classrooms or conference areas) to promote the productivity, comfort andwell-being of building occupants.Requirements: Provide individual comfort controls for 50% (minimum) of thebuilding occupants to enable adjustments to suit individual task needs and preferences. Operable windows can be used in lieu of comfort controls for occupants of areas that are 20 feet inside of and 0 feet to either side of the operable part of the window. The areas of operable window must meet therequirements of ASHRAE 62.1-2004 paragraph 5.1 Natural Ventilation.ANDProvide comfort system controls for all shared multi-occupant spaces toenable adjustments to suit group needs and preferences. Conditions forthermal comfort are described in ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 to include theprimary factors of air temperature, radiant temperature, air speed and humidity. Comfort system control for the purposes of this credit is definedas the provision of control over at least one of these primary factors in the occupant’s local environment.Potential Technologies Strategies: Design the building and systems withcomfort controls to allow adjustments to suit individual needs or those of groups in shared spaces. ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 identifies the factors ofthermal comfort and a process for developing comfort criteria for building spaces that suit the needs of the occupants involved in their daily activities. Control strategies can be developed to expand on the comfortcriteria to allow adjustments to suit individual needs and preferences. These may involve system designs incorporating operable windows, hybridsystems integrating operable windows and mechanical systems, or mechanical systems alone. Individual adjustments may involve individual thermostat controls, local diffusers at floor, desk or overhead levels, orcontrol of individual radiant panels, or other means integrated into the overall building, thermal comfort systems, and energy systems design. In addition, designers should evaluate the closely tied interactions between thermal comfort (as required by ASHRAE Standard 55-2004) and acceptableindoor air quality (as required by ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004, whethernatural or mechanical ventilation). LEED CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST 35
  • 37. EQ CREDIT 7.1: +1 Point Thermal Comfort: Design Intent: Provide a comfortable thermal environment that supports the productivity and well-being of building occupants. Requirements: Design HVAC systems and the building envelope to meet the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 55-2004, Thermal Comfort Conditions for Human Occupancy. Demonstrate design compliance in accordance with the Section 6.. Documentation. Potential Technologies Strategies: Establish comfort criteria per ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 that support the desired quality and occupant satisfaction with building performance. Design building envelope and systems with the capability to deliver performance to the comfort criteria under expected environmental and use conditions. Evaluate air temperature, radiant temperature, air speed, and relative humidity in an integrated fashion and coordinate these criteria with EQ Prerequisite 1, EQ Credit 1, and EQ Credit 2. EQ CREDIT 8.1: +1 Point Daylight Views: Daylight 75% of Spaces Intent: Provide for the building occupants a connection between indoor spac- es and the outdoors through the introduction of daylight and views into the regularly occupied areas of the building. Requirements: OPTION 1 — CALCULATION: Achieve a minimum glazing factor of 2% in a minimum of 75% of all regularly occupied areas. The glazing factor is calculated as follows: Glazing Factor = Window Area (sf)/Floor Area (sf) x Window Geometry Factor x Actual Tvis/Minimum Tvis x Window Height Factor. OPTION 2 — SIMULATION: Demonstrate, through computer simulation, that a minimum daylight illumination level of 25 footcandles has been achieved in a minimum of 75% of all regularly occupied areas. Modeling must demonstrate 25 horizontal footcandles under clear sky conditions, at noon, on the equinox, at 30 inches above the floor. OPTION 3 — MEASUREMENT: Demonstrate, through records of indoor light measurements, that a minimum daylight illumination level of 25 footcandles has been achieved in at least 75% of all regularly occupied areas. Measurements must be taken on a 0-foot grid for all occupied spaces and must be recorded on building floor plans. In all cases, only the square footage associated with the portions of rooms or spaces meeting the minimum illumination requirements can be applied towards the 75% of total area calculation required to qualify for this credit. In all cases, provide daylight redirection and/or glare control devices to avoid high-contrast situations that could impede visual tasks. Exceptions for areas where tasks would be hindered by the use of daylight will be conside red on their merits. Potential Technologies Strategies: Design the building to maximize interior daylighting. Strategies to consider include building orientation, shallow floor plates, increased building perimeter, exterior and interior permanent shading devices, high performance glazing and automatic photocell-based controls. Predict daylight factors via manual calculations or model daylighting strategies with a physical or computer model to assess footcandle levels and daylight factors achieved.environmental qualityWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 38. EQ CREDIT 8.2: +1 PointDaylight Views: Views for 90% of SpacesIntent: Provide for the building occupants a connection between indoorspaces and the outdoors through the introduction of daylight and views into the regularly occupied areas of the building.Requirements: Achieve direct line of sight to the outdoor environment via vision glazing between 2’6” and 7’6” above finish floor for buildingoccupants in 90% of all regularly occupied areas. Determine the area withdirect line of sight by totaling the regularly occupied square footage thatmeets the following criteria:• In plan view, the area is within sight lines drawn from perimeter vision glazing.• In section view, a direct sight line can be drawn from the area to perimeter vision glazing. Line of sight may be drawn through interior glazing. For private offices, the entire square footage of the office can becounted if 75% or more of the area has direct line of sight to perimetervision glazing. For multi-occupant spaces, the actual square footage withdirect line of sight to perimeter vision glazing is counted.Potential Technologies Strategies: Design the space to maximize daylighting and view opportunities. Strategies to consider include lower partition heights, interior shading devices, interior glazing, and automatic photocell-based controls. LEED CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST 37
  • 39. ID CREDIT 1–1.4: +1–4 Points Innovation in Design Intent: To provide design teams and projects the opportunity to be awarded points for exceptional performance above the requirements set by the LEED-NC Green Building Rating System and/or innovative performance in Green Building categories not specifically addressed by the LEED-NC Green Building Rating System. Requirements: Credit 1.1 (1 point) In writing, identify the intent of the proposed innovation credit, the proposed requirement for compliance, the proposed submittals to demonstrate compliance, and the design approach (strategies) that might be used to meet the requirements. Credit 1.2 (1 point) Same as Credit 1.1 Credit 1.3 (1 point) Same as Credit 1.1 Credit 1.4 (1 point) Same as Credit 1.1 Potential Technologies Strategies: Substantially exceed a LEED-NC performance credit such as energy performance or water efficiency. Apply strategies or measures that demonstrate a comprehensive approach and quantifiable environment and/or health benefits. TOTAL POSSIBLE: +/-30 POINTS environmental qualityWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 40. LEED CERTIFICATION CHECKLIST 39
  • 41. Jourda Perraudin Architectes, Jourda Architectes, Hegger Hegger Schleiff Planer + Architekten - Herne-Sodingen, Germany. This center utilizes the ‘micro-climate envelope’ strategy, meaning, the vast interior shelters a microcosm of urban life. The envelope is a hybrid of greenhouse and Greek temple. It has a high-tech skin with motorized openings and a timber structure whose tree trunk columns are exposed along an open front porch. It acheives a Mediterranean climate protected from the rain and cold. It is covered in photovoltaic cells that generate 2.5 times the energy con- sumed by the complex. m o n t - c e n i straining centerWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 42. According to Peter Buchanaan in Ten Shades of Green:Architecture and the Natural World, the building systems work to keep mediterranean climate constant. In summer, the glass roof, rows of panes towards the top and bottom of the outer walls, and huge sliding doors in the outer walls, all open automatically to let cool breezes through. The roof is shaded by the photovoltaic cells and internal, horizontal mesh roller blinds that heat up slightly to aid stack effect ventilation. In winter, the outer glass skin is sealed, the air inside the envelope is warmed by the sun, and the inner buildings are mechanically ventilated, with the underground tunnels now warming the incoming air. All heat generated inside these buildings is also recaptured from the exhaust air by a hear recovery system and returned to heat the inner buildings. Addi- tional heat and electricity are produced by a co-genera- tion plan that uses methane escaping from the old mine. Peter Buchanaan. Ten Shades of Green: Architecture and the Natural World. 2005. 9, 92. PRECEDENT ANALYSIS 41
  • 43. Residential Tennis Court and Guest House, New Jersey: The challenge for this project was to minimally impact the heavily wooded site. Poly-carbonate panels were used as an energy-saver, a light-diffuser, and a durable skin. Poly carbonate panels have a better insulating R-value than glass.r o b e r t r h o d e s 1 Rowlands, Penelope. “Game, Set, Match.” Architectural Digest Oct. 2006: 136-140.WILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 44. Experimental Building at Shoal Lake, Manitoba/Ontario: these are temporary and versatile buildings. Primarily, “derivedfrom a set of beliefs, priorities and choices that define adistinct lifestyle outside te conventional patterns of everyday life, and everyday architecture.” Using low-costand recycled materials and efficient modes of construction,the low-budget is possible. It contains walls, doors, and operable panels that open into “a building of screens” toprovide natural ventilation in the summertime. It is clad in translucent corrugated fiberglass panels combined with aherringbone pattern of diagonal bracing. h e r b e r t e n n s1 Christopher MacDonald. Cabin, Cottage, and Camp: New Designs on theCanadian Landscape. 2005. 46-63. PRECEDENT ANALYSIS 43
  • 45. 1 area map scale: n.t.s. 2 site plan scale: n.t.s. WILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 46. 3 sketches scale: n.t.s. The building is fully immersed in the trees. Like in a treehouse, the visi-tors will walk parallel to the treetops. Like the trunk of a tree, the build-ing CORE becomes the connection with the ground. In both the tree and thebuilding, it is the point where objects move up to revitalize.The assembly and exhibit spaces are places for viewing nature, both withinthe building and without. The dichotomous relationship between the polycar-bonate panel walls and glass openings creates a layering of space that decom-poses the physical boundary between the interior and the exterior. Like thebuilding becomes one with the trees, the visitors become one with nature.The office space phenomenally exists quite differently from the assemblyspaces. It is used for research and study of the physical nature that existswithout, and therefore, is formed differently. The boundary between interiorand exterior is clearly defined. Each office contains a tip-up metal doorwith a window that, rather than blurring, frames the exterior. This framingseparates the viewer from the exterior using a physical line, the wall andglass existing between the two. SCHEMATIC DESIGN 45
  • 47. 1 plan schemes scale: n.t.s. WILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
  • 48. 2 1st floor plan scale: n.t.s. 3 2nd floor plan scale: n.t.s. SCHEMATIC DESIGN 47
  • 49. west elevationWILLIAM M. COLMERvisitors center and park headquarters
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  • 66. CONSTRUCTIONS DOCUMENTS 65
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